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어병 세균에 대해 쑥(Artemisia princeps var. orientalis) 추출물인 정유의 항균성을 조사하였다. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas sorbia, Edwardsiella tarda 와 Streptococcus sp. (yellowtail)는 1,000∼2,000 ppm 에서 증식이 억제되었다. 즉 억제 농도는 A.salmonicida 가 1,000 ppm A.hydrophila, A. sorbia, E. tarda 와 Streptococcus sp. (yellowtail)는 1,500 ppm 이었다. 그러나 Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii, Edwardsiella ictaluri 와 Streptococcus sp. (SF-1)는 100∼2,000 ppm 농도에서 현저한 억제 효과는 없었다. The antimicrobial activity of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis essential oil against a partial fish pathogenic bacteria was examined. The growth of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salomonicida, Aeromonas sorbia, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus sp. (yellowtail) were inhibited at concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 ppm. The A. salmonicida was inhibited at 1,000 ppm, A. hydrophila, A. sorbia, E, tarda and Streptococcus sp. (yellowtail) at 1,500 ppm, but Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Streptococcus sp. (SF 1) were grown on 100-2,000 ppm.
잉어科 魚類인 잉어, 이스라엘잉어, 붕어와 뱀장어 틸라피아에서 발생되는 細菌性疾病에 대하여 그 病因을 밝혔고, 감염과 발병과정을 해명함과 동시에 診斷上 기준이 되는 특징을 明白히 하여 효과적인 예방과 치료대책을 강구한 종합적인 연구 結果이다. 全國各地에서 발생되는 잉어, 이스라엘잉어, 붕어, 뱀장어 및 틸라피아 등 450마리의 病魚에 대하여 外部症狀, 해부학적 소견, 병리조직학적 소견, 병원균분리 동정 등으로 세균성질병診斷의 기준이 되는 특징을 明白히 하였다. 이들 세균성질병은 體表나 지느러미에 充血이나 出血이 심하고, 肝臟·脾臟·腎臟에 울혈이 일어나고 장관에 炎症이 일어나며, 各組織에 出血性炎症이 관찰된다. 症狀이 심한 것은 各組織의 壤死 및 潰瘍이 형성된다. 이상과 같은 病魚를 細菌學的으로 調査한 結果 Aeromonas hydrophila와 Edwardsiella tarda균이 순수 분리 동정되었다. 특히 주기적으로 調査한 222마리의 병든 뱀장어에서 177病原菌株를 분리하였는데 Aeromonas hydrophila가 29.94% Edwardsiella tarda가 48.58%, Flexibacter columnnaris 21.47% 였다. 이 중 Flexibacter columnnaris는 아가미가 부식된 뱀장어의 아가미에서 분리되었다. 이들 分離 菌株中 Aeromonas hydrophila와 Edwardsiella tarda를 실험어류에 접종한 結果 같은 病이 발생되었고, 발병된 실험어류에서 접종한 병원균이 분리되었다. 광주, 부산 등지에서 수집한 병든 뱀장어로부터 분리되어 Aeromonas hydrophila병으로 진단된 뱀장어는 지느러미와 體表에 出血이 일어나 부어올랐으며, 腸과 胃에도 炎症이 일어나고 있었다. 腸의 내용물은 병원균이 混合된 粘液物質로서 腸炎을 유발시키고 있었다. 분리된 A. hydrophila의 5菌株를 비단잉어와 붕어에 접종한 結果, 3-4일만에 발병되어 죽었으며 죽은 실험어는 모두 A. hydrophila병의 특징을 나타냈다. 병든 뱀장어에서 Edwardsiella tarda균이 분리되어 Edward병으로 진단된 병어는 體表에 膿瘍이 形成되며 膿과 같이 다수의 貧食細胞가 集結되어 있었다. 증상이 진행됨에 따라 組織이 융해되어 膿瘍이 大形化되었다. 內臟에 있어서도 크고 작은 膿瘍이 보였는데 특히 胃腸에는 흰 結節이 다수 나타났다. 병리조직학상으로는 진행중인 크고 작은 肉芽腫이 다수 관찰 되었으나, 장염은 관찰되지 않았다. 병든 뱀장어중 아가미가 부실되고 Flexibacter columnaris가 분리되어 Colummaris병으로 진단된 뱀장어는 體色이 약간 희게 보일뿐 다른 外部症狀인 出血과 充血은 전혀 나타나지 않았다. 해부하여 보아도 아가미가 약간 부식되어 있었으나 각 내장은 正常的이었으며 腐敗臭가 전혀 나지 않았다. 이들 세균성 질병을 치료하기 위해서는 20ppm의 chloramphenicol 또는 kanamycin에 1시간 약욕시키거나, 하루에 chloramphenicol 75㎎을 1㎏에 해당되는 병어에 5∼7일간 투여하여야 한다. 포르말린 처리한 Aeromonas hydrophila항원을 잉어에 주사한 결과 3주에서 6주사이에 높은 응집가를 나타냈으며, 비록 凝集價는 감소되었지만 18주까지 지속되었다. 포르말린 처리한 Edwardsiella tarda항원을 틸라피아에 주사한 결과 높은 凝集價가 나타났으나, 포르말린 처리한 Edwardsiella tarda균을 현탁시킨 용액에 浸漬시킨 틸라피아는 擬集價를 나타내지 않았다. This is a comprehensive study for considering the effective treatment and control program of bacterial disease occurring in common carp, israel carp, color carp, crucian carp, eel and tilapia by clarifying the causes, mechanism of infection and onset and the diagnostic criteria. As a first step, the authors investigated the external views, gross and histopathologic findings of diseased fish using 450 infected fishes obtained from various farmer of Korea. This infection was characterized by hyperemia, hemorrhage and swelling of body surface and fins, congestion of liver, spleen, kidney, inflammation of intestine, hemorrhagic inflammation of various tissues, and necrosis and ulcer of various tissues were accompanied in serious cases. Bacteriologically, Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda were isoiated from these fishes. Particularly in the regular check on 222 eels, 177 strains were isolated as 29.94% of Aeromonas hydrophila, 48.58% of Edwardsiella tarda and 21.47% of Flexibacter columnaris. Flexibacter columnaris was isolated from corroded gill of eels. The identical disease was occurred by innoculating the isolated Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda and the identical strains were isolated from infected experimental fishes. The eels which were diagnosed Aeromonas disease from Kwangju. Pusan accompanied hemorrhage, swelling of body surface and fins, inflammation of stomach and intestine containing mucous fluids mixed with the pathogens. Color carp and crucian carp which were innoculated with the isolated 5 strins of Aeromomas hydrophila died within 3 or 4 days accompanying with the characteristics of Aeromonas disease. Edward disease was characterized by abscesses of body surface, pus formation with concentration on phagocytes. The size of abscesses increased with progression of disease. There were also various abscesses at internal organ and white nodules appeared in kidney. Histologically, various progressive granuluma were examined without inflammation of intestine. Columnaris disease of eels showed no hemorrhage except slight white body color. In autopsy, most of internal organs appeared normal and there were no septic odors. The only chatacter was corrosion of gills. In order to treat these bacterial diseases, infected fishes must bathe in 20ppm chloramphenicol or kanamycin solution for 1 hour. Besides, medication program in oral ingestion of 75㎎/㎏ chloramphenicol per day continuing for 5 to 7 days. After injecting the formalin treated Aermonas hydrophila antigen into carp, relatively high agglutination titer showed between 3 weeks and 6 weeks. Though this titer decreased from that time, it was continued for 18 weeks. In the case of injecting the formalin treated Edwardsiella tarda antigen into tilapia, the titer also increased. But tilapia which were immersed in the suspension fluid of the formalin treated Edwardsiella tarda showed no increase of the titer.
