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Alterations in the expression of genes that control the cell cycle may be of critical importance in tumorigenesis and malignant transformation. The major regulatory events leading to cell proliferation occur in G1 phase of cell cycle, and the deregulated expression of G1 cyclins is related to oncogenesis. Cyclins D1 and E play important roles in the progression of cell through G1 phase of the cell cycle. Amplification and/or overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene and aberrant expression of cyclin E has been described in various forms of human cancer. However, the role of cyclins D1 and E in cervical cancer has been poorly defined. In this study, we examined the expression of cyclins D1 and E by Northern blot technique and the status of human papillomavirus(HPV) type 16 and 18 by polymerase chain reaction in 25 cases of cervical carcinoma to explore the relationship between cyclins D1 and E and cervical cancer. We found cyclin D1 expression showed down-regulated expression in cervical cancer but cyclin E expression was increased in cancer group. Other clinicopathological prognostic factors were not correlated with cyclins D1 and E expression. Further study based on larger numbers of cases with correlation of cyclins D1 and E status and survival data will be needed to elucidate the use of cyclin expressions as prognostic factor.
Due to the standardized urban development since the industrial era, many urban spaces have experienced non-placeness. Recently, although interest in urban landscape, history, and cultural elements has been increasing, landscape management and control measures are being implemented mainly in large cities due to the low status of rural areas in the country. From this point of view, this study tried to lay the foundation for basic research in related fields by classifying the characteristics and types of streetscapes located near large cities, and to suggest directions that should be considered when managing streetscapes in the future. As a result of the analysis of landscape adjectives, the village felt secluded due to the low density compared to the city street overall, but it did not have a unique image of the region. Three factors were derived through factor analysis, and preference was affected in the order of aesthetic, regularity, and uniqueness. In addition, the research site was classified into three types through cluster analysis, and it was confirmed that the differences by type were due to aesthetics and naturalness. On the other hand, the uniqueness is generally low in all regions, so it seems that fundamental countermeasures are needed.
Recent studies have revealed a new family of tumor suppressor genes that directly implicate aberrant cell cycle regulation in tumorigenesis. The general function of these gene products is that they prevent cell cycle progression by directly interfering with cyclin/cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activation. The importance of these genes is that they are potent inhibitors of CDK and are induced by p53. Among these cell cycle inhibitors, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16 have been thoroughly studied. However, the role of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16 in tumorigenesis of the uterine cervix has been poorly defined. We used immunohistochemical techniques to study the expression of these cell cycle inhibitors in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical tissue to explore the relationship between cyclin/CDK inhibitors and cervical carcinoma. Cervical tissues were analyzed from 46 patients with cervical carcinoma, 30 cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 22 control cases who underwent hysterectomy due to benign gynecologic disease at Yonsei University College of Medicine. All CDK inhibitors strongly expressed in the reverse cell hyperplasia and koilocytes, whereas they revealed significantly decreased expression in neoplastic tissues (p <0.05). Normal endocervical cells revealed focal and weak expression to all CDK inhibitors but p16 showed no expression in endocervical adenocarcinoma. P16 revealed higher expressions in cases associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) (t-test, p <0.05) than in cases lacking any type of HPV. Our results were consistent with the concept that underexpression of CDK inhibitors may play an important role in neoplastic transformation in cervical carcinoma.
Despite widespread clinical acceptance and use of Papanicolaou (Pap) test, cervical cancer remains a disease of prime importance in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the supportive role of cervicography in screening test for uterine cervical cancer. Pap test and cervigram data were obtained from 220 patients who visited the cancer detection center of the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Yonsei University College of Medicine from Jul.1997 to Feb.1998. Histologic specimens were obtained from patients in whom abnormalities were detected by either Pap test or cervigram. Histologic confirmation were taken either by colposcopically directed biopsy (CDB) or large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). The results were as follows: 1. Pap test (209 cases) outcomes were WNL in 119 cases (57.0%), ASCUS in 12 cases (5.7%), LSIL in 11 cases (5.3%), HSIL in 48 cases (22.9%), and SCC in 19 cases (9.1%). 2. Cervicography (209 cases) outcomes were negative cervigram (N1, N2) in 53 cases (25.7%), benign atypia (B1, B2) in 61 cases (29.6%), suspicious atypia (S1, S2) in 59 cases (28.6%), and positive (PL, PH, PC) in 33 cases (16.1%). Technically defect (TD) in 3 cases were exclusive in analysis. 3. When cervicography and Pap test were used together, the sensi- tivity (P <0.01) and negative predictive value (P <0.01) were increased than for cervicography alone. 4. When cervicography and Pap test were used together, the sensitivity (P <0.01) and negative predictive value (P <0.05) were increased than for Pap test alone. Our study revealed that cervicography combined with Pap test improved the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) in the screening of uterine cervical cancer. In conclusion, cervicography may play a supportive role in the screening of uterine cervical cancer.
c-erbB-2 oncogene is a gene that encodes a growth factor receptor-like molecule with tyrosine kinase activity and has a structure similar to that of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Overexpression of the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein is detected in human adenocarcinoma of the breast, cervix, and salivary gland, in all of which the association between overexpression of the c-erbB-2 and poor prognosis of the disease has been reported. The role of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in the tumorigenesis of the human ovary has been poorly understood and remains controversial. In order to explore the relationship between c-erbB-2 oncoprotein status and ovarian carcinoma, tissue from 32 patients, each of whom had invasive ovarian carcinoma prior to treatment, 10 patients with benign cyst and 10 control case who underwent hysterectomy due to gynecological disease at Yonsei University Colloge of Medicine were analyzed. We measured c-erbB-2 oncoprotein with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) which was a sandwich type. Patients with invasive ovarian cancer were found to have significantly higher median c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression than patients with either benign ovarian cyst(P<0.05) or control group(P<0.05), respectively. However there was no significant difference in c-erbB-2 oncoprotein status between benign cyst and control group. verexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein was found in 7 of 32(21.9%) epithelial ovarian cancer. In invasive epithelial cancer, no significant difference in c-erbB-2 oncoprotein levels was noted when stratified according to age, menopausal status, histological cell type, tumor size or surgical stage. Our results were consistent with the concept that c-erbB-2 oncoprotein may play an important role in malignant and tumorigenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer.