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      • KCI등재

        Effects of Lipids on Analysis of Residue Pesticides in Herbal Medicines

        김장억,이성은,김장억 한국응용생명화학회 2014 Applied Biological Chemistry (Appl Biol Chem) Vol.57 No.3

        Serious problems in residue analysis of acetamipirid,chlorpyrifos, and bifenthrin caused by lipids present in herbalmedicines, platycodon root, safflower, and persicae semen havebeen found during the pesticide residue analysis using a currentlyused analytical method. Particularly, recovery tests for artificiallyspiked pesticides showed poor recoveries for bifenthrin in persicaesemen, which may be due to the low polarity of the pesticide andhigh lipid content in the matrix. An unclear layer separationbetween water and organic solvent, methylene chloride, has beenalso observed during the liquid-liquid partitioning process, whichfavors modification of the liquid-liquid partitioning by replacementwith acetonitrile and a macroporous diatomaceous earth column,respectively. The effectiveness of newly modified methods wasevaluated based on the recoveries of three pesticides in the herbalmedicines at two fortification levels (1.0 and 4.0 mg/kg). Themodified methods increased recoveries to 81.8–98.9%, suggestingthose methods could be effective and feasible alternatives todetermine acetamiprid, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos in lipidicsamples.

      • KCI등재

        Tricyclazole 과 IBP 혼합분제의 분석법 개선

        김장억,김윤정,남영락 한국환경농학회 1994 한국환경농학회지 Vol.13 No.1

        Tricyclazole 및 IBP 혼합분제의 공정분석법에 의한 주성분함량의 분석시에 문제점으로 나타나는 각 성분의 분리분석에 의한 비효율성 및 tricyclazole의 회수율 저하요인 등을 규명하여 효율적인 품질관리가 되도록 공정분석법을 개선하고자 하였다. Tricyclazole 및 IBP를 공정분석법에 의하여 주성분함량을 분석하면 IBP는 100% 회수되나 tricyclazole은 89.5% 정도 밖에 회수되지 않는데 그 원인은 증량제로 사용된 kaoline과 talc에 미량으로 함유된 무기물질인 Al₂O₃, Fe₂O₃, CaO, MgO 등과 tricyclazole이 강하게 결합되기 때문으로 나타났다. Tricyclazole의 회수율을 향상시키기 위하여 tricyclazole보다 염기도가 큰 dimethylamine을 첨가한 결과 tricyclazole은 100% 회수되는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 tricyclazole과 IBP 혼합분제의 주성분 분석은 각 성분별로 분석하는 것보다 DAP를 내부표준물질로 사용하고 DMA를 첨가한 후 비극성 column을 이용하여 온도를 승온하면서 동시에 tricyclazole과 IBP를 분석하는 것이 효율적인 것으로 나타났다. This experiment was conducted to improve the analytical method of tricyclazole- and IBP-combined dust. When the tricyclazole and IBP active ingadients were analyzed by the official analytical method, their recovery rates were 89.5 and 100%, respectively. A reason of the lower recovery rate in tricyclazole was found to be due to strong binding to the minor inorganic compoments, Al₂O₃, Fe₂O₃, CaO and MgO, of talc and kaoline. However, addition of 0.2% dimethylamine to extraction solvent for tricyclazole- and IBP-combined dust effectively raised the recovery rate of tricyclazole by providing higher basicity than tricyclazole. We have suggest an improved analytical method which is applicable to effective and simultaneous analysis of the active ingradients of tricyclazole- and IBP-combined dust.

      • 제초제(除草劑) Propanil의 용액중(溶液中) 분해산물(分解産物)의 분리(分離) 및 동정(同定)

        김장억,신윤교,홍종욱,Kim, Jang Eok,Shin, Yun Gyo,Hong, Jong Uck 경북대학교 농업과학기술연구소 1987 慶北大農學誌 Vol.5 No.-

