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To understand plant-pathogen interactions, a complete set of hot pepper genes differentially expressed against pathogen attack was isolated. As an initial step, hundreds of differentially expressed cDNAs were isolated from hot pepper leaves showing non-host resistance against bacterial plant pathogens (Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) technique. Reverse Northern and Northern blot analyses revealed that 50% of those genes were differentially expressed in pepper leaves during non-host resistance response. Among them, independent genes without redundancy were micro-arrayed for further analysis. Random EST sequence database were also generated from various cDNA libraries including pepper tissue specific libraries and leaves showing non-host hypersensitive response against X. campestris pv. glycines. As a primary stage, thousands of cDNA clones were sequenced and EST data were analyzed. These clones are being spotted on glass slide to study the expression profiling. Results of this study may further broaden knowledge on plantpathogen interactions.
Host resistance is usually parasite-specific and is restricted to a particular pathogen races, and commonly is expressed against specific pathogen genotypes. In contrast, resistance shown by an entire plant species to a species of pathogen is known as non-host resistance. Therefore, non-host resistance is the more common and broad form of disease resistance exhibited by plants. As a first step to understand the mechanism of non-host plant defense, expressed sequence tags (EST) were generated from a hot pepper leaf cDNA library constructed from combined leaves collected at different time points after inoculation with non-host soybean pustule pathogen (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Glycines; Xag). To increase gene diversity, ESTs were also generated from cDNA libraries constructed from anthers and flower buds. Among a total of 10,061 ESTs, 8,525 were of sufficient quality to analyze further. Clustering analysis revealed that 55% of all ESTs (4685) occurred only once. BLASTX analysis revealed that 74% of the ESTs had significant sequence similarity to known proteins present in the NCBI nr database. In addition, 1,265 ESTs were tentatively identified as being fulllength cDNAs. Functional classification of the ESTs derived from pathogen-infected pepper leaves revealed that about 25% were disease- or defense-related genes. Furthermore, 323 (7%) ESTs were tentatively identified as being unique to hot pepper. This study represents the first analysis of sequence data from the hot pepper plant species. Although we focused on genes related to the plant defense response, our data will be useful for future comparative studies.
The effects of periodic fuel supply on the nonpremixed flame stability and soot formation were experimentally studied. A solenoid valve was used to control the period of fuel supply. The laser induced incandescence technique was used to visualize cool: volume fraction profile. The flame base shape was changed significantly by the fuel supply period and partially by the fuel flowrates. The portion of bluish flame near the flame base became larger as the period increased. When the period was long, two flames coexisted within one period. It seemed that the characteristic of flame stability were repeated with 4.68m change of fuel supply line length. The soot mass measurements and soot volume fraction measurements revealed that the maximum suppression of soot by the perioic fuel supply was approximately 75% , which occurred when the occurred when the fuel supply period was relatively long.
기업/기관 등이 보유하고 있는 산업기술과 같은 기밀의 획득이나 조직 내의 시스템 및 네트워크 파괴를 목적으로 하는 스피어피싱 범죄의 발생 빈도와 피해 규모가 증가하고 있다는 것은 통계로도 입증 가능하며, 이는 스피어피싱이 산업 보안 분야에 지니는 위험성이 강화되고 있다는 것을 의미한다. 또한 스피어피싱 이 지니고 있는 제반 특성은 스피어피싱이 본질적으로 산업보안에 위협적인 존 재임을 시사한다. 그럼에도 불구하고 스피어피싱 에 관한 국내외 연구는 희박하 며, 특히 스피어피싱의 발생 원인을 학술적 접근을 통해 진단하고, 이를 바탕으 로 보안상의 대책을 제시하는 체계적 연구는 전무한 실정이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 스피어피싱을 공간전이이론・합리적 선택이론・일상활동 이론의 3가지 범죄학적 접근방법을 통해 왜 스피어피싱을 행하는지, 그리고 왜 스피어피싱 피해를 입게 되는지 그 원인을 진단해보고자 한다, 더불어 사이버 공간의 본질적 특성인 익명성과 시공간적 역동성을 가장 잘 반영하고 있는 공간 전이이론을 통해 스피어피싱에 대한 대응방안으로서 발신자 확인 시스템 (DMARC)을 통한 익명성의 억제, 스피어피싱 포착 가능성 증대를 위한 조직원 대상 다양한 관리적 대응 방안의 필요성을 제언해본다. Spear-phishing crime which means stealing confidential industrial technology or destroying the system or network of a corporation is increasing in both frequency and scale of the damage. This fact is proven statistically and it means that the danger of spear-phishing crime in industrial security is becoming bigger. Also, the features of spear-phishing crime suggest that it imposes a intimidating threat in industrial security. Nevertheless, little has been done on the internal and external study of spear-phishing crime. Especially the systematic study diagnosing the cause of spear-phishing crime and proposing the security counterplan for the corporation is in need of research. This research diagnoses the reason why criminals commit spear-phishing crime and why victims suffer from it through three criminal theories: Space transition theory, Rational choice theory, Routine activity theory. To solve the problem, we propose the necessity to curb anonymity through DMARC and to enforce various managerial counterplans for being vigilant over spear-phishing crime. This will be explained based on the space transition theory which effectively reflects the intrinsic spatio-temporal dynamics and anonymity of Cyberspace.