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      • KCI등재후보

        새로운 부가 힘을 사용한 Quadratic Programming 기반의 표준셀 배치

        姜相求,임종석 대한전자공학회 2002 電子工學會論文誌-SD (Semiconductor and devices) Vol.39 No.6

        This paper deals with a standard cell placement which is based on a quadratic programming. This paper proposes a new additional force to reduce the cell overlap and to get a uniform distribution of cells. The additional force is not concerned with interconnections between cells, but it is determined by the density of a placement area. In this paper, we modelled that the new additional force is a force which is caused by the dummy fixed cell. And it is used for the global placement. Proposed placement method is compared with TimberWolf v7.0 and Itools v1.4. Proposed placer achieved 7.5% average reduction in wirelength in non timing driven mode, 5.0% average reduction in wirelength in timing driven mode compared to TimberWolf v7.0. And we got a comparable result to Itools v1.4. 본 논문은 quadratic programming(QP) 기반의 표준셀 배치에 대하여 다룬다. 본 논문은 QP 기반의 배치에서 발생하는 셀겹침을 제거하고 균등한 배치를 얻기 위하여 새로운 모델의 부가 힘을 제안한다. 부가 힘(additional force)이란, 셀 사이의 연결과는 관계없이 배치영역 내의 셀의 분포 밀도에 의해 받게되는 힘을 의미한다. 본 논문에서는 부가 힘을 가상 고정셀(dummy fixed cell)에 의해 발생되는 힘으로 모델화하여 그것을 이용한 개략배치 방법을 제안한다. 제안한 배치방법에 의한 최종 배치결과를 TimberWolf v7.0과 Itools v1.4와 비교하였다. 제안된 배치기는 시간지연을 고려하지 않은 경우, 배선거리에서 TimberWolf v7.0에 비하여 평균 7.5% 향상된 결과를 얻었다. 시간지연을 고려했을 경우, 배선거리에서 TimberWolf v7.0에 비하여 평균 5.0% 향상된 결과를 얻었다. 그리고 Itools v1.4에는 비교할만한 결과를 얻었다.

      • KCI등재

        An Alternative Approach to the Totalization Analysis of 'And Even'

        강상구 현대영미어문학회 2015 현대영미어문학 Vol.33 No.2

        This paper discusses a problematic case of 'A and even B' where the proposition expressed by 'B' neither describes the least likely situation on a pragmatic scale, as claimed by Karttunen and Karttunen (1977), nor carries stronger information than A, à la Kay (1990). For such cases, Kay resorts to totalization, and claims that the scope of 'even' needs to be expanded to encompass the proposition expressed by 'A'. I argue that totalization is an unnecessary device solely designed to solve the problem on hand. By adopting an argumentative approach to the focus particle 'even', I resolve the problem through a conventional treatment of and. More specifically, I take the proposition expressed by 'A' in 'A and even B' simply as part of the contextual information, on the basis of which the speaker puts forth the strongest argument in the form of 'B', with a particular conclusion in mind. I also point out that the totalization cases involve dynamic eventualities, where a cumulative effect is observed in the progress of successive events.

      • KCI등재

        Testing the Bargaining Model of Corporate Governance: Evidence from the Korean Market