군산근교의 양만장에서 애드와드병에 이환된 뱀장어로부터 총 96균주의 E.tarda균을 분리한 후 이들 분리균의 약제감수성 검사를 실시하고 아울러 내성균의 내성인자 전달 시험을 실시하였다. 공시한 모든 균주는 SM, AK, NF 및 GM등에는 100% 감수성을 보였으나, 대부분의 균주가 SD(86균주), AM(84균주), PM(80균주), NA(67균주), OT(44균주) 및 OA(37균주) 등의 내성을 보였다. 내성유형은 20유형으로서 거의 모든 균주가 2제 이상의 다제내성을 보였으며, 그중 SD-AM-PM-NA-OA(16균주), SD-AM-PM-NA(14균주), SD-AM-PM-NA-OT-OA(12균주), SD-AM-PM-OT(10균주) 및 SD-AM-PM-NA-OT(8균주) 유형등이 고빈도로 출현하였다. 내성균주의 내성인자 전달 빈도는 94균주중에서 78균주가 단계에서 6제까지의 다제내성인자의 전달을 보였다. 그중 AM 및 AM-PM-NA유형(8균주), PM,SD 및 AM-SD유형(6균주), AM-PM, PM-SD 및 AM-SD-OT유형(4균주)등이 고빈도 출현을 보였다. 이러한 결과는 양만장에서 다양한 항균제를 사용하였기 때문에 다제내성현상이 확산되어진 것으로 사료된다. Ninety-six isolates of Edwardsiella tarda recovered from outbreaks of Edwardsiellosis in cultured eels(Anguilla japonica) in Kunsan, were examined for drug susceptibility, distribution and transferabilities of R plasmid. All of the E. tarda isolates examined were sensitive to gentamicin(GM), streptomycin(SM), norfloxacin(NF), and amikacin(AK). But most isolates were resistant to sulfadimethoxine(SD, 86 strains), ampicillin(AM, 84 strains), penicillin G(PM, 80 strains), nalidixic acid (NA, 67 strains), oxytetracycline(OT, 44 strains), and oxolinic acid(OA, 37 strains). Twenty different combinations of drug resistance patterns were observed : the frequently encountered pattern was SD-AM-PM-NA-OA(16 strains), SD-AM-PM-NA(14 strains), SD-AM-PM-NA-OT-OA(12 strains), SD-AM-PM-OT(10 strains), and SD-AM-PM-NA-OT(8 strains). Transferable R plasmids were found out to be carried in 78 out of 94 resistant strains, indicating that these isolates carry conjugally transferable R plasmids associated with single or multiple drugs. The frequently observed transferarble R plasmids were AM(8 strains), AM-PM-NA(8 strains), Am-SD(6 strains), PM(6 strains), and SD(6 strains) These results suggest that high dose of various antibacterials might have already been introduced to eel culture system leading to the acquirement of multi-drug resistance to wide range of antibacterials.
As a part of research to elucidate the pathogenesis of so called Soft Tunic Syndrome(STS), that caused mass mortalities in the cultured sea squirts, Halocynthia roretzi, the epidemiological and pathological analysis were done to both clinically normal and diseased groups of the farms of Tongyoung and Geoje coastal areas in southeast sea from February to July, 2008. In the histological finding of the tunic, most of individuals showed tunic softness syndromes that included the disarrangement and destruction of tunic fiber with the simultaneous presence of flagellates-like cells, recently suspected as main agents of tunic softness syndromes. Simultaneously, the intensive degenerative changes of the skeletal muscle of diseased sea squirts were recognized. The changes were characterized with the hyalinization and condensation of muscle fibril and hemocytic infiltration in the muscle fibers. Those were thought to be a kind of typical Zenker’s necrosis as in the skeletal muscle of higher vertebrates. Besides of the diseased sea squirts, Zenker’s necrosis of skeletal muscles were seen in the normal ones. Epidemiological inquiry for diseased groups revealed that the higher incidences of tunic softness syndrome were recorded in the fast growing groups and in the sites presuming the organic pollution. And Higher malondialadehyde(MDA) and glutathione peroxidase(GPx) activity were detected in the groups showing STS. Those results suggested that Zenker’s necrosis of body muscles was a kind of“nutritional myopathy" by oxidative stress. Conclusively, it was considered that Zenker’s necrosis of body muscles gives an important clue for elucidating pathogenesis of STS of cultured squirts. And it seems that the necrosis were caused by the oxidative stress to body muscle during abnormal rapid growth of sea squirts.
