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This study was conducted to evaluate effects of popped soybean on levels of ruminal peptides and blood amino acids in Holstein calves fed sudan grass hay as a forage source and popped(PSB) or raw(RSB) soybean as a concentrate supplement. At 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after feeding, rumen fluid and blood samples were collected from the rumen and jugular vein, respectively, and amino acids, peptides and other nitrogen-containing compounds in the rumen were analyzed. Ruminal pH tended to be higher in the RSB than in the PSB treatments, and declined upto 4 h after feeding, since then increased in both treatments. The concentrations of ammonia-N in all treatments increased upto 2 h after feeding, and then decreased gradually with time. The concentrations of ammonia N in the rumen were not significantly different between the treatments, however, those in RSB treatment appeared to be higher. Also, protein concentrations in the rumen were not significantly different between the treatments. Peptide productions were the highest at 2 h after feeding in the group fed RSB which is rapidly degradable in the rumen, whereas those in the group fed PSB which is slowly degradable in the rumen were maximized at 4 h after feeding. The concentration of total free essential amino acids in plasma was higher in the RSB treatment than in the PSB, but disappearance rates of these amino acids out of plasma was higher in the PSB treatment than in the RSB treatment. Disappearance rates of free non-essential amino acids in plasma were not significantly different between the treatments. Consequently, this study implies that the production of peptide and utilization of blood amino acid may be controlled by the modification of protein degradability.
The aim of this study was to investigate kinematic mechanism of gait different road conditions(dry vs. oil) in order women. For this study, twenty older women and ten young women participated in this research. twelve infrared cameras were used to collect data. It appeared that the gait strategies of older women were slower velocity and higher CoM than young women. Depending on road conditions, gait velocities of dominant muscle older women on dry surface were faster than dominant sense older women, but those of them were inverse on oil surface. The slip displacement of dominant muscle older women was less than young women, but the slip displacement of dominant sense older women was greater than young women. In case of blind during stance phase on oil surface, the rotational motion of the ankle and knee joints