        강상구,김학순,변희섭 아시아.유럽미래학회 2018 유라시아연구 Vol.15 No.4

        The agency conflict between the managers of a company and the shareholders of a company is a crucial issue in corporate governance. Many finance researchers have searched for ways to ensure that managers will act in the best interests of shareholders, which are referred to as monitoring mechanisms. There are many well-known monitoring mechanisms identified in the corporate finance literature, such as concentrated ownership by shareholders (block holders), board of director oversight, oversight by the market for corporate control, proxy contests and shareholder activism. Recently, discussions of the failures of corporate boards in company oversight have become popular both in academic and practitioner-focused finance literature. In academia, early models of corporate governance have been challenged by bargaining models. Early models of corporate governance focus on board characteristics and their impact on firm performance or firm-level decision-making (Fama, 1980; Fama and Jensen, 1983; Brickley et al., 1994; Kini et al., 1995; Yermack, 1996; Cotter et al., 1997; Dennis and McConnell, 2003). In contrast, bargaining models are based on the assumptions that there are divergent forces in corporate governance that facilitate or block effective monitoring mechanisms and corporate decision-making (Hermalin and Weisbach, 1998, 2003; Raheja, 2005). Especially Hermalin and Weisbach relate existing empirical findings to their theoretical work on bargaining models, including prior firm performance, the relationship between outside directors and CEO tenure, corporate decision-making of a firm, and the measures of firm performance (Coughlan and Schmidt, 1985; Warner et al., 1988; Jensen and Murphy, 1990; Weisbach, 1988; Goyal and Park, 2002; Dahya et al., 2002; Murphy and Zimmerman, 1993). This paper tests the empirical predictions of the bargaining model of corporate governance of Hermalin and Weisbach (1998) using Korean Stock Exchange companies. The objective of this paper is to empirically test the predictions of bargaining models including data from the Korean Corporate Governance Index (KCGI) as a proxy for the quality of board monitoring so that this paper can investigate the relationship between firm valuation and CEO tenure. Specifically, following the empirical predictions of Hermalin and Weisbach (1998), three hypotheses are examined: H1. The effect of the board quality index on firm performance is positive after controlling for board size and board characteristics. H2. The board quality index of a firm declines over the course of a CEO’s tenure after controlling for the independent director ratio and the persistence of board independence. H3. Accounting measures of performance are better predictors of management turnover than stock price performance. This paper uses a sample of Korean firms for empirical analysis in this paper for several reasons. First, empirical evidence is not enough related to the bargaining model for Korean firms. Second, Korean firms are different from U.S. firms in terms of their board compositions and board characteristics. In Korea, the monitoring role of outside directors is weak (Baek et al., 2006) and the independence of outside directors is also questionable (Kim and Kim, 2008). Moreover, there is a regulation imposing mandatory outside director ratios of 50 percent on large firms with assets greater than two trillion won (Black et al., 2006). The effect of outside director ratios on firm performance or corporate decision-making is questionable and is thus an empirical issue in Korea. Finally, the Korean Corporate Governance Index (KCGI) appears to be a good predictor of the quality of corporate governance for publicly listed companies in Korea (Black et al., 2006; Black et al., 2008; Black and Kim, 2012). Using the fixed effects estimation of panel data, this study finds a positive relationship between the ranking of a firm by the board quality and the valuation of a firm by the stock ...

      • KCI등재

        복합상호작용 시각화기법을 통한 정보 표출

        강상구,남두희 한국ITS학회 2012 한국ITS학회논문지 Vol.11 No.5

        교통정보를 운영자와 사용자에게 제공할 때 시각화 방법이 사용된다. 데이터 및 정보시각화 기법을 적용하기 위한 기초연구와 상호작용 시각화 기법을 적용한 교통정보 서비스의 디자인 기법을 연구하였다. 먼저 데이터 시각화, 정보 시 각화에 대해 기존 연구 사례를 정리하고, 상호작용 시각화 기법의 정의와 현재 제공되고 있는 교통정보 서비스를 분석하 였다. 상호작용 시각화 기법의 종류는 다양하지만 이번 연구에서는 상호작용 시각화 기법 중 선택, 질의, 연결, 필터링, 재정리에 대해서 각각이 교통정보를 제공하는 서비스에서 활용할 수 있는 방안과, 복합적 사용 방안에 대해서 연구하였 다. 이러한 상호작용 시각화 기법은 정보와 사용자간의 상호작용을 제공함으로써, 사용자는 일방적으로 제공되는 정보를 보는 것이 아닌 능동적으로 정보 획득이 가능해진다. 교통정보의 경우 사용자가 정보를 효율적으로 이해하고, 이를 의사 결정에 반영하는 과정이 빠르게 이루어지는 것이 중요하기 때문에, 상호작용 시각화 기법을 교통정보 제공 서비스에 적 용함으로써 사용자의 편의성을 증대시킬 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. 이번 연구를 통해서 다양한 상호작용 시각화 기법이 교통정보 제공 서비스에 적용 될 수 있는 기초연구가 될 수 있기를 기대한다. Several Visualization techniques have been applied in traffic information area. This work is the basic research for applying of interactive visualization techniques when the traffic information is provided to users. Design of interactive visualization techniques were applied to traffic information services. Previous studies for information visualization with interactive visualization techniques were investigated, and the traffic information services currently provided were analyzed. There are many types of interactive visualization techniques, but this study is mainly focused on selecting, querying, linking, filtering and rearranging techniques. The users can obtain the proper and more suitable information for theie needs, because each interactive visualization techniques support interaction between information and users. The traffic information which has one of interactive techniques can be more effective for decision making and utilization. More attention is given to interactive visualization of data and information techniques in transportation field. By this research, it is expected that traffic information services is more effective and can be a foundation work for various interactive visualization techniques in traffice inforamtion.