        용액중(溶液中) propanil 분해산물(分解産物)의 분리(分離) 및 동정(同定)을 위해서 2000ppm으로 처리(處理)한 후 2주(週) 간격(間隔)으로 12주(週)까지 일정(一定)한 온도(溫度)로 유지(維持)시키면서 주분해산물(主分解産物)을 조사(調査)한 결과(結果)는 다음과 같다. 추출(抽出)한 혼합물(混合物)로부터 benzene을 전개용매(展開溶媒)로 한 TLC에서 분해산물(分解産物)인 DCA와 TCAB를 Rf치(値) 0.65와 0.94에서 분리(分離)할 수 있었다. GC분석(分析)은 column 온도(溫度) $200^{\circ}C$에서 분리(分離)가 가능(可能)하지만 정량적(定量的) 분석(分析)에서 DCA는 $140^{\circ}C$, TCAB는 $250^{\circ}C$로 달리하여 분해경로(分解經路)를 조사(調査)하였다. IR spectrum에서 $3400cm^{-1}$와 $800cm^{-1}$의 흡수(吸收) band에 의(依)해 DCA의 작용기(作用基)가 결정(決定)되었다. NMR spectrum에서 $6.7{\delta}$와 $3.7{\delta}$의 peak는 DCA의proton과 일치(一致)하였다. 이와 같이 용액중(溶液中) 혼합추출물(混合抽出物)로부터propanil의 주분해산물(主分解産物)을 TLC로 분리(分離)하여 GC, IR, NMR로 동정(同定)한결과 propanil은 용액(溶液) 내(內)에서 DCA를 거쳐서 TCAB로 분해(分解)되는 것으로 나타났다. To isolate and identify degradation products of propanil in solution which propanil concentration was 2000ppm with a certain temperature, degradation products and pathway were investigated every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Extracted mixture was developed with benzene on TLC plate, and Rf values of isolated DCA and TCAB were 0.65 and 0.94 respectively. At the GC analysis, propanil and its degradation products could seperate at the column temperature $200^{\circ}C$, but in order to more good resolution, the column temperature of DCA and TCAB was $140^{\circ}C$ and $250^{\circ}C$ respectively. Functional group of OCA was determined by IR spectrum $3400cm^{-1}$ and $800cm^{-1}$. Proton peaks of OCA were NMR spectrum $6.7{\delta}$ and $3.7{\delta}$. As the results, the major degradation products of propanil in solution were seperated on TLC plate, and thus identified by the analysis of GC, IR and NMR. Proposed degradation pathway of propanil in solution was from DCA to TCAB.

      • Phthalimide系 殺菌劑가 土壤環境中 尿素의 分解에 미치는 影響

        金章億 慶北大學校 1992 論文集 Vol.52 No.-

        This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of the application of phthalimide fungicides on transformation of urea in soil environment. 1. The degradation ratio of the phthalimide fungicides was accelerated in urea-treated soil than urea-untreated soil. 2. The inhibition effects of phthalimide fungicides on urease activity in soil were largely inhibited in the early stage of experiment but nearly no effect in the late stage. 3. By the application of phthalimide fungicides, the formation of NH_4-N was increased by inhibition of nitrification and the oxidation process of NH_4-N to No_2-N was greatly affected than that of NO_2-N to NO_3-N in urea-treated soil. 4. The total number of bacteria was slightly decreased in the early stage of experiment but afterwards increased by the application of phthalimide fungicides.

      • KCI등재

        안전사용기준에 따라 살포된 살균제 Tolclofos-methyl, Azoxystrobin 및 Difenoconazole의 인삼 중 잔류량

        김장억,김태화,김영환,이주희,김진수,백승경,최수연,윤영남,유용만 韓國藥用作物學會 2008 韓國藥用作物學會誌 Vol.16 No.6

        The aim of this work is to assess the safety of fungicide tolclofos-methyl, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in ginseng sprayed by safe use guideline. When tolclofos-methyl was sprayed on ginseng by safe use guideline, the residue amounts (MRL) of it in ginseng was 0.13 mg/kg which is below than 0.3 mg/kg, maximum residue limit established by Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA). The residue amounts of ginseng parts, head part was 0.37 mg/kg and main body part was 0.13 mg/kg. In case of difenoconazole, the residue amounts in ginseng was 0.81 mg/kg. which was exceed the MRL, 0.2 mg/kg. By the analyze results of ginseng part, the residues of head and main body part were 3.01 and 0.40 mg/kg, respectively. In experiment of vinyl mulching, the residue amount of difenoconazole in ginseng was 0.05 mg/kg. The residue amounts of azoxystrobin in ginseng sprayed by safe use guideline was 0.14 mg/kg. This residue was not exceed the MRL 0.5 mg/kg. The residue amounts by ginseng parts was 0.51 mg/kg for head part and 0.28 mg/kg for main body part. In case of vinyl mulching, the residue amount of azoxystrobin was 0.02 mg/kg.

