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        • KCI우수등재

          반추위 혐기성 미생물(박테리아 , 프로토조아 및 곰팡이)이 세포벽 구성물질의 분해에 미치는 상대적 역할

          신기준,이성실,하종규,박정근,케이제이쳉 한국동물자원과학회 2000 한국축산학회지 Vol.42 No.5

          To study the relative contributions of microbial groups (bacteria, protozoa and fungi) in rumen fluids to the overall process of cell wall digestion in the rumen, representatives of these groups were selected by physical treatment, chemical treatment and physicochemical treatments of whole rumen fluids. Physical treatments were performed by centrifuge, filteration and autoclave based on their size and weight. Chemical treatments were also performed by the addition of antibiotics and chemicals to rumen fluids as follows; antibacterial agent[streptomycin sulfate, penicillin G potassium and chloramphenicol(0.010㎎/㎖l each)], antiprotozoan agent[copper sulfate(0.15㎎/㎖), sodium lauryl sulfate (0.010mglml) and dioctyl sulfossucinate sodium salts(0.200㎎/㎖}], and antifungal agent[cychloheximide (0.05㎎/㎖) and nystatin(200U/㎖)]. To evaluate the potential activity and relative contribution to degradation of cell walls by specific microbial groups, the following fractions were prepared: a positive system (whole ruminal fluid), a bacterial (B) system, a protozoan (P) system, a fungal (F) system and a negative system (cell free rumen fluid). To assess the interactions between specific microbial fractions mixed cultures (B+P, B+F, and P+F) were also assigned. Patterns of degradation due to the various treatments resulted in three distinct groups of data based on the degradation rate of cell wall material and on cell wall degrading enzyme activities. The order of degradation was Positive and F systems $gt; B system $gt; Negative and P systems. Therefore, fungal activity was responsible for most of the cell wall degradation. Cell wall degradation by the anaerobic bacterial fraction was significantly less than by the fungal fraction and the protozoan fraction failed to grow under the conditions used. In general, in the mixed culture systems the co-culture systems demonstrated a decrease in cellulolysis compared with the monoculture systems. When one microbial fraction was associated with another microbial fraction, two types of results were obtained. The protozoan fraction inhibited cellulolysis of cell wall material by both the bacterial and fungal fraction, while in the coculture between the bacterial fraction and fungal fraction, a synergistic interaction was detected.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          일부농촌주민(一部農村住民)의 간(肝) 및 폐흡충증에 대(對)한 역학적(疫學的) 조사(調査)

          신기준,Shin,,Ki-Joon 대한예방의학회 1977 Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Vol.10 No.1

          An epidemiological study of clonorchiasis sinensis and paragonimiasis westermani prevailed among the people of a rural county. The author studied the infection rates of of clonorchiasis sinensis and paragonimiasis westermanl in the inhabitants of Chungsong Gun, Kyungbuk Province, Korea. The examinations were carried out from March 1965 to November 1965 fowards 1.303 inhabitants whose ages were ranging from three months to over sixty years. All the inhabitants were tested intradermally with clonorchis and paragonimus antigen and then confirmed the eggs by M. G. L. technique and sputum test. The results of the examination were summarized as follows : 1. Out of the persons tested, 15.8% were infected with clonorchiasis sinensis. 2. Out of the persons tested with paragonimus antigen, 20.9% were infected with Paragonimus westermani. 3. The infection rate of paragonimiasis was higher than that of clonorchiasis. 4. The infection rate of clonorchiasis in male was 20.8% (147 out of 706), while that in female was 7.1% (58 out of 597). The infection rate of paragonimiasis in male was 21.2% (150 out of 706), while that in female was 20.1% (120 out of 597). 5. The maximum infection rates of clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis were observed among the $45{\sim}49$ age group (65.2% and 43.5%) respectively), however it was gradually decreased in the senile group. 6. By occupation, the maximum infection rate of clonorchiasis was observed in policemen (45.7%) and the maximum carrier of eggs (by sputum test) was observed in the unemployed (paragonimiasis). 7. By education, the maximum infection rate of clonorchiasis was observed in the unepmloyed (28.9%) and the maximum carrier of eggs (by sputum test) was observed in the unemployed (paragnoimiasis).