      • KCI등재

        Semantics of even: An Argumentation Approach

        강상구 현대영미어문학회 2013 현대영미어문학 Vol.31 No.2

        This paper aims at explicating the semantic contribution of focus particle even. While Kay’s (1990) work is insightful in characterizing even as a relational operator indicating relative informational strength, his account does not explain some cases in a consistent manner. One is the case of the sentence expressing the context proposition containing universal quantifier, thereby making it stronger than the proposition expressed by the sentence containing even. The other is the case of even having scope over negation, where the context proposition is usually unavailable. Borrowing from argumentation theory of Ducrot and Anscombre (1983), I claim that even marks the proposition expressed by the even-sentence to be the strongest argument toward a contextually relevant conclusion. My account sidesteps the issues encountered by both Kay and the argumentation theorists by rendering the context proposition irrelevant in the semantic content of even.

      • KCI등재

        Fluency and accuracy in English attrition: A case study of two Korean sisters

        강상구 한국외국어대학교 언어연구소 2014 언어와 언어학 Vol.0 No.62

        A longitudinal study of two young English-speaking Korean sisters who returned to Korea after two years in Hawaii demonstrates how attrition affected their English proficiency. Analysis of fluency and accuracy levels in their speech data exhibited distinctive rates and patterns of declining proficiency. As for fluency, attrition affected both sisters in the second year after return, but only the younger sister continued to show attrition in the third year. On the other hand, as for accuracy, the older sister never showed signs of attrition, while the younger exhibited decline in the third year. Significance of the findings concerning the description of their proficiency change and implications of those findings to the theories of attrition such as the threshold hypothesis are discussed.

      • KCI등재

        Focus Types and the Presupposition Function of Korean -To

        강상구 한국언어과학회 2015 언어과학 Vol.22 No.2

        This paper aims to provide the semantics of Korean -to for its main usage as an additive focus particle, by considering its constraints on the immediate discourse. Previous studies on the particle have mostly focused on its syntactic and semantic characteristics on sentential levels. The traditional treatment of -to as a trigger of existential presupposition does not account for a wider variety of its uses, especially when the focus part is not an argument, but a predicate or even the whole sentence. I propose a proposition function specifying the relation between the sentence containing the particle and the sentence in the context which satisfies its presupposition

      • KCI등재

        Stages in the Attrition of English Passives

        강상구 한국언어학회 2012 언어 Vol.37 No.4

        A longitudinal study of two Korean sisters who returned to Korea after living in the U.S. for two years shows how English attrition can affect their use of passive construction. A comprehension task and a production task were used to collect data from these children for more than three years. The results show that when attrition strikes, production is likely to be affected before comprehension because their ability to understand English passives did not show signs of attrition while production was affected, which supports the regression hypothesis that suggests the path of attrition is the mirror image of the path of acquisition. Then, close examination of the younger sister's results demonstrated that attrition in production can go through some stages. The earliest signs of attrition in passives are producing various errors that did not occur when she was proficient. After that stage, she started avoiding passives, substituting her answers with actives.

      • KCI등재

        English mixing in K-pop across genres

        강상구 한국외국어대학교 언어연구소 2012 언어와 언어학 Vol.0 No.56

        This paper examined 700+ Korean pop songs to probe the frequency and pattern of English mixing across six main genres: trot, rock, ballad, dance, R&B, and hip-hop. Since genres have fairly predictable sets of regularly occurring and conventional forms, English use in each genre is expected to differ. Frequency of mixing was measured using the proportion of songs that contained English in each genre, while mixing pattern was investigated using a mixing scale that contained seven levels. Then, I suggest factors that trigger English mixing: time of introduction, theme of lyrics, and key of melody. Combining these factors accounts for the general tendency of English use in different genres.

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