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In this study was the stoker incinerator system with SNCR(Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction). While this system was favored with the view of the possibility of the reducing waste volume and recovery of waste heat, it also has a disadvantage, that is, the need for the second to treat dust, HCl, CO, etc. So far, even though a great deal of research had been done, the study on heat-flow analysis with reduction model and NO reduction with SNCR had not been investigated enough. The temperature distribution in the system and excess amount of oxygen influence the efficiency of NO reduction, resolution in the production, resolution in the production of NO at 1700K and the temperature range of 1200-1250K when the highest NOx reduction efficiency occurred. Hence, this study was focused to flow mixing pattern and NOx reduction efficiency as the flue gas velocity, NH3 injection velocity, particle size and particle density.
To treat a large amount of sewage sludge generated from wastewater treatment plants, various pretreatment processs have been developed for the subsequent anaerobic digestion. As one of the processes, the pretreatment with electron beam irradiation has been investigeted. The SCFMRS were run to evaluate their reactor performance of sludge with and without irradiation by electron beam. The dewaterbility of digested sludge, which is derived from SCFMR, was also measured by Specific Resistance to Filtration(SRF) and Capillary Sunction Time(CST). The biogas productivity of SCFMR fed with 6kGy irradiated sludge showed 0.10∼0.14m3/m3-d at the HRT of 20days. It appeared 3∼5 times higher than that of unirradiated sludge in SCFMR. Consequently, TVS and COD removal efficiencies in the SCFMR fed with 1∼6kGy irradiated sludge were 30∼55% and 32∼52%, respectively, which were 20∼35% higher than those of unirradiated sludge as a function of irradiated dosages. The SRF of digested sludge pretreated with electron beam is 2.2 times lower than that of irradiated sludge. In conclusion, electron beam treatment on sewage sludge could accerlerate organic degradation rate and also enhance the dewaterbility of divested sludge.
This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of wildbird at campus in Chungnam National University. The survey was carried over 5 districts by line transect method from May, 1999 to April 2000, The observed birds were 7 orders 21 families 46 species and 3,057 individuals, these consist of 25 species for residents, 12 species for summer visitors, 5 species for winter visitors, and 4 species for passage migrant. The average density of birds was 12 ea/ha, and main dominant species was Pica pica, Paradoxornis webbianus, Parus major, Aegithalos caudatus, Ixos amaurotis in order. Species richness of bird community showed a maximum value in spring, but density showed a maximum value in winter. Breeding bird community in study area were mainly predominated by hole-nesting guild, canopy-nesting guild and canopy-foraging guild. For the protection of wildbirds at campus, it needs to plant bushes around trails and to control users. Artificial food, water station and artificial nest are needed for the habituation of wildbirds.
A biological nutrient removal system combining A2O process with biofilm was studied in this work and the characteristics of nitrogen and phophorus removal was especially investigated for the Cilium Nutrient Removal Process(CNR process). The CNR process consisted of anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic zone in series, and aerobic zone contains packed cilium media. The CNR has benefits in solving the problems which inhibit denitrification and phophorus uptake in anoxic reactor due to the lack of organic compounds. The bench-scale experiment was performed using Tae-jon and Um-am domestic wastewater and the influent was accomplished with step-feed loading to the reactor. Removal efficiency of contaminants including BOD, COD, TN and TP was relatively high.
This study was carried out to investigate the insect fauna in the campus of Chungnam National University. As the result, total of 623 species of 139 families under 13 orders were identified. The number of species was the most abundantly revealed in the order Coleoptera (182 species, 29,2%). The order Lepidoptera (143 species, 18.9%), order Hemiptera (91 species, 14.6%), order Hymenoptera (70 species, 11.2%) and order Homoptera (61 species, 9.8%) were followed in order. Five rare species, Fabriciana nerippe(C. et R. Felder), Dicranocephalus adamsi Pascoe, Prosopocoilus inclinatus inclinatus(Motschulsky), Palimna liturata(Bates) and Sasakia charonda(Hewitson) were collected from the campus.
The removal rates of pesticide residues on agricultural products by washing with tap water, washing with detergent, heating and dipping with ozonized water were analyzed. The removal rates of organophosphorous pesticide residues on perilla leaves and Korean cabbage were shown as 25.7-71.9% level by washing with tap water and 72.4%-82.0% level by washing with detergent. However, those on Angelica keiskei were shown as 44.6-64.7% level by washing with tap water and 72.4-82.0% by washing with detergent. Those on perilla leaves and Korean cabbage were shown as 61.1%-91.1% and 74.8-95.4% levels by heating, respectively. Also, the removal rates of organochlorine pesticide residues on perilla leaves and Aster scaber were shown as 55.6-66.3% level by washing with tap water, 85.8-93.0% level by washing with detergent and 54.1-63.6% level by heating. Therefore, the organochlorine pesticide residues was shown the highest removal rate by washing with detergent and not significance between washing with tap water and heating. When the grape was processed as jam, the removal rates of organophosphorous pesticide residues were shown as below 50% level and those of organochlorine were shown as 22.3-60.2% level with difference according to variety of pesticides. Also, the decomposition effects of pesticides by dipping in ozonized water were analyzed. The various solvents were tested for the most effective recovery of pesticides on agricultural products. The benzene contained 20% dichloromethane was shown the most effective recovery rate for organophosphorous pesticides as 105.4-113.8% level. Hexan was the most effective for organochlorine as 67.7-91.3% level. As the result by dipping with ozonized water, the changes of pesticide content levels according to dipping and dipping time in ozonized water were not shown significance.