        • KCI우수등재

          반추위액으로부터 혐기성 미생물(박테리아 , 프로토조아 및 곰팡이)의 분리 방법

          신기준,이성실,하종규,박정근,케이제이쳉 한국동물자원과학회 2000 한국축산학회지 Vol.42 No.5

          Separation methods for rumen microbial fractions contained the bacterial, protozoal and fungal fraction which are the most useful to assess the relative contribution of microbial groups for digestion of feedstuffs and the useful tools to study the rumen microbiology. The fractionation methods have been classified into three main categories; physical method based on cell size and weight, chemical method based on the microbial sensitivity to some chemicals, and physicochemical methods. After microbial groups were selected by physical treatment(centrifuge, filtering and autoclaves), chemical treatment(by the addition of antibiotics and/or some chemicals) and physicochemical treatments of rumen fluid, enumerated each microbial fraction using microscopy and roll-tube methods, and then estimated each separation method. This study emphasized the relative advantageous of the different methods and the factors to be kept in mind when choosing the most appropriate method for a definite goal. Physical treatment(filteration with nylon cloth had larger pore size about 500㎛ or centrifugation) was estimated potentially sufficient to separate protozoal fraction alone from the rumen fluids, due to the phenomenal differences their cell size and weight compared to other microbes, but must be considered of the some kinds of bacteria and/or fungal spores can be survive in protozoa) cell. When separating the microbial groups from the rumen fluids, a physicochemical method is probably the best method, especially when needed separation of bacterial fraction and fungal fraction. And the physicochemical method gave more precise results are presented in Fig. 4 in the main segments of the paper.

        • 一部 印刷工의 尿中重金屬 含量에 關한 硏究

          申璣峻 고려대학교 의과대학 1978 고려대 의대 잡지 Vol.15 No.3

          Paying special attention to the recent problems of industrial heavy metal poisoning of workers along with rapid industrialization of the whole country, a retrospective causal study on heavy metal exposure, such as lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and so on was performed. To compare the analysed results of 106 urine samples taken from letter-press printing industry workers (lead workers) in Seoul, a total of 46 urine samples from normal adults was also analysed as a control study. The summarized results were as follows; 1. The average concentrations of heavy metals of above mentioned urine of lead workers were significantly higher than those of control group ranging 1.4-3.9 times (p<0.01); lead: 3.9 times (90.3±78.2㎍/l) cadmium: 1.5 times (26.8±24.0㎍/l) copper: 1.7 times (30.4±17.5㎍/l) zinc: 1.4 tines (411.0±202.3㎍/l) 2. There were no corelation between period of working experience as a lead worker and concentration of metals in urine in general except for the fact that highest concentration of lead was found in 6-10 year of working experience group. 3. There were significant difference in concentration of lead in urine by types of working processes shown as follows; casting: 144.4±105.4㎍/l type picking: 71.8±59.5㎍/l printing: 78.6±56.2㎍/l type setting: 112.2±61.0㎍/l 4. Percent rate of samples of which lead concentration were higher than 150㎍/l was significantly higher in lead worker group (P<0.005) showing 15 cases (14.2%) in lead worker group compar ed with 0 case in control group.

