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서정수(Jung Soo SEO),조희성(Hee Sung JO),정아름(Ah-Reum JEONG),지보영(Bo-Young JEE),권문경(Mun-Gyeong KWON),황지연(Jee Youn HWANG),황성돈(Seong Don HWANG),정지민(Ji Min JEONG),이지훈(Ji-Hoon LEE) 한국수산해양교육학회 2019 水産海洋敎育硏究 Vol.31 No.5
Residue levels in randomly collected olive flounder muscles were monitored in 2015-2018. Fish were obtained from fish farms located in Jeju and Wando regions to monitor 45 veterinary antibiotic drugs. For analysis, sensitive methods which adopt simultaneously detection of multiple agents were used: high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) detection. A total of 1,200 samples were analyzed, and antibiotic residues were detected in 15 Jeju samples (1.25%) and 45 Wando samples (3.75%). None of them contained residues exceeding respective maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the Korean Food Code. Although the present monitoring result identifies safe status overall, current surveillance efforts over antibiotic use need to be maintained by continuous monitoring.
Globalization has been accompanied by a rapid expansion of trade in goods and services and foreign direct investment(FDI). The rapid expansion of trade in intermediate goods and services over last 10 years has highlighted firms are different in productivity and in other aspects such as size. Multinational firm"s sourcing strategy has become complex due to the fragmentation of production processes, and firms face the choice of production location and organizational forms. Mushrooming evidence that firms are heterogeneous and also that they fragment production processes spurred the development of "new new" trade theories based on firm heterogeneity and incomplete contract.
서정수 ( Jung Soo Seo ),전은지 ( Eun Ji Jun ),정승희 ( Sung Hee Jung ),김명석 ( Myoung Sug Kim ),박명애 ( Myoung Ae Park ),이철호 ( Chul Ho Lee ),한명철 ( Myoung Chul Han ),김진우 ( Jin Woo Kim ),지보영 ( Bo Young Jee ) 한국어병학회 2010 한국어병학회지 Vol.23 No.1
2006년부터 2008년까지 국내로 회귀하는 연어(O. keta)의 소상위치, 암수 및 근육 부위별 아니사키스형 유충의 감염상을 조사하였다. 3년 동안 강에서 채집된 연어 17마리와 바다에서 채집된 13마리의 아니사키스형 유충의 감염율을 조사한 결과, 강에서 채집된 연어의 수컷 및 암컷은 마리 당 아니사키스형 유충이 각각 평균 98±27 및 103±27 마리씩 감염되어져 있었다. 바다에서 채집된 연어의 수컷 및 암컷은 마리 당 아니사키스형 유충이 각각 평균 63±18 및 108±17마리씩 감염되어져 있었고, 암수 및 소상위치간의 아니사키스형 유충의 감염 마리수에서 통계학적 차이는 없는 것으로 나타났다. 아니사키스형 유충의 근육 부위별로 조사하면 복강내측 근육 (abdominal muscle)에 85%가 기생하며, 내장기관에는 거의 유충이 발견되지 않았다. 동정된 아니사키스형 유충은 Anisakis type이 74%며, 나머지는 Contracacecum type로 분류되었다. 연어 근육내에서 아니사키스형 유충의 저온처리에 따른 생존율을 조사하였을시에 최소 6시간 이상의 냉동보존 (-20℃)만이 아니사키스형 유충이 죽는다는 사실을 알 수 있었다. The infestation status of anisakid type larvae was investigated in migrating chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), with different condition (captured area, sex, body portion) during 2006~2008. The mean infection number of anisakid larvae per individual female and male fish captured from Namdae river was 98±27, 103±27, respectively. The mean infection number of anisakid larvae per individual female and male fish captured from the coastal area of Yangyang was 63±18 and 108±17, respectively. The anisakid larvae were mainly found in abdominal muscles (85%) but only a little in the visceral portion. Two types of anisakid larvae (A. simplex, Contracaecum type) were identified but other anisakid larvae were not detected. To investigate the effect of storing temperature on the viability of anisakid larvae, the section of abdominal muscle were stored at different temperature (room temperature, 4℃, -20℃, -80℃). As a result, it was necessary to store at -20℃ for more than 6 hrs to kill the larvae. The present results revealed that chum salmon caught in Korea are heavily infected with anisakid larvae, mainly in the abdominal muscle, and A. simplex was dominantly found in this study.