A series of experiments were performed to analyze wastewater characteristics and to determine the treatment process. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency became very important factor in determining the process recently. There are many processes to reduce nitrogen and/or phosphorus (Bardenpo, A/O, A2/O, VIP, UCT etc). The KIDEA process, which was selected in this study, Consists of aeration, sedimentation, and intermittent withdrawl steps. The bench-scale experiment was performed using Sabkyo and mixed wastewater and influent was fed to the reactor continuously. Effluent concentration of T-N was 11.1∼14.1 mg/L. Effluent concentration of T-P was 2.6∼3.63 mg/L. The KIDEA process can be applied to treat the wastewater with low carbon concencentration.
There are two strategies to cope with the troubles in landfill site after closure. The first method is active in a way that the wastes are dug up and the recyclable materials are reutilized, meanwhile the materials not recyclable are incinerated in order to minimize the volume of residues to be disposed of. The second method is rather passive and defensive in a way that the source of contamination, that is, buried wastes are not treated. Instead, the transport of leaking leachate and gases generated from the wastes are intercepted and controlled. In the study, as a passive way, the efficient leachate blocking process will be investigated, and how well geocrete and soluble sodium silicate can be utilized as a substitute to controls leachate leaking from landfill sidewall. In case of compression test, the strength of mixture ( I ) and (Ⅱ), even after 7 days' curing were higher than the criteria threshold (5 kg/cm2). Soaking in the acrid for 4 days and 7 days respectively, the compressive strength of the specimens reduced seriously. The toxicity of geocrete is not detected through the bioassay test, once it is mixed with sodium silicate and the complex is formed. The hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures even after 7 days' curing satisfied the threshold limit (1.0×10-7cm/s).
There has been a limited number of data for the long-term concentrations of heavy metals within airborne particulates in Korea. Especially, there exist no such data sets for ambient particulates at the roadside that they should have been produced by using INAA. Therefore, this study focuses on the quantitive analysis of about 30 trace metals including toxic ones for roadside airborne particulates. The study also concentrates on the interpretation of analyzed results for the ambient particulates. From the results of the quantitative analysis for airborne particulates at the roadside by INAA, it is shown that the concentrations of metals such as Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg and Na due to crust and marine aerosols are much higher than those of other metals. The concentrations of human carcinogen, arsenic and chromium are 6.71±0.85 ng/m3 and 5.95±0.41 ng/m3, respectively while that of non-carcinogenic toxic metal Mn is 34.08±3.62 ng/m3. During yellow sandy season the concentrations of metals such as Al, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe and K show up to twelve times higher than those in summer. INAA has very low detection limits and needs very small amount of airborne particulate sample for the analysis. However, it is difficult to analyze metals such as Pb, Ni, Cd, and Si, which are very important ones for either risk assessment or receptor modeling. Thus, it is necessary to use other analytical tool like ICP-MS as a complement.
Studies were carried out to determine the effectiveness of uniconazole in ameliorating UV-B radiation injury in tomato plants(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cvs. Fireball and Patio). Plants were given a soil drench of 0, 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1 mg · pot-1 uniconazole, and after 14 days, were irradiated with effective 35 mW · m-2 UV-BBE for 6 h daily for 3 days. UV-B radiation induced visible injury, reduced leaf and stem elongation, delayed flowering, and decreased chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll a/b ratio. There was difference in number of damaged leaves per plant, thus, more leaves were injured in 'Fireball'. Uniconazole application reduced plant canopy and increased total chlorophyll concentration and leaf thickness regardless of concentrations. Uniconazole concentrations above 0.001mg · pot-1 significantly increased resistance against UV-B radiation injury, inhibited the reduction of chlorophyll concentration, but had little or no effect on inhibiting delay of flowering by UV-B radiation. Our results support the hypothesis that the phytoprotective effects of uniconazole are related to defence system against oxidative stress by UV-B radiation. In addition, reduction in plant height accompanied with increase of chlorophyll concentration and leaf thickness by uniconazole treatment may attribute in part to assist a plant in avoiding UV-B radiation injury.