      • 오피니언 - 친환경 무상급식 가능한가?

        김장억,Kim, Jang-Eok 한국작물보호협회 2010 자연과 농업 Vol.259 No.-

        안전농산물에는 친환경농산물, GAP농산물, 관행농산물 중 안전성이 검증된 것 모두가 포함될 수 있다. '안전농산물 무상공급'으로 하지 않는다면 어떻게 그 많은 학교에 공급되는 모든 농산물을 친환경농산물중 유기농산물로 공급을 할 수 있겠는가?

      • KCI등재

        도로변에 인접한 경작지 토양 및 작물체중의 연오염(鉛汚染) : 제2보 경작지 토양중의 연함량(鉛含量)과 작물체중 연함량(鉛含量)과의 관계 Ⅱ. A study of the relationship between the content of Pb in paddy field soil and rice plants

        김장억,이석준 한국환경농학회 1991 한국환경농학회지 Vol.10 No.2

        自動車 排氣가스에 包含된 鉛化合物이 道路隣接土壤에서 耕作되고 있는 水稻作物體에 影響을 미칠것으로 생각되어 大邱를 中心으로 慶尙北道內의 高速道路 및 主要 國道邊에 隣接한 畓土壤 18個 地點을 選定하여 水稻作物體에서의 鉛含量 및 土壤中 鉛含量과의 關係를 調査한 結果는 다음과 같다. 18個 地點에서 平均한 水稻作物體 各 部位別 鉛含量은 뿌리에서 12.9ppm, 잎에서 4.8ppm, 줄기에서 4.3ppm, 현미에서 0.4ppm으로 뿌리>잎>줄기>현미의 順으로 나타났다. 土壤中 全鉛含量이 增加할수록 水稻作物體 뿌리중 鉛含量도 增加하는 傾向을 나타내었으며, 줄기, 잎 및 현미중 鉛含量은 土壤中 鉛含量과 關聯하여 一定한 傾向을 나타내지 않았다. 뿌리중 鉛含量이 增加할수록 줄기, 잎 및 현미중 鉛含量도 增加하는 傾向을 나타내었다. 土壤中 鉛의 化學的 形態的 含量과 뿌리중 鉛含量과의 關係는 有機態, 炭酸態 및 黃酸態 形態의 鉛含量이 增加할수록 뿌리중 鉛含量도 增加하는 傾向을 나타내었으며, 置換態 및 不溶態 形態의 鉛含量은 뿌리중 鉛含量과 關聯하여 一定한 傾向을 보이지 않았다. 本 硏究에 使用된 土壤試料의 pH範圍內에서 土壤 pH가 增加할수록 鉛吸收率은 增加하는 傾向을 나타내었으며, 土壤中 Fe 含量이 增加할수록 鉛吸收率은 減少하는 傾向을 나타내었다. 有機物, CFC 및 Phosphate 含量은 水稻의 鉛吸收率과 關聯하여 一定한 傾向을 보이지 않았다. The object of this stduy was to investigate the pollution by Pb in rice plants which were cultivated in paddy field soils located near roadside areas and to discover the relationship between lead content in rice plants and soils. Samples of soils and rice plants were collected directly from paddy fields at various distances from highways and expressways located in Kyungpook province. The results obtained were as follows : 1. The average content of Pb in each part of the rice plant was 12.8ppm in roots. 4.8ppm in leaves, 4.3ppm in stems, and 0.4ppm in brown rice. 2. The content of Pb in roots showed highly positive correlation with the Pb content of the soil. 3. The Pb content in stems, leaves, and brown rice showed positive correlation with the Pb content in roots. 4. The content of organically bounded, carbonate, and sulfide Pb in soils showed highly positive correlation with the Pb content in roots. 5, The absorption ratio showed positive correlation with soil pH and negative correlation with the content of Fe in soils.

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