Enrofloxacin is one of the normally used flouroquinolones in mammalian and fish but its withdrawal time and studies were remain obscure. The residual contents of enrofloxacin in fish muscle were analyzed by using HPLC-FLD. More than 0.1 mg/kg of ENR was detected in muscle tissues and the residues were found over 1 year after treatment. The concentration of ENR in Paralichthys olivaceus was not affected by water temperature and lasted for an extended amount of time. The spike recoveries of ENR in the muscle tissue ranged from 78% to 85%. From this results, we need the prescription by veterinarian or aquatic organism disease inspector in ENR usage to assure safety of fish. Future research is required to determine the recommendation dose of ENR for side effects and safety.
In this paper, an improved method of fault indicator generation algorithm in FRTUs is proposed for the present Distribution Automation System. In order to find fault area, correct FI information should be generated. But when a single line-to-ground fault occurs, FI information is generated in downside of the fault in some circumstance because existing FI algorithm considers only magnitude. It is found that the upside fault current direction if different from the downside fault current direction. Therefore, in order to prevent to generate the wrong fault indication information for FRTU at the downside of the fault, an improved fault indication generation method is developed. Not only the basic conditions are taken into account, but also the directions from the angle difference between zero and positive sequence currents are considered to generated the fault indication information. In case study, the proposed method has been testified and shown the reasonability in generating correct the fault indication information. for many kinds of faults according to conditions.
본 연구에서는 4급 암모늄에 속하는 didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC)와 유카추출물 (Yucca extract)의 합제인 아쿠아 팜세이프®의 어류 질병 병원체에 대한 살균효과를 확인하기 위하여 농림수산검역 검사본부의 소독제 효력시험 중 세균 및 바이러스 소독제 효력시험에 따라 수행하였다. 소독제와 병원체를 증류수, 경수 그리고 유기물 조건에서 반응시킨 후, 중화액을 이용하여 중화시킨 다음, 중화된 용액을 배지 및 주화세포에서 접종시켜 세균의 성장 및 세포 변성효과를 통해 소독제의 효력배수를 결정하였다. 본 연구의 결과, 아쿠아 팜세이프®는 식중독을 일으키는 공시균주 살모넬라균 (S. typhimurim)에 비하여, 어병세균이 30~40배 이상 높은 희석농도에서 소독 효과를 나타내었으며, VHSV에 대하여서는 2,000~3,600배의 유효한 효력배수를 나타내었다. 따라서, 향후, 야외적용시험을 통해 실제 적용에 따른 효과를 확인할 필요가 있을 것으로 사료된다. In this study, the disinfectant efficacy of Aqua farmsafe®, composed of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and yucca extract was evaluated against Salmonella typhimurium and fish pathogens. Determination of the anti-microbial or anti-viral efficacy of the disinfectant was based on Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency Regulation No. 2011-26, Korea. Anti-bacterial efficacy test by broth dilution method was used to determine the lowest effective dilution of the disinfectant following exposure to test bacteria for 30 min at 4℃. Aqua farmsafe and test bacteria or virus were diluted with distilled water (DW), standard hard water (SW) or organic matter dilution (OM) according to treatment condition. Under the our results, disinfectant efficacy of Aqua farmsafe® possesses 30~40 fold against fish pathogens including bacteria and virus compared to that on animal pathogenic bacteria, S. typhimurim. As the efficacy of Aqua farmsafe® against fish pathogen was investigated in vitro, a controlled field trial is required to determine whether the use of Aqua framsafe® will be able to reduce fish diseases.
In this paper, an filtering method of FI(Fault Indication) information generated by FRTU(Feeder Remote Terminal Unit)s is proposed for the present DAS(Distribution Automation System). In order to find fault area, correct FI information should be generated. But when a single line-to-ground fault occurs, FI information is generated in downside of the fault in some circumstance because existing FI algorithm considers only magnitude. These wrong FI information can be removed by changing existing algorithm. An improved algorithm considers both the direction of zero-sequence current and the phase of three-phase current&voltage. But many FRTUs are distributed in DAS and Changing the algorithm all of FRTU will spend a lot of time and cost. On the other hand, an filtering algorithm proposed in this paper can substitute for it. The filtering algorithm also considers both the direction of zero-sequence current and the phase of three-phase current&voltage. In case study, the proposed method has been shown the reasonability in filtering the fault indication information.
