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The effects of dietary yeast β-glucan administration on growth, nonspecific immune responses, serum lysozyme, skin mucous lysozyme, NBT (nitroblue tetrazolium) reduction by phagocytes, and disease resistance against Edwardsiella tarda in Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica were evaluated. Fish were fed the diets supplemented with 0%, 0.1% and 0.5% of yeast β-glucan to a commercial diet for 6 weeks. The body weight gain from the fish fed on the 0.5% supplemented diet for 6 weeks was significantly higher than the control. Both serum and skin mucous lysozyme were significantly higher in the all experimental groups except 2 weeks of 0.5% group. The bactericidal activity of serum was slightly increased at 6 weeks. Also, The intracellular superoxide anion production of kidney phagocytes was significantly higher in the all experimental groups. The diet supplemented with 0.1% were also found to raise the relative percent survival (RPS) of Japanese eel after an artificial challenge with 1×107 cells of Edwardsiella tarda per fish. The results suggested the potential of yeast β-glucan to activate some innate immune responses and to improve the growth in Japanese eel.
The pathogens and community structure of the fishes in Taehwa river were investigated from March 2007 to January 2009. During the study period, 3,504 individuals belonging to 35 species, 17 families and 9 orders were collected. The numerically dominant and subdominat species were Opsarichthys uncirostris (relative abundance 39.7%) and Hemibarbus labeo (relative abundance 30.9%). There were five Korean endemic species (20.8%) including Squalidus chankaensis tsuchigae, Zacco koreanus, Cobitis hankugensis, Coreoperca herzi, Odontobutis platycephala. The large fishes like Hemibarbus labeo or Opsarichthys uncirostris were gathered around the Samho bridge, sampling site 2 according to a season. The reaction to which two kinds of fish pathogenic virus is all negative and no fish pathogenic bacteria was isolated from 220 individuals. The fish pathogenic parasite not present variously with 7 species. Especially, Trichodina sp. was detected monthly and the infective density was high. But it is cosidered that temporary overcrowding of fish is not influenced mass mortality causing diseases in the specific site of river.
최근 뱀장어 양식장에서 사육 중이던 동남아산 뱀장어에 몸통 근육의 요철현상을 나타내면서 폐사를 일으키는 질병이 발생하였다. 병어의 몸통 근육 내 환부는 흰색 또는 황색으로 변해있었다. 병리조직학적인 변화는 근조직내에 수많은 포자와 크고 작은 시스트들이 변형된 근육근섬유 내에 관찰되었다. 병어의 근육 환부를 취하여 PCR을 실시하여 H. anguillarum이 가지는 특정 유전자인Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA)를 증폭하였다. 좀 더 정확한 동정을 위해 PCR product를 Cloning 후Sequencing하여 서열들을 분석한 결과 H. anguillarum의 Small subunit ribosomal RNA (Gene bank accession number:AB623036) 서열과 일치하게 나타남을 확인할 수 있었다. primer 18F과 1537R의 PCR product는 약 1366 bp 길이가 일치하였으며, V1과 1392R를 이용한 PCR product는 1200bp가 일치하게 나타났다. 또한 H1과 H2의 PCR product의 경우는 800 bp 정도 일치하였으며 이의 서열은 나머지 2개의 product가 공통적으로 가지고 있는 서열이었다. 이를 토대로 본 연구에서는 동남아산 뱀장어에 감염된포자충은 H. anguillarum임을 동정할 수 있었다. Shortfin eel (Anguilla bicolor pacifica) is a species of commercial importance and its production is greatly affected due to the infection by Heterosporis anguillarum. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. anguillarum infection on the growth of Shortfin eel. A disease that trunk muscle of cultured shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor pacifica, were irregular and resulted in death, breakout of the commercial eel culture farm. We observed that the trunk muscle of infected eels were irregular and represented white or yellowish externally. Histopathologically, a great numbers of large or small spores and sporophorocysts were also observed in degenerated muscle layer. The cloning of specific gene of H. anguillarum, encoding small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA)was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction(PCR) from the muscle lesion of diseased eel. The size of clone gene is well matched with the size of small subunit ribosomal RNA of H. anguillarum and thus confirming the infection by H. anguillarum.
김진도 ( Jin Do Kim ),도정완 ( Jeong Wan Do ),최혜승 ( Hye Sung Choi ),서정수 ( Jung Soo Seo ),정승희 ( Sung Hee Jung ),조혜인 ( Hyae In Jo ),박명애 ( Myung Ae Park ),이남실 ( Nam Sil Lee ),박성우 ( Sung Woo Park ) 한국환경생물학회 2013 환경생물 : 환경생물학회지 Vol.31 No.4
최근 국내의 양식 메기에 표피 박리와 근육 괴사를 특징으로 하는 새로운 질병이 발생하였다. 그 폐사율은 낮으나 질병으로 인한 상품가치의 저하로 경제적 손실이 크다. 병어로부터 원인균을 분리하고 자연감염어와 인위감염어의 병리학적 변화를 관찰하였다. 원인균은 Aeromonas veronii로 동정되었으며, 원인균을 건강어에 인위감염시켜 폐사 및 증상의 발현을 매일 관찰하였다. 인위감염된 어류의 증상은 자연감염어와 유사하였으며 원인균을 감염시킨 후 7일 이내에 모두 폐사하였다. 병어의조직표본을 제작하여 관찰한 결과, 자연감염어의 간, 비장, 신장의 울혈 및 간세포 변성과 비장 협조직의 초자적변성이 관찰되었으며, 특히 심장에서 염증성 변성과 세균응집체가 관찰되었다. 소화관에서의 울혈과 점막고 유층의 섬유화 현상도 특징적이었다. 자연감염어에 비해 약한 경향이지만 인위감염어의 조직학적 변화도 관찰되었으며, 소화관에서의 조직학적 변성은 관찰되지 않았다. Recently, a new disease showing symptoms such as epidermal exfoliation and muscular necrosis occurred in cultured Korean catfish. Although the mortality of fishes was low but the economic damages owing to loss of commercial value were severe. The authors isolated the causative agent from diseased fish and observed pathological changes both in naturally and artificially infected fish. The causative bacteria was identified as Aeromonas veronii. Subsequently we observed the daily death and pathological symptoms of artificially infected fish with Aeromonas veronii. Symptoms of artificially infected fish were similar to those of naturally infected fish and all fish died within 7 days after infection. Histopathological changes on the naturally infected fish revealed severe congestion and necrotic degeneration in the liver, spleen and kidney. Some bacterial aggregates with inflammatory degeneration were observed in the heart, and congestion and fibrosis in the lamina propria of digestive tube were predominant. In artificially infected fish, skin erosion and necrotic degeneration of muscle tissue around injected region were particularly manifested. Degeneration of hepatocytes in liver and hyalic degeneration around ellipsoids in spleen were partially observed. However, there were no predominant signs in digestive tube in artificially infected fish.
The in-vitro eliminative effects of against three types of herbal extract and formalin Ichthyophthirius multifiliis were examined. All parasites were killed within one hour after exposure to the 500 fold dilution of the complex herb extract whereas the 10 fold dilution of the fertilized solution of Salvia plebeia R. Br. killed all parasites within one hour after exposure. The 5,000 fold dilution of the extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves killed all parasites within one hour after exposure. As a comparative agent, formalin killed all parasites within one hour at 100 ppm. As the results, the extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts have the most eliminative ability against the parasite. No differences were found among different parasite density in eliminative effects of the three types of herbal extracts and formalin. Also there were no changes in the fish gill tissues after exposure for two hours to the 5,000 fold dilution of the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves.