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Background : Angiogenesis seems to be essential for hepatocellular carcinoma progression. It could be evaluated by observing the CD34 expression. In the present study, we studied to define whether or not angiogenesis has the correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods : In 46 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, we examined the CD34 expression in tumor and surrounding non-tumorous liver tissue using immune histochemistry. Microvessel density was also calculated. Results : The expression of CD34 was diffuse and strong in all hepatocellular carcinoma tissue and sparse in adjacent area of the surrounding cirrhotic regenerating nodule. The mean microvessel density was not significantly different between in the group of Edomondson's grade 1-2 (n=30; 25.9±15.5) and the group of Edmondson's grade 3-4 (n=16; 33.1±11.8; P=0.085). And it was not significantly different either between the patients (n=27) with tumor smaller than 4.6cm (30.6±15.1) and the patients (n=19) with larger than 4.6cm (25.3±13.6, P=0.225) in diameter. However overall survival was worse in patients (n=22) with high microvessel density (>28.4) than in patients (n=24) with low microvessel density significantly (P=0.043). Conclusion : The expression of CD34 may serve as the diagnostic tool in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from benign regenerating nodule. Although microvessel density showed no significant correlation with size and histopathological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma, angiogenesis may be used as a prognostic marker.
Under our corporation law corporate decision-making power is allocated to 3 organs : the shareholders’ meeting, the board of directors and the president(managing director). Like other jurisdictions the shareholders’ meeting has competence over those so-called fundamental corporate actions such as mergers, divisions, reduction of legal capital, amendment of the articles of incorporation, etc. All the residual business management affairs are decided or at least directed by the board of directors. The the president(managing director) then internally executes those things decided both by shareholders and the board of directors on the one hand and externally represents the corporation on the other hand. The board of directors has no power to represent the corporation. Except for so-called small corporations the asset of which falls under one billion won, the board of directors is to be composed of at least 3 members. Therefore the board of directors is not suitable for prompt and flexible decision-making. It would be neither imaginable nor possible in business societies that the board of directors decides all business management affairs assigned to it. In regard to the interpretation of § 393 ① Korean Commercial Code, it is generally accepted by theories and court decisions that the board of directors does handle only material business management affairs and delegate non-material affairs to the president(managing director). In other words, so far as material business management affairs are concerned, the board of directors may not delegate to the president(managing director) but has to decide for herself. This is the core of the power allocation order provided in § 393 ① Korean Commercial Code. The problem is how to discriminate between material and non-material business management affairs. The day to day(usual)/non-day to day(unusual) test, supported by a few professors, is incomplete and defective in that even day to day business management affairs may be significant enough to need prudent board’s resolutions. Instead most professors and court decisions prefer the comprehensive test in which all relevant qualitative and quantitative factors are to be taken into consideration. According to the comprehensive test the judgement varies case by case with the size, sum, nature, etc. of both the business management affair and the corporation concerned. The comprehensive test should be supported. Finally it is noted that, in recent corporate governance context, the board’s control function is more important than that of decision-making, and it is therefore argued that even under the comprehensive test the range of material business management affairs shouldn’t be that far recognized as to adversely affect the board’s control function. 상법상 (1) 경영기관으로서의 이사회는 주주총회의 권한 사항을 제외한 일체의 업무집행사항에 대하여 결정권을 갖는다(상법 제361조, 제393조 제1항). (2) 이들 권한사항 중 상법이 개별적·구체적으로 이사회결의를 거치도록 규정하고 있는 사항은 대표이사에게 위임하지 못하고 반드시 이사회가 스스로 결정하여야 한다(상법 제398조 등). (3) 그 밖의 업무집행사항에 대하여는 상법 제393조 제1항이 규정하는 바에 따른다. 즉, 중요한 자산의 처분·양도, 다액의 차재 등 ‘중요한 업무집행사항’에 대하여는 정관 등에 의해서도 이를 대표이사에게 위임하지 못하고 이사회결의로 정하여야 한다. 반대로 중요하지 않은 업무집행사항에 대하여는 달리 정관(이사회규칙이나 이사회 결의를 포함한다)의 정함이 없는 한 이사회의 대표이사 선임 시 이를 같이 위임한 것으로 추정하거나 해석하여야 한다. 그러나 중요하지 않은 사항이더라도 개별 회사의 정관 등으로 이사회결의사항으로 유보할 수 있고(정관자치), 이때 해당 사항은 대표이사에게 위임하지 못하고 이사회 스스로 결정하여야 한다. 중요한 업무집행사항인지 여부의 판단은 개별 회사, 개별 거래마다 질적 및 양적 측면에서 제반 사정을 종합적으로 고려하여 상대적으로 판단하여야 한다. 다만, 개별적·상대적으로 판단하더라도, (1) 최근 각국의 기업지배구조 투명화·선진화 논의에서 볼 수 있듯이 이사회의 업무집행결정(경영의사결정) 기능보다는 경영감독기능이 점점 더 중요시되고 있고, (2) 갈수록 신속, 탄력적인 경영의사결정이 중시되는 작금의 추세하에서는 꼭 필요한 중요한 사항만 회의체인 이사회에 유보하고 나머지는 대표이사 등에게 위임하는 것이 올바른 방향이고, (3) 중요한 업무집행사항의 범위를 넓게 해석하면 주주와 회사채권자의 보호에는 능하나 거래안전을 저해하는 역작용이 발생할 우려가 있다는 점을 감안할 때 정관 등에 달리 규정이 없는 한 중요한 업무집행사항의 범위는 가급적 좁게 해석하여야 한다.
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Cash-Out Merger in the Amendment Bill of the Korean Commercial Code Kwon, Ki-Boum* This article examines the cash-out merger included in the amendment bill of the Korean Commercial Code. Chapter 1 clarifies the differences concerning the merger-consideration between the law of the merger in the European Union and that in the United States. Several interpretational problems arising out of the amendment bill are also pointed out: the permissible type of cash-out merger, the permissible range of property as a merger-consideration, the possibility of combination of share and other property including cash as a merger-consideration, the applicability of the equal treatment rule to the cash-out merger, the voting requirement of the shareholder approval, the treatment of merger synergy, legal measures to protect minority shareholders and so forth. Chapter 2 scrutinizes the permissible legal range of the merger-consideration other than the shares of the surviving corporation and brings out that any property will do good if it has economic value. It is clear that the combination of share and other property is allowed as a merger-consideration. Chapter 3 deals with the problem: whether the voting requirement of the shareholder approval in the merging corporation should vary with the type of merger-consideration or not. It is argued that the voting requirement of the shareholder approval in the merging corporation should be changed upward, in some cases even to unanimous approval, when the proposed merger-consideration affects disadvantageously the shareholders of the merging corporation. Chapter 4 examines the permissible types of the cash-out merger in relation to the 'equal treatment of shareholders rule.' It is argued that types 3 and 4 illustrated in the text should be prohibited. Chapter 5 analyzes the adequacy of the shareholder protection mechanism and briefly explains the relevant Delaware case law. Stress is put especially on the fair dealing principle of the Weinberger decision. In the last chapter the author concludes that the current cash-out merger provisions in the amendment bill are insufficient and therefore do require further examination before its enactment.
Rock drilling machines are commonly used for surface drilling, soil nailing reinforcement, tunnel excavation, and undergroundmining. These machines use drill bits that directly impact into the rock and are operated by percussive force and torque. Drill-bitbuttons need to be designed to increase drilling efficiency; here, we present the results of a series of single blow tests on granitic rocksamples using a piston drop type percussion testing system that enable us to compare the drilling efficiency of a new buttonarrangement design with conventional arrangements. Drilled rock volumes were measured by laser scanner after testing, and drillingefficiencies were evaluated by calculating percussive energies and drilled volumes. The results indicate that the new buttonarrangement design can be used to improve the drilling efficiency.
Launched in October 2019, Northrop Grumman’s MEV-1 was the world’s first unmanned mission demonstrating the practical feasibility of on-orbit servicing. Although the concept of on-orbit servicing was proposed several decades ago, it has been developed to various mission concepts providing services such as orbit change, station keeping, propellant and equipment supply, upgrade, repair, on-orbit assembly and production, and space debris removal. The historical success of MEV-1 is expected to expand the market of on-orbit servicing for government agencies and commercial sectors worldwide. The on-orbit servicing essentially requires the utilization of a highly propellant efficient electric propulsion system due to the nature of the mission. In this study, the space mission analysis for a simple on-orbit mission involving Hall thruster is conducted, which is life extension mission for geostationary orbit satellites. In order to analyze the mission, design space exploration for various Hall thruster design variable combinations is performed. The values of design variables and operational parameters of Hall thruster suitable for the mission are proposed through design space analysis and optimization, and mission performance is derived. In addition, the direction of further improvement for the current on-orbit mission analysis process and space mission analysis involving Hall thruster is reviewed. 2019년 10월 발사된 Northrop Grumman사의 MEV-1(Mission Extenstion Vehicle)은 세계 최초의 무인임무로서 궤도상 유지보수(On-Orbit Servicing)가 실질적으로 가능함을 보였다. 물론 궤도상 유지보수 임무는 수십 년 전부터 제안된 개념으로 운영 중인 위성에 대한 궤도수정 및 유지, 추진제/장비 보급 및 업그레이드, 수리, 궤도상 조립 및 제작, 우주잔해 처리 등 다양한 임무개념으로 발전되고 있으며, 이번 MEV-1 임무의 성공으로 향후 세계적으로 정부기관 및 민간분야 위성사업에서의 시장이 확대될 것으로 예상된다. 궤도상 유지보수 임무는 임무의 특성상 기본적으로 고효율의 전기추진시스템의 활용은 필수적이다. 본 연구에서는 전기추진시스템 중 홀추력기를 활용한 간단한 궤도상 유지보수 임무에 대한 임무해석 내용을 소개하고자 한다. 임무사례로서 정지궤도위성의 수명연장 임무에 대해 다양한 홀추력기 설계변수조합에 대한 설계공간탐색을 수행하고, 설계공간분석 및 최적화를 통해 고려하는 임무에 적합한 홀추력기의 설계 및 운용 파라미터를 제안함과 동시에 임무성능을 도출하였다. 추가적으로 현재 궤도상 유지보수 임무해석 시 개선점과 홀추력기를 활용한 우주임무해석에서의 발전방향을 고찰하였다.
Purpose : Tsutsugamushi fever has been reported in Korean children. However there are not any reports regarding children of the Northwestern Choongnam province. Hence we are reporting clinical features of the Tsutsugamushi disease in chidren of these area. Methods : We reviewed clinically or serologically confirmed 11 Children of Tsutsugamushi fever from Cheonan and Choongchung Nam Province, who were admitted to Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital from October 1997 through October 2003. We investigated the age, sex ratio, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and response to therapy. Results : The mean age of patients was 6.5 years, ranging from 2 to 14 years. 7 cases(63.6%) were bovs and 4 cases(36.4%) were girls. The mean duration of the treatment was 6.8 days. The most common symptoms were fever in all cases and cough in 2 cases (18.1%). Frequent signs were skin rash in all cases, eschar in 9 cases (81.8), regional lymphadenopathy in 3 cases (27.2%). The main locations of the eschars were neck in 3 cases(33.3%), and chest, thigh, penis, occipital, back, ear in each 1. Laboratory findings included leukopenia in 4 cases(36.3%), lejkocytosis in 3 cases(27.2%), anemia in 2, ESR elevation in 5, and positive CRP in all cases, SGOT elevation in 9 cases, SGPT elevation in 8 cases, positive passive hem agglutination test in 7 cases (63.6%). Clinical improvement was noticed in all cases after treatment with chloramphenicol, tetracycline, doxycycline, or roxythromycin. The mean duration for defervescence after treatment was 1.4 days. There were not complications or recurrence in any case. Conclusions : Tsutsugamushi fever have appeared in children of Cheonan and Choongnam Province. We should be aware of clinical manifestation such as fever, skin rash, eschar, and lymphadenopathy during the period of October and November in order to diagnose the Tsutsugamushi fever properly.