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The rigid frame-shear wall building system is one of the most popular lateral force resisting system for tall buildings, Due to the interaction of rigid frame and shear wall, drift design of the rigid frame-shear wall buildings is much more complex than simple lateral load resisting systems. More practical algorithm has been reported on the control process of the lateral displacement of the rigid frame-shear wall buildings. In this paper, three resizing methods for drift design of rigid frame-shear wall buildings are formulated in the form of optimization problems. Based on the resizing method the drift design processes are presented and applied to drift design of a 30-story building. As demonstrated in the example, the efficiency and performance of resizing methods are tested by comparing distribution of lateral displacements along the height of the building.
The aim of the study is to understand the roots of water conflicts in Peru, despite the fact that the country has established an ‘Integrated Water Resource Governance’ in 2010, in which the state, private sector as well as communities participate in order to manage common-pool resources(CPRs). In particular, it analyses one prominent case of water conflict in the Peruvian northern Andes, associated with large-scale mineral extraction. By doing this, the study attempts to examine the causes of mining-related water conflicts and thus uncover limitations of Integrated Water Resource Governance. In the Peruvian Andes, local peasants(campesinos) have maintained a communal management tradition of common-pool resources(CPRs) such as land and water. This is significant not only because of the importance of those resources for their livelihoods, but also of their associated social organisations as well as identity. However, this socio-ecological relationship has undergone a dramatic transformation with the arrival of the multinational mining company and its large-scale open-pit mineral extraction in the region. The newly established water governance has efficiency, equity and sustainability as de jure aims, but it resulted in what so-called ‘accumulation by dispossession’ indeed. As a result, local peasant communities organised massive demonstrations and demanded their commons back. By examining the nature of water conflicts and limitations of water governance in Peru, the study attempts to get engaged in debates on ‘neoliberalising nature’ after the late twentieth century. 신제도주의자들은 공동 자원 거버넌스를 구축하였을 때 공동 자원의 보존과 관리의 효율성, 형평성, 지속 가능성 등을 확보할 수 있다고 주장하였지만, 실제 공동 자원 거버넌스의 형성과 운영 과정을 살펴보면, 공동 자원을 둘러싼 권력 관계의 동학에 따라 다른 경험적 결과를 가져옴을 알 수 있다. 본 논문의 목적은 페루의 광산 개발과 관련된 대표적인 물 분쟁으로 꼽히는 페루 북부 안데스 지역의 경험에 대한 사례 분석을 통해, 공동 자원을 둘러싼 권력 관계의 동학을 살펴보고, 통합적 물 관리 거버넌스의 한계와 이와 관련된 사회 운동의 성격을 분석하는 것이다. 전통적으로 페루 안데스 고산 지대에서 물과 토지는 이 지역 농민들이 공동으로 관리하고 유지해 온 공동 자원으로, 단순히 이들의 생계활동을 유지하기 위한 자원이라는 의미를 넘어 지역 사회의 조직 및 농민들의 정체성을 형성하는 데 영향을 미쳐왔다. 하지만 1990년대 이후 다국적 기업의 주도로 이뤄진 대규모 노천광 개발이 지역 농민과 공동 자원(특히 물) 간의 관계에 급격한 변화를 가져왔으며, 페루 수자원 거버넌스의 명목상의 목표와는 달리 실질적인 운영에서 ‘탈취를 통한 축적’의 결과를 가져옴으로써, 농민들이 공동 자원을 둘러싼 생태-사회관계 회복을 위한 커먼즈 운동을 전개하게 되었음을 밝혔다. 이를 통해 본 논문은 페루 안데스 고산 지역에서 전개된 공동 자원을 둘러싼 분쟁의 성격을 분석하고 통합적 수자원 거버넌스의 실제를 살펴봄으로써 20세기 후반 이후 신자유주의 세계화 과정에서 나타나는 ‘자연의 신자유주의화(neoliberalising nature)’에 대한 이론적 논의의 경험적 사례 분석으로서의 의미를 가진다.
To identify the Helicobacter pylori antigens operating during early infection in sera from infected infants using proteomics and immunoblot analysis. Two-dimensional (2D) large and small gel electrophoresis was performed using H. pylori strain 51. We performed 2D immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody immunoblotting using small gels on sera collected at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 4–11-month-old infants confirmed with H. pylori infection by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoblot spots appearing to represent early infection markers in infant sera were compared to those of the large 2D gel for H. pylori strain 51. Corresponding spots were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The peptide fingerprints obtained were searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Eight infant patients were confirmed with H. pylori infection based on urease tests, histopathologic examinations, and pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. One infant showed a 2D IgM immunoblot pattern that seemed to represent early infection. Immunoblot spots were compared with those from whole-cell extracts of H. pylori strain 51 and 18 spots were excised, digested in gel, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Of the 10 peptide fingerprints obtained, the H. pylori proteins flagellin A (FlaA), urease β subunit (UreB), pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), and translation elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts) were identified and appeared to be active during the early infection periods. These results might aid identification of serological markers for the serodiagnosis of early H. pylori infection in infants.
