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      • KCI등재

        국가산림자원조사 고정표본점 자료를 활용한 고사목의 탄소저장량 추정

        문가현,임종수,강진택 한국기후변화학회 2022 한국기후변화학회지 Vol.13 No.1

        The greenhouse gas reduction function of forests is crucial globally in ameliorating climate change. Varying research attempts to assess dead organic matter and carbon stock volume in soil have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the occurrence of coarse woody debris (CWD) and related carbon stocks using data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI). To monitor changes in forest resources over time, this study used NFI data (2006-2020) that were collected from permanent sample plots every five years; 1,903 sample plots in which CWD occurred were analyzed at each time point and CWD volume was calculated based on tree stem volume. Carbon stocks of CWD were estimated by applying basic woody density and carbon fraction to CWD by tree type and tree decay level. The average volume of CWD decreased from 23.04 to 14.83 m3 ha-1 and carbon stocks of CWD were also reduced from 3.36 to 1.86 ton C ha-1. This analysis estimated carbon stocks of CWD in forests nationwide and the results can be utilized to build a greenhouse gas inventory. Long-term monitoring and research are needed to identify the changing characteristics of CWD carbon storage. As carbon storage in forests is interconnected, monitoring and model development should include trees, CWD, forest floor litter, and soil carbon cycles. Furthermore, an analysis of the effect of anthropogenic activities on carbon cycles in future research would be useful.

      • KCI등재

        우리나라 입목의 초기 생장 특성에 따른 유령림의 임목축적 산출방안 고찰

        문가현,문나,임종수,강진택 한국산림과학회 2020 한국산림과학회지 Vol.109 No.3

        The growing stocks of young forests that are less than10 years of age have been excluded from the Korean forest resource statistics, despite the existence of standing trees; however, sustainable forest management and carbon removals in the forestry section require complete information regarding forest resources. This study developed a method to estimate the growing stocks for young forests from National Forest Inventory (NFI) data. After reviewing previous research on growth characteristics for young forests, we conducted stem analysis of major species, and examined stand characteristics by site index, based on real yield tables. Our statistical analysis results showed that there were few standing trees with diameters at breast height (DBH) above 6 cm in young stands, and that it would have taken 12 years, on average, to reach 6 cm DBH. This suggests that mean tree height by diameter should be assessed at the root, in order to assess growing stocks for young stands through the NFI. Moreover, the database system should be improved to differentiate tree species, since diverse shrubs, including trees, have been surveyed. 우리나라의 산림자원 중 유령림에 포함되는 I 영급(10년생 이하)은 입목이 존재함에도 불구하고 임목축적을 ‘0’으로 가정하여 국가통계를 산출하고 있으며, 온실가스 배출 및 흡수량 산정을 위한 탄소흡수량에서도 누락되고 있다. 지속가능한 산림경영의 이행 및 산림부문 탄소저장량을 산출하기 위해서는 유령림의 산림자원에 대한 정확한 통계정보의 수집이필요하다. 본 연구는 유령림의 초기 생장 특성을 파악하고 국가산림자원조사에서 수집된 자료를 활용하여 유령림의 임목축적을 추정할 수 있는 방법을 개발하기 위하여 수행하였다. 유령림의 초기 생장 특성을 분석하기 위하여 유령림의 초기생장에 관한 문헌조사, 수종별 수간석해 분석 및 현실림 임분수확표에 의한 지위지수별 유령림의 생장 특성 등을 분석하였다. 결과적으로 유령림에서 대부분의 입목은 흉고직경 6 cm 미만으로 나타났으며, 흉고직경 6 cm에 도달하는데 평균 12년이 소요되는 것으로 분석되었다. 국가산림자원조사 자료를 활용하여 유령림의 임목축적을 산출하기 위해서는 치수조사구에서 근원경의 경급별 평균묘고가 조사되어야 하며, 교목을 비롯한 다양한 관목이 조사되고 있으므로 교목 수종을 구분할수 있도록 분석시스템의 개선이 필요한 것으로 나타났다.