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors essential to the control of antiviral immune response, cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. IRF10 of zebrafish (Danio rerio) was negative regulation of the interferonΦ1 and 3 response in vitro. In this study, we analyze the induction of in vivo immune response activation from the IRF10 gene of zebrafish and the protective effect against VHSV. As the results, the group inoculated with IRF10 expression vectors, there was no expression of IFNΦ1, suggestion that IRF10 may function as a negative regulator of IRF3, which binds to the IFNΦ1 promoter. And other types of interferon genes (IFNΦ2-4) are thought to have been activated, inducing to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and Mx genes. As the results of challenge test performed at 14 days after inoculation of the expression vectors, the maximum survival rate [50% (1μg DNA) and 42.5% (10μg DNA)] for IRF10 group were recorded. Meanwhile, the survival rates of pcDNA3.1 and PBS as the control groups were 10% and 15%, respectively. This study suggests that the possibility that activation of IRF10 molecule could be exploited as a VHS control method.
A disease that manifested severe anemia of the gills occurred in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), which was cultured for 5-6 months with a recirculation water system in the laboratory. Microscopic observations showed immature parasite in the gills and mature adults in the oral cavity. The matured parasite was 5.60-9.32 (7.42) mm in total length, with 4 pairs of clamps on the pedunculated haptor, which was separated from the body proper by a long isthmus. From the morphological observations of the larvae, it was identified as Neoheterobothirum hirame belonging to the monogenea. The average hematocrite of infected fish was 10.3 ± 2.8%, significantly lower than that of normal flounder 31.4 ± 4.2%. Histopathologically, fish infected with N. hirame exhibited reduced numbers of erythrocytes in blood vessels of the gill filament and lamellae, reduced red pulp area of the spleen, and hepatocyte atrophy. From the above results, the cause of severe anemia in olive flounder was identified as N. hirame infection. This study shows an example where the growth of pathogens can be a problem in the recirculation system due to low water exchange rate.
A total number of 668 apparently healthy fish were obtained from farm to study the effect of two heavy metals in a form of (Copper sulfate and Mercuric chloride) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of blood. The LC <sub>50</sub> /96 hr. of Cu and Hg were estimated and fish exposed to ½ LC<sub>50</sub> for 7 days and for 1/<sub>10</sub> LC<sub>50</sub> for 8 weeks from each product separately. Results showed decrease in RBCs count, PCV% and Hb in acute and chronic mercury while a significant increase was shown in acute and chronic copper toxicity, total leucocytic count showed decrease in acute mercury toxicity and increase in the chronic case, while in copper toxicity non-significant decrease in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity was noticed. Elevated serum urea and creatinine in both acute and chronic mercury and copper toxicity was detected. No changes in total bilirubin in the acute mercury and chronic copper toxicity while significant increase in chronic mercury and acute copper. Elevation of serum AST and ALT in some days of acute toxicity of mercury and copper while in chronic mercury toxicity a significant elevation of both serums AST and ALT were detected .while in chronic copper toxicity serum AST was fluctuated and ALT showed no significant changes. CK study revealed significant decrease in acute mercury with fluctuation in the chronic toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed fluctuation in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity. Glucose value decreased in acute and chronic mercury toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed significant increase in the acute and increase followed by significant decrease in the chronic copper toxicity.
한국산 어류 (전어) 아가미에서 기생성 요각류 2 종, Nothobomolochus thambus (Poecilostomatoida, Bomolochidae) 와 Mitrapus heteropodus (Siphonostomatoida, Lernanthropidae) 이 채집되었다. N. thambus 은 특이한 턱다리의 구조를 가지므로 Nothobomolochus 속 다른 종과 쉽게 구별된다. ; 턱다리의 큰 강모 2 개중 1 개는 잔털을 갖지 않는다. : M. heteropodus 의 주요 특징은 4번째 다리의 구조이다 ; 4 번째 다리의 안다리는 바깥다리의 1/5 크기이다. 이들은 모두 한국 미기록종이다. Two species of the parasitic copepods, Nothobomolochus thambus (Poecilostomatoida, Bomolochidae) and Mitrapus heteropodus (Siphonostomatoida, Lernanthropidae), were recovered on the gills of a marine fish, Konosirus punctatus (Temminck and Schlegel) taken from Kamak Bay in Korea. N. thambus is very distinguishable in the armature of maxilliped from all other species of Nothobomolochus; one of the two strong, hairy setae has become naked. M. heteropodus is very distinguishable in the armature of leg 4; the inner process (endopod) is only about one - fifth the length of the outer process (exopod), Both parasitic copepod species are new to the Korean fauna.