In Latin America, capitalist development of agriculture and its related rural transformation have brought a lot of academic and policy-related debates. Issues range from unequal structure of land distribution from the colonial times and the problem of underdevelopment, capitalist development of agriculture, its subsequent rural transformation and agrarian reform, peasant protests and demand for land distribution in the mid-twentieth century to the recent debates on economic globalisation, the changing rural landscape, as well as rural development and poverty reduction. In particular, economic reform and liberalisation have significantly transformed the Latin American rural landscape in recent decades, which has become an important source for rising interests both from academics and policy-makers. Despite this increasing concerns, however, the Korean development communities have quite a limited focus on rural development and poverty reduction, i.e. the design, implementation and assessment of project-based rural poverty reduction. This is an important effort but sometimes tends to ignore the long-term impacts of policies. Against this backdrop, this article aims to examine the limitations of mainstream rural poverty reduction policy and approaches and argue for alternative perspective on the issue, i.e. the politicisation of poverty, by underlining the importance of accounting for structural causes of poverty.
In children, Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastritis, peptic ulcer, and extraintestinal manifestations such as refractory iron deficiency anemia, failure to thrive, and chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia. The outcomes of recommendations for H. pylori eradication therapy in children are not comparable with the eradication rates of those in adults because of the low level of evidence, including randomized placebo-controlled treatment trials. In South Korea, no standard guideline for the management of children with H. pylori infection has been established yet. Herein, we reviewed the indications for and various modalities of eradication therapy in children with H. pylori infection in accordance with a review of published articles. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is the only one indication for eradication therapy. A proton pump inhibitor based on a combination of two antibiotics has been considered as the standard eradication therapy in children, but no consensus has been reached regarding the modality of eradication therapy in children. (Korean J Helicobacter Up Gastrointest Res 2017;17:-19)
스케일이 큰 건축물의 형태와 색채를 고려한 화훼장식의 형태를 선보이고 있는 몇 명의 작가의 작품을 분석하여 화훼장식과 여러 분야의 적용 방법과 그 원리를 제시하고자 바르셀로나의 11개의 건축물에 장식된 화훼장식 작품을 7가지 테마로 나누어 형태와 색채를 분석해 본 결과, 다음과 같은 방법을 이용하여 디자인한 것을 알 수 있었다. - 건축물의 형태와 유사와 형태를 그대로 표현함. - 건축물의 색채와 유사하거나 대비되는 색상을 표현함. - 건축물이 갖는 여러 의미를 형태와 색채로 재해석하여 화훼장식에 적용함. 위와 같은 3가지 방법을 이용한 결과 건축물과 화훼장식의 조화를 이룬 것을 알 수 있었고, 디자인 원리를 응용한 것을 알 수 있었다. 또한 시간의 흐름에 따라 건축물의 디자인이 모던해 지듯, 플로랄 디자인의 기법과 표현 스타일 또한 모던해지는 것이 흥미로운 결과를 얻을 수 있었다. 이와 같이 건축 분야뿐만 아니라 여러 분야에도 화훼장식을 적용하는 다양한 방법과 시도가 계속적으로 이루어져야 할 것이라 생각되었다.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was evaluation of the current status of medical students' documentation of patient medical records. Methods: We checked the completeness, appropriateness, and accuracy of 95 Subjective-Objective-Assessment-Plan (SOAP) notes documented by third-year medical students who participated in clinical skill tests on December 1, 2014. Students were required to complete the SOAP note within 15 minutes of an standard patient (SP)-encounter with a SP complaining rhinorrhea and warring about meningitis. Results: Of the 95 SOAP notes reviewed, 36.8% were not signed. Only 27.4% documented the patient’s symptoms under the Objective component, although all students completed the Subjective notes appropriately. A possible diagnosis was assessed by 94.7% students. Plans were described in 94.7% of the SOAP notes. Over half the students planned workups (56.7%) for diagnosis and treatment (52.6%). Accurate documentation of the symptoms, physical findings, diagnoses, and plans were provided in 78.9%, 9.5%, 62.1%, and 38.0% notes, respectively. Conclusion: Our results showed that third-year medical students’ SOAP notes were not complete, appropriate, or accurate. The most significant problems with completeness were the omission of students’ signatures, and inappropriate documentation of the physical examinations conducted. An education and assessment program for complete and accurate medical recording has to be developed.