        • KCI등재

          한우의 육성 및 비육기간중 배합사료 급여 수준에 따른 사료섭취량 조사

          신기준,오영균,이성실,김경훈,김창현,백봉현 한국동물자원과학회 2002 한국축산학회지 Vol.44 No.1

          배합사료와 볏짚을 사료원으로 하여 한우 수소와 거세우를 비육 할 때의 사료섭취량을 조사하고자 5∼7개월된 한우 수송아지 20두와 거세 송아지 60두를 공시하여 육성기(체중 300㎏ 이하), 비육 전기 (체중 300∼450㎏), 비육 후기(체중 450㎏ 이후) 3단계로 나누어 육성우 배합사료 (CP 14.1%, TDN 70.0%), 비육 전기 배합사료(CP 12.1%, TDN 70.6%), 비육 후기 배합사료(CP 11.1%, TDN 71.9%)를 각각 성장단계별로 급여하면서 1) 수소와 거세우의 무제한 급여시의 사료 섭취량 (원물 기준)과 2) 거세우를 성장단계에 따라 배합사료를 ① 전기간 무제한 급여 ② 1.0%-1.5%-무제한급여, ③ 1.5%-2.0%-무제한급여의 3유형으로 사양관리 하면서 사료 섭취량 (원물 기준)의 변화를 조사하였다. 1. 수소의 1일 사료섭취량은 직선적으로 증가된 반면에 거세우의 사료섭취량은 521 ㎏ 까지는 증가되다가 감소되었다. 2. 체중대비 사료 섭취량은 시험 시작시인 150 ㎏ 에서는 체중의 3.5% 정도를 섭취하였으나 600 ㎏에서 수소는 체중비 2.0% 내외로 거세우는 1.5% 정도로 감소되었다 3. 거세우의 1일 사료 섭취량은 전기간 무제한 급여시는 비육 전기까지는 완만하게 증가하다가 비육 후기에는 다시 완만하게 감소된 반면 육성기와 비육 전기에 배합사료를 체중비 1.0%와 1.5%로 제한하여 급여 하였을 때는 사료 섭취량이 직선적으로 증가하였으며 1.5%와 2.0%로 제한하여 급여하였을 때는 비육 전기까지는 비교적 빠르게 증가되고 비육 후기(체중 455 ㎏)에는 비교적 빠른 속도로 감소되었다. 4. 배합사료 급여수준에 따른 거세우의 단위 체중당 사료 섭취량은 무제한 급여시는 시험 시작시 (체중 150 ㎏ 내외)에는 3.5% 내외에서 체중 600㎏ 내외에서는 1.5%까지 감소되었고 배합사료 제한 급여시는 육성기에는 2.0%에서 3.0%로 증가되다가 다시 1.5∼2.0% 정도로 감소되었다 5. 거세우에 배합사료 급여수준에 따른 볏짚 섭취량은 배합사료 제한급여시 무제한 급여에 비하여 육성기에는 2∼3배로 비육 전기에는 2배로 증가되었으나 비육 후기에는 차이가 없었다. A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake of Hanwoo bulls and steers fed diets of compound feed and rice straw. Twenty bull calves and sixty steers at 5 to 7 months old were used. The experimental period was divided into three feeding stages which are growing period(<300 ㎏ body weight (BW)), early fattening period (300∼450 ㎏ BW) and late fattening period (>450 ㎏ BW). The animals were given the diets containing 14.1% crude protein (CP) and 70.0% total digestible nutrients(TDN) in the growing period, 12.1% CP and 70.6% TDN in the early fattening period, and 11.2% CP and 71.9% TDN in the late fattening period, respectively. Experiment 1 was designed to compare feed intake (as-fed basis) between Hanwoo bulls and steers fed the experimental diets ad libitum. In Experiment 2, Hanwoo steers were allocated in one of three compound feed feeding treatments to investigate feed intake (as-fed basis). The treatment groups were ① feeding level 1 group fed compound feed ad libitum through the whole periods; ② feeding level 2 group fed 1.0% compound feed per ㎏ BW in the growng period, 1.5% compound feed per ㎏ BW in the early fattening period and compound feed ad libitum in the late fattening period; and ③ feeding level 3 group fed 1.5% compound feed per ㎏ BW in the growing period, 2.0% compound feed per ㎏ BW in the early fattening period and compound feed ad libitum in the late fattening period. In Experiment 1, the average daily feed intake of bulls increased linearly through the whole experimental period while the feed intake of steers increased until their body weight was reached upto 521 ㎏, afterward reduced. Average daily feed intake was about 3.5% per ㎏ BW of both bulls and steers at the beginning (150 ㎏ BW) of Experiment 1 while bulls and steers at 600 ㎏ BW consumed the diets of 2.0 and 1.5% per ㎏ BW, respectively. In Experiment 2, the average daily feed intake of steers in the feeding level 1 group gradually increased through the growing and early fattening periods and then steadily reduced over the late fattening period. The average daily feed intake in the feeding level 2 group linearly increased through the whole period while the feed intake in the feeding level 3 group showed a relatively rapid increase and reached a peak at 455 ㎏ BW, and then sharply dropped. The average daily feed intake of steers in the feeding level 1 at the beginning (150 ㎏ BW) of Experiment 2 was about 3.5% per ㎏ BW but there was a reduction (1.5% per ㎏ BW) at 600 ㎏ BW. Besides, The feed intake of steers in the feeding level 2 and 3 in which compound feed was given with limitation increased to 2.0∼3.0% per ㎏ BW in the growing period and then reduced to 1.5∼2.0% per ㎏ BW. The limited compound feed feeding of steers in Experiment 2 resulted in higher rice straw intakes up to two to three folds and two folds in the growing and early fattening periods, respectively, than the ad libitum feeding.

        • KCI우수등재

          한우의 비육기간중 암모니아처리 볏짚 급여시 배합사료급여수준이 일당증체 사료섭취량 및 사료효율에 미치는 영향

          김강식,신기준,백봉현,이근상 한국축산학회 1988 한국축산학회지 Vol.30 No.5

          The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding anhydrous ammonia treated rice straw (NH₃-RS) with two different levels of concentrate on daily gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency. Rice straw (RS) was treated with 30g NH₃/㎏ RS dry matter (DM). Fifteen heads of Korean native bulls were allotted to three groups (five animals/group) and fed the following diets: (1) RS+concentrate 2.0% (% of live body weight), (2) NH₃-RS + concentrate 1.5%, (3) NH₃-RS + concentrate 2.0% for 160 days, and RS and NH₃-RS were fed ad libitum. 1. There were no significant differences in daily gain among the bulls fed with RS + concentrate 2.0%, NH₃-AS + concentrate 1.5% and NH₃-RS + concentrate 2.0%. But bulls fed with NH₃-RS + concentrate 2.0% showed apparently increasing trends of daily gain compared with RS + concentrate 2.0% and NH₃-RS + concentrate 1.5% decreased slightly compared with NH₃-RS + concentrate 2.0%. 2. Rice straw consumption was significantly increased by anhydrous ammonia treatment but NH₃-RS consumption was not influenced by different concentrate level. 3. Concentrate was less required for unit body weight gain while rice straw was more required by feeding NH₃-RS.

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