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본 연구는 실험을 위해 저수온에서 순치 중이던 쥐치에서 체표의 백탁을 보이며 폐사하여 그 원인을 밝히고자 하였다. 순수 배양된 균체를 확인하여 계대 배양하여 생화학적 성상과 16S rRNA유전자와 recA 유전자의 염기서열 분석 결과 Vibrio anguillarum으로 나타났다. 빈사어 (체장 4~6 ㎝)의 약 30%는 체표 백탁 증상을 보였으며 약 10%는 폐사하였다. 이에 약제 감수성 시험 후, oxolinic acid 200 ppm을 1시간 동안 약욕시켰으며, 2일 경과 후 폐사가 중단되고 증상이 호전되었다. An epidemic was occurred in Stephanolepis cirrhifer during acclimation in laboratory tanks (water temperature was about 17℃). Diseased fish showed an unique external sign, large cloudy skin surface. We investigated the cause of the disease, and isolated one pure cultured bacterium, that was identified as Vibrio anguillarum by biochemical analysis and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and recA genes. During the outbreak, about 30% of S. cirrhifer showed the large cloudy skin surface, and approximately 10% of the stocked fish died. Fish were effectively cured by treatment with oxolinic acid.
The monitoring was performed to survey the mortalities and medications occurred in the inland aquaculture farms of olive flounder in South Korea from May to October, 2012. Both of the indirect inquiry for entire inland farms and the sample survey for selected farms were carried out. The aquatic organism disease inspectors, who have the national licenses for the diagnosis and prevention of aquaticorganism diseases and have close relationship with the farms, investigated the rates and causes of mortalities according to the standard manual. The cumulative mortalities rate by the indirect inquiry on 565 farms, was calculated to 27.18%, and the mortalities rate by infectious diseases was 22.64%. Otherwise, the mortalities rate by sample survey on 60 farms was 25.50%, 19.33% of them were caused by infectious diseases. The high mortality rates were recorded by scuticociliatosis, non-infectious loss, streptococcosis, VHS, artificial eliminations, vibriosis and gliding bacterial disease. Streptococcosis and non-infectious mortality caused to serious loss in productivity and economy of the farms, because of their outbreaks in the flounder groups over 600 g. The monitoring of medications in the selected farms revealed that formalin for the treatment of external parasites, such as scuticociliates, was the most commonly used drugs in the farms. As the antibiotic medications, amoxicillin and florfenicol for streptococcosis, and oxytetracycline and neomycin expecting wide antibacterial spectrum, were frequently prescribed.
지보영 ( Bo Young Jee ),서정수 ( Jung Soo Seo ),전은지 ( Eun Ji Jeon ),이은혜 ( Eun Hye Lee*,),최희정 ( Hee Jung Choi ),김진도 ( Jin Do Kim ),정승희 ( Sung Hee Jung ),박명애 ( Myoung Ae Park ) 한국어병학회 2012 한국어병학회지 Vol.25 No.1
Effects of various concentration of skullcap Scutellaria baicalensis in the diets on a nonspecific immunity and a disease resistance of olive flounder were investigated. After feeding trial, weight gain of fish fed 0.05% skullcap immersed group was higher than that of fish fed 0, 0.1 and 1% skullcap diet but no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups. Furthermore, no significant differences in hematological indices of olive flounder were found among the experimental groups. Lysozyme activity in the serum and kidney of the administrated group(0.05% skullcap immersed group) was significantly higher than the control group. In addition, the chemiluminescent(CL) responses of head kidney leucocytes from the 0.05% skullcap immersed group was significantly higher(P<0.05) than the control group. In the histological results, the 1% skullcap immersed group appeared to have the detrimental effects for fish health. In a challenge experiment with Edwardsiella tarda(GY-01) and Streptococcus iniae(FT5228), relative percent survival (RPS) in the 0.05% skullcap immersed group was higher than the control group injected with E. tarda(GY-01) at 4th and 8th weeks. The results suggest that the skullcap extract (0.05%) would be effective to enhance the nonspecific immunity and protective ability of olive flounder against fish pathogen such as E. tarda.
Many sanitation control problems due to aging facilities and equipment were identified when applying an HACCP system to a flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farm. Specifically, the major problems included a lack of awareness about worker hygiene, lack of management of the use of fish medicines, and vulnerability to secondary contamination by cross-contamination owing to a failure to separate breeding tools used for healthy and unhealthy fish. Therefore, the management standards on the farm regarding the surrounding environment, facilities and equipment, breeding tools, feed and medication, and the hygiene of practitioners must be improved. The hygiene management standards were divided into different procedures such as the management of farm hygiene and environmental sanitation, facilities and equipment, fish hygiene, feed, medications, water, and the stocking and shipping of fish. For each procedure, we established the management standards, inspection period, inspection procedures, and how to deal with errors that occur, to enable hygiene management by a small number of managers. Additionally, an inspection system and record form to implement an HACCP system were developed to maintain systematic management. The management and inspection of all aspects of the farm were designed to be easily managed by the supervisor.