      • KCI등재

        국가산림자원조사 자료를 이용한 소나무의 진계생장 추정식 개발

        문가현,임종수,신만용 한국산림과학회 2018 한국산림과학회지 Vol.107 No.4

        This study was conducted to develop ingrowth estimation equations on Pinus densiflora found in Gangwon Province and in the center of Korean Peninsula, based on the National Forest Inventory (NFI)’s permanent sampling plot data. For this study, identical sampling plots in 5th and 6th NFI data were collected in order to identify ingrowth amounts for the last 5 years. Following two-stage approaches in developing the ingrowth estimation equations, the logistic regression model was used in the first stage to estimate the ingrowth probability. In the second stage, regression analysis on sampling plots with ingrowth occurrence was used to estimate the ingrowth amount. A candidate model was finally selected as an optimal model after a verification based on three evaluation statistics which include mean difference (MD), standard deviation of difference (SDD) and standard error of difference (SED). In results, a logistic regression model based on the number of sampling plot which did not result in ingrowth (model Ⅵ), was selected for an ingrowth probability estimation equation and exponential function including the species composition (SC) variable was optimal for an ingrowth estimation equation (model Ⅶ). The ingrowth estimation equations developed in this study also evaluated the estimation ability in various forest stand conditions, and no particular issue in fitness or applicability was observed. 본 연구는 국가산림자원조사(NFI) 고정표본점 자료를 기반으로 우리나라에 분포하는 강원지방소나무와 중부지방 소나무의 진계생장 추정식을 개발하기 위한 목적으로 수행되었다. 이를 위해 5년 동안의 진계생장량을 파악할 수 있는 정 보를 제공하는 제5차 및 제6차 NFI의 동일 표본점 자료를 활용하였다. 진계생장 추정식 개발을 위한 2단계 접근법에 따라 첫 번째 단계에서는 진계생장 발생확률을 추정하기 위해 로지스틱 회귀모형을 이용하여 분석을 수행하였으며, 두 번째 단 계에서는 진계생장이 발생한 표본점만을 대상으로 회귀식을 이용하여 진계생장량을 추정하였다. 또한 최적 모형의 선정은 회귀계수가 추정된 후보모형에 대해 모형의 평균편의(MD), 모형의 정도(SDD), 그리고 모형의 표준오차(SED)의 3가지 평 가통계량을 분석한 결과에 근거하여 도출하였다. 그 결과 진계확률 추정식은 진계가 발생하지 않은 표본점 수에 기반한 로 지스틱 회귀모형(모형 Ⅵ)이 선정되었고, 진계생장량 추정식에는 수종구성(SC) 변수를 포함한 지수함수식(모형 Ⅶ)이 최적 모형으로 분석되었다. 이상과 같이 개발된 진계생장 추정식은 다양한 임분조건에 대해 추정능력을 평가하였으며, 적합도나 활용적인 측면에서 문제가 없는 것으로 평가되었다.

      • KCI등재

        국가산림자원조사 자료를 이용한 소나무의 진계생장 추정식 개발

        문가현,임종수,신만용,Moon, Ga Hyun,Yim, Jong Su,Shin, Man Yong 한국산림과학회 2018 한국산림과학회지 Vol.107 No.4