This research has studied current situation of aquatic medicine use of nine major aquaculture species in our nation from year 2016 to 2017. We have proceeded the research after selecting each species of domestic licensed aquaculture farms which used stratification structure samples(Flounder, 60 of sampling aquaculture farms/527 of total aquaculture farms; Rockfish, 63/819; Red sea bream, 60/463; Starry flounder, 37/79; Israeli mirror carp, 42/108; Eel, 57/360; Rainbow trout, 47/150; Whiteleg shrimp 51/209; Abalone 65/1,295). Classification of aquatic medicine research targets are divided into four big groups depending on their functional characteristics such as antibiotics, parasiticide, disinfectants and others(digestive medicine etc). We have visited each sampling aquaculture farms to check the amount of aquatic medicine that they have used. And the result came out in the order of Flounder> Rockfish> Red sea bream, Eel, Starry flounder> Rainbow trout> Israeli mirror carp, Abalone, Whiteleg shrimp. Overall, the future research needs to be done at least more than 3 years of research on the domestic aquaculture farms for the comparison between aquatic medicine use and aquaculture production of each species.
Scuticociliate are one of the main parasite affecting the flounder aquaculture industry, causing significant economic losses in Korea. Aquatic formalin has been approved to treat against external parasitic infestation in flounder aquaculture pond. To investigate metabolic effect after treating the parasitic agent aquatic formalin in scuticociliate Miamiensis avidus, the transcriptome analysis was conducted. Through exposing with low concentration(10~50 ppm) of formalin for 96 hr, parasite trancriptomes were sequenced cDNA libraries in the GX Plex sequencer. A total of million read for control and formalin treated group were assembled in 187,210 and 177,959 contigs, respectively. After normalization and assembling with house keeping gene(β-actin), transcripts were assigned to biological processes and functions after annotation in Gene Ontology(GO). Specifically, 10 exclusive transcripts were up- or down-regulated for control and formalin treated group, respectively. Our results provide valuable genetic information for further analysis of the biological responses mechanism of aquatic formalin exposure in M. avidus.
본 연구에서는 넙치, Paralichthys olivaceus 뇌 조직에서 인지질가수분해효소 D (phospholipase D, PLD) 활성의 특성 규명 및 이 활성을 억제하는 단백질을 분리 정제하여 그 특성을 규명하였다. 넙치 뇌 조직에서 PLD 활성이 관찰되었으며, 이 활성은 포스파티딜 이노시톨 비스인산염 (phosphatidyl-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP₂)에 대해서 의존성을 나타내었으나, ADP-rebosylation factor (ARF)에 의해서는 영향을 받지 않았다. PLD 억제물은 넙치 뇌 조직의 세포질 분획물을 사용하여 여러 종류의 칼럼을 통하여 분리 정제하였고, 그 억제물의 분자크기 및 기작의 특성을 규명하였다. 마지막 chromatography을 통하여 여섯 개의 억제를 나타내는 분획물을 얻었으며. 이 중 두 개의 분획물인 IIA, IIB는 PIP₂-phosphatase activities를 나타내었다. 이 중 IIA 분획물은 면역화학적 분석을 통하여 inositolpolyphosphate 5-phosphatase family로 알려져 있는 신경말단 단백질인 synaptojanin으로 동정되었다. 그리고 IIB fraction은 Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography을 통하여 158-kDa의 크기로 확인되었으며, 이것은 면역화학적 분석을 통하여 synaptojanin과는 별개의 단백질로 판명되었다. 또한, IIB 분획물은 PIP₂phosphatase activity 확인 실험에서 대사산물로서 phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP)만을 생성하였다. 이 결과는 IIB분획물이 PIP₂의 4혹은 5 위치의 인산 (phosphate) 중 어느 하나만을 선택적으로 가수분해시킨다는 것을 암시한다. 이상의 연구 결과들을 종합하여 보면, 넙치 뇌 조직에는 다양한 형태의 PIP₂-phosphatases가 존재하며, 이들은 PIP₂-의존적인 PLD 활성의 억제조절과정에서 중요한 역할을 할 것으로 사료된다. Flounder brain cytosol contains protein inhibitors that markedly inhibit the activity of partially purified brain membrane phospholipase D (PLD) which is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP₂) but insensitive to ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF). The PLD inhibitors have been enriched through several chromatographic steps and characterized with respect to size and mechanism of inhibition. Sequential chromatography of the brain cytosol yielded six inhibitor fractions. Two (IIA and IIB) of six inhibitor fractions showed the PIP₂-phosphatase activities. IIA was identified as synaptojanin, a nerve terminal protein that has known to be a member of the inositolpolyphosphate 5-phosphatase family, by immunoblot analysis. IIB showed an apparent molecular mass of 158 kDa by Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography and was immunologically distinct from synaptojanin. IIB hydrolyzed PIP₂, yielding only phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) as product, suggesting that IIB hydrolyzes only one phosphate from either the 4- or 5-position of PI (4,5)P₂. These studies demonstrate that the existence of multiple PIP₂-phosphatases have been implicated in the negative regulation of PIP₂-dependent PLD activity within flounder brain.