After an outbreak of viral disease in an aquafarm, release of virus(es)from infected fish into environmental seawa- ter has been suspected. ln the present study, we utilized a negatively charged membrane(HAtype)as an efficient method for concentration and detection of fish pathogonic viruses, specally, megalocytivinus and viral hemor- rhagic septicemia virus(VHSV)prent in field-collected seawater samples of inoculated into seawater artificially. Positivly charged viruses adsorbed onto the negatively charged membrane and were cluted with l mM NaOH (pH10.5)following rinsing with 0.5 mM H2SO4(pH3.0). Megalocytivirus and VHSV particles isolated using an- egatively changed HA membrane from seawater inoculated with each virus at a concentration of 10 viral paricles/ mL were of sufficient quantity to show positive results in atwo-step PCR(or RTtwo-step PCR); however, despite it being negatively charged, a cellulose acetata(CA)membraneshowed negative results. ln quantitative PCR, the detection limits of the HA membrane for megalocytivirus and VHSV in seawater were 1.20E+00 viral particles/ mL and 1.22E+01 Viralpartieles/mL, respectivly. The calculated mean recovery yields fiom 1 L seawater spiked with kmown concentrations of megalocytivirus and VHSV particles were 28.11% and 23.00%, respectively. The concentrate of a 1-L samplc of culturing seawater from the aqutank of flounder suffering from VHSV showed clear positive results in PCR when isolated with an HA, but not a CA, membrane, viral isolation using an HA membrane is a practical and reliable method for detection of fish pathogenic virtes in seawater.
Young-Chul KIM(김영철),Jee-Youn HWANG(황지연),Hae-Ryeon JEON(전해련),Da-Won LEE(이다원),Jung-Soo SEO(서정수),Kwang-Il KIM(김광일),Mun-Gyeong KWON(권문경),Bo-Young JEE(지보영),Seong-Don HWANG(황성돈) 한국수산해양교육학회 2018 水産海洋敎育硏究 Vol.30 No.6
We identified structural and non-structural gene regions encoding major capsid protein (MCP) and DNA polymerase (DPOL) of megalocytiviruses collected from infected cultured fishes in RBIVD outbreak farms in 2013-2017 in Korea. With the two PCRs using 1-F/1-R and 4-F/4-R primer sets of the Manual of Diagnosis Tests for Aquatic Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), amplicons were generated from the spleen and kidney tissue from approxmately ~30 fishes, including rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), and rock fish (Sebastes schlegeli), from 15 outbreak regions in the aquatic farms of the South Sea and Jeju Island. In phylogenetic analysis, complete MCP and partial DPOL genes belonged to RSIV type-subgroup2. Interestingly, these genes formed a cluster indicating closer relatedness to GSIV-K1, RIE12-1, and RBIV-C1, which were previously isolated from Japan and China, than with RBIV-KOR-TY1 isolated from Korea. However, the nucleotide sequence identities of the MCP and DPOL genes of these viruses were high, at >99.8% and >99.7%, respectively, compared with RBIV-KOR-TY1. Comparisons of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed minimal differences between the obtained strains in the MCP gene, however, one or two nucleotide sequences substitutions of the DPOL gene were detected in nine strains, including a silent mutation detected in five strains. These findings suggest a slow rate of evolution of megalocytiviruses in this region, but the potential for mutations and new pathogenic strains warrants continuous surveillance.
수산양식어업은 수산생물질병을 어떻게 효과적으로 관리하느냐가 매우 중요하다. 이 논문은 경제적 잉여분석을 이용하여 수산생물질병방역사업에 대한 경제적 편익의 직접적 효과를 추정하는 것이다. 이와 같은 경제적 편익은 수산생물사망 감소율과 수산생물질병감소로 인해 발생하는 소비자잉여와 생산자잉여의 변화 정도를 포함한다. 연구결과 양식되는 넙치, 볼락 및 기타 어류의 생산자잉여에 대한 연간 변화액은 총 23.3억원(각각의 경우 8.7억원, 10.1억원, 4.5억원)이고, 소비자잉여의 연간 변화액은 총 101.5억원(각각의 경우 63.6억원, 18.5억원, 19.4억원)으로 추정되었다. 따라서, 수산생물질병방역사업에 따른 연간 총 경제적 편익은 125억원 수준으로 평가된다. The success or failure of aquaculture heavily depends on how effectively to manage aquatic animal diseases. The paper is to estimate the direct effects of economic benefits on aquatic animal disease prevention program using economic surplus analysis. The economic benefits include changes in consumer and producer surplus owing to a reduction effect of aquatic animal mortality and the consumption recovery effect. The annual changes in producer surplus for flounder, rockfish and others cultured is estimated as 2.33 billion won totally (0.87 billion won, 1.01 billion won and 0.45 billion won respectively) and the annual changes in consumer surplus 10.15 billion won totally (6.36 billion won, 1.85 billion won and 1.94 billion won respectively). Therefore, total annual economic benefit is 12.5 billion won.