        본 연구는 국가산림자원조사(NFI) 고정표본점 자료를 기반으로 우리나라에 분포하는 강원지방소나무와 중부지방소나무의 진계생장 추정식을 개발하기 위한 목적으로 수행되었다. 이를 위해 5년 동안의 진계생장량을 파악할 수 있는 정보를 제공하는 제5차 및 제6차 NFI의 동일 표본점 자료를 활용하였다. 진계생장 추정식 개발을 위한 2단계 접근법에 따라 첫 번째 단계에서는 진계생장 발생확률을 추정하기 위해 로지스틱 회귀모형을 이용하여 분석을 수행하였으며, 두 번째 단계에서는 진계생장이 발생한 표본점만을 대상으로 회귀식을 이용하여 진계생장량을 추정하였다. 또한 최적 모형의 선정은 회귀계수가 추정된 후보모형에 대해 모형의 평균편의(MD), 모형의 정도(SDD), 그리고 모형의 표준오차(SED)의 3가지 평가통계량을 분석한 결과에 근거하여 도출하였다. 그 결과 진계확률 추정식은 진계가 발생하지 않은 표본점 수에 기반한 로지스틱 회귀모형(모형 VI)이 선정되었고, 진계생장량 추정식에는 수종구성(SC) 변수를 포함한 지수함수식(모형 VII)이 최적모형으로 분석되었다. 이상과 같이 개발된 진계생장 추정식은 다양한 임분조건에 대해 추정능력을 평가하였으며, 적합도나 활용적인 측면에서 문제가 없는 것으로 평가되었다. This study was conducted to develop ingrowth estimation equations on Pinus densiflora found in Gangwon Province and in the center of Korean Peninsula, based on the National Forest Inventory (NFI)'s permanent sampling plot data. For this study, identical sampling plots in $5^{th}$ and $6^{th}$ NFI data were collected in order to identify ingrowth amounts for the last 5 years. Following two-stage approaches in developing the ingrowth estimation equations, the logistic regression model was used in the first stage to estimate the ingrowth probability. In the second stage, regression analysis on sampling plots with ingrowth occurrence was used to estimate the ingrowth amount. A candidate model was finally selected as an optimal model after a verification based on three evaluation statistics which include mean difference (MD), standard deviation of difference (SDD) and standard error of difference (SED). In results, a logistic regression model based on the number of sampling plot which did not result in ingrowth (model VI), was selected for an ingrowth probability estimation equation and exponential function including the species composition (SC) variable was optimal for an ingrowth estimation equation (model VII). The ingrowth estimation equations developed in this study also evaluated the estimation ability in various forest stand conditions, and no particular issue in fitness or applicability was observed.

      • KCI등재

        Development of ingrowth models for forest types in South Korea

        문가현,임종수,문나,신만용 한국산림과학회 2019 Forest Science And Technology Vol.15 No.4

        Understanding of stand growth information is necessary for establishing forest management plans, but accurate models for estimating ingrowth are currently lacking in Korea. This research aims to develop an ingrowth estimation equation according to various forest types using nationwide forest monitoring data by the National Forest Inventory (NFI). A two-stage approach was developed based on the ingrowth database using permanent sample plots from the 5th (2006–2010) and 6th (2011–2015) NFI. In the first stage, the ingrowth probability was estimated using a logistic function. In the second stage, the ingrowth amount was estimated using a conditional function by regression analysis. In results, a logistic regression model based on the number of sampling plot which did not result in ingrowth (Model VI), was selected for an ingrowth probability estimation equation. After performing three types of statistical test to evaluate the ingrowth estimation equation suitability, three optimal models were selected based on their respective estimation ability: Coniferous Forest (Model IV), Broad-leaved Forest (Model VII), and Mixed Forest (Model VI). The estimation ability of the proposed estimation equation was statistically verified and showed no problems of suitability or applicability. If high-quality data are continuously accumulated for comparison and contrast with the present sampling plot data through the ongoing NFI system, this research can present a new direction in ingrowth modeling for Korean forests.

      • KCI등재

        국가산림자원조사 자료를 활용한 고사목의 탄소저장량 변화: 강원도를 대상으로

        문가현 ( Ga Hyun Moon ),임종수 ( Jong Su Yim ) 한국산림과학회(구 한국임학회) 2021 한국산림과학회지 Vol.110 No.2

        기후변화 영향의 심각성을 인지한 국제사회의 움직임에 발맞춰 우리 정부는 2050 탄소중립 선언을 통해 지속가능한 탄소중립 사회를 지향하고 있으며, 국가 온실가스 감축 목표의 이행을 위해 산림부문을 적극적으로 활용한 전략을 수행중이다. 특히 산림 내 고사목은 탄소저장고로서의 역할을 담당하므로 고정표본점에 대하여 모니터링이 이루어지는 국가산림자원조사(National Forest Inventory; NFI)에서 수집되는 고사목 자료를 활용하여 고사목 축적량과 고사목의 탄소저장량 변화 특성을 구명하는 것은 의의가 크다. 따라서 본 연구는 각 차수별(제5차∼제7차 NFI) 고사목 자료를 활용하여 동일표본점 내 고사목의 발생 현황 및 탄소저장량을 산출하고 시간에 따른 변화 특성을 분석하였다. 강원도 산림에서 각 차수별로 모니터링이 가능한 동일 표본점 2,021개를 분석한 결과 조사차수별 고사목 축적량(m<sup>3</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>)은 제5차 및 제6차 NFI에서 각각 4.71과 4.09로 나타났으나, 제7차 NFI에서는 3.09로 감소하는 결과를 보였다. 연도별 고사목의 탄소저장량(ton C ha<sup>-1</sup>)은 2009년 0.67, 2014년 0.64, 그리고 2019년 0.41로 분석되어, 시간의 흐름에 따른 감소추세를 나타냈다. 본 연구 결과를 기초자료로 활용하여 향후 전국 산림에 대한 고사목의 탄소저장량 추정 및 시계열적 변화 특성에 대한 지속적인 모니터링 연구가 수행될 필요가 있다. Considering worldwide efforts to mitigate repercussions of climate change, the South Korean government has declared to reach net zero by 2050 to achieve a carbon-neutral sustainable society. For full implementation of NDCs, the government has actively reflected its forestry sector into these strategies. Since coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests represents an enduring carbon storage, it is of particular significance to determine characteristics of changes in carbon stocks of CWD by utilizing data on dead trees monitored in permanent sample plots within national forest inventories (NFIs). In this study, therefore, both occurrence and carbon stocks of CWD were estimated in such plots using data on CWD from the 5<sup>th</sup>, 6<sup>th</sup>, and 7<sup>th</sup> NFIs. Subsequently, characteristics of changes in carbon stocks over time were analyzed. Based on the analysis of 2,021 plots available for monitoring in each NFI of Gangwon Province, the volume of CWD (m<sup>3</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>) was found to be 4.71 in the 5<sup>th</sup> NFI and 4.09 in the 6<sup>th</sup> NFI. However, the volume of CWD declined to 3.09 in the 7<sup>th</sup> NFI. Moreover, the annual carbon stocks of CWD (ton C ha<sup>-1</sup>) were estimated to be 0.67 in 2009, 0.64 in 2014, and 0.41 in 2019, showing a downward trend over time. This study provides a basis for future research to investigate long-term changes and estimate carbon stocks of CWD in South Korea forests.

      • KCI등재

        환경요인을 이용한 남원시의 적지적수도 제작

        문가현 ( Ga Hyun Moon ),김용석 ( Yong Suk Kim ),임주훈 ( Joo Hoon Lim ),신만용 ( Man Yong Shin ) 한국농림기상학회 2015 한국농림기상학회지 Vol.17 No.2

        본 연구는 전라북도 남원시의 맞춤형 조림지도인 적지적수도를 제작하기 위해 수행하였다. 이를 위해 남원시에 분포하는 주요 수종별 지위지수 추정식을 개발하고, 수종별로 적지에 적합한 입지조건을 반영한 생육범위를 고려하여 각 수종의 적지분포를 공간적으로 평가하였다. 남원시에 분포하는 주요 8개 수종별 지위지수 추정식은 각각 4-5개의 환경인자 조합이 관여하는 것으로 분석되었으며, 전체 27개의 환경인자 중에서 15개가 수종별지위지수 추정에 사용되었다. 특히 사면위치(X7)와 경사형태(X8), B층 건습도(X11), 연최저 기온(X15), 온량지수(X16) 비생장기간 5개월 동안의 총강수량(X23), 월평균상대습도(X24), 그리고 생장기간 초기 3개월 동안의 월평균 상대습도(X25)가 수종별 지위지수 추정식에 많이 포함되는 것으로 판명되었다. 이상과 같은 방법으로 남원시의 적지적수도를 제작한 후, 적합성 검증을 위해 현지 확인 조사를 수행하였다. 현지 확인 결과 본 연구에서 제작한 적지적수도는 사용 가능한 자료의 한계에도 불구하고 수종별 적지분포를 비교적 무난하게 표현하고 있는 것으로 평가되었다. 하지만 부적지로 평가된 일부 지역의 경우 수정 및 보완이 필요한 것으로 나타났다. This study was conducted to develop a large scale map of species-specific plantation sites based on selected environmental variables such as topography, soil, and climatic factors in Namwon city. Site index equations by tree species were first regressed to 27 environmental variables that could influence the productivity of forest sites using digital forest site maps, digital climate maps, and the 5th National Forest Inventory data. Site index equations by tree species were all evaluated to estimate site productivity using 4-5 environmental variables, and the models’ reliability was confirmed based on evaluation statistics. The determination coefficients of site index equations by species ranged from 0.42 to 0.76. With the site index equations, the site conditions appropriate for productive sites by species were considered to assess spatial distribution of productive areas for each species. The final map for optimal plantation in Namwon city was produced based on both site index equations and site conditions appropriate for productive sites by each species using GIS technique. Field survey was conducted to evaluate the suitability of selected species on the map of species-specific plantation sites. Results showed that the plantation map provides relatively reasonable spatial distribution of productive areas for selected species. It was revealed, however, that the sites evaluated as ‘not suitable’ for any tree species should be revised and complemented with additional information, especially with the site conditions appropriate for productive sites by species of interest. The outcomes of this study are expected to provide information for making customized species-specific plantation maps.

      • 간호대생과 비간호대생의 정신질환에 대한 지식 및 정신질환자에 대한 태도 비교 연구

        김하림,문가현,박지,송유지,윤혜민,이시연,주승빈,최현정,한승연 이화여자대학교 간호과학대학 2014 이화간호학회지 Vol.- No.48

        Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the nursing students and the non-nursing students in their knowledge and attitudes of the mental illness and to identify the relationships. Methods: In this study, five 4-year universities in Seoul were randomly selected, from which 144 nursing students and 156 non-nursing students were selected through convenient sampling. Following instruments were used: Knowledge scale extracted from the precedent studies on the knowledge on the mental illness, and CAMI (Community Attitudes toward the Mental Illness) to evaluate the attitudes toward the mental illness. Data was analyzed using SPSS WIN 20.0 program with t-test, ANOVA with Scheffe test and Pearson’s correlation. Results: In the knowledge on mental illness, there was statistically significant differences between the nursing students and non-nursing students (t=-5.506, p<.001). In the comparisons of the attitude toward the mental illness, there was statistically significant differences on the total score of mental illness between the nursing students and non-nursing students(t=2.994, p=.003). In detail, there was statistically significant differences on the authoritarianism (t=3.858, p<.001) and the social restrictiveness (t=2.454, p=.015). Between the knowledge and the attitude of the mental illness, there seems to be a correlation: those who had higher level of mental illness knowledge had more positive attitude toward the mental illness(r=.227, p<.001). Conclusion: The result of this study shows that learning about mental illness influences positively on the mental illness knowledge and on the attitude toward the mental illness. Providing a teaching program about the mental illness for non-nursing students will be required, while the public organizations or the community would need to develop a systematic curriculum for the nursing students.

      • KCI등재

        점 표본점(Point sampling) 방법을 이용한 국가수준 토지이용변화 매트릭스 개발

        임종수,문가현,신만용 한국기후변화학회 2019 한국기후변화학회지 Vol.10 No.4

        Land‐Use Change Matrix (LUCM) is critical activity data in the Land‐Use, Land‐Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector for reporting National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. To produce a LUCM, it is necessary to clearly define six land‐use categories and apply a consistent methodology according to the IPCC guideline. This study was conducted to develop a LUCM at national level in South Korea using the point sampling approach. In this study, 5,600 mapped sample points systematically distributed across the country were used to detect land‐use categories with interpretation of ortho‐photos and national spatial information including satellite images. With a produced LUCM based on classified sampling points in 1992 and 2005, simple and modified ratio estimators were used to estimate the areas and uncertainties for each land‐use category and converted land‐use category in 2005. The uncertainties from both estimators were acceptable according to the National GHG report. However, the total areas for each land‐use category estimated by the simple estimator were different from the official national statistics. As a result, the modified estimator, which employed the official national statistics of total area by land‐use category in 2005, can be used for the consistency and uncertainty assessment. To apply point sampling, an optimal sampling intensity should be determined considering economic efficiency and statistical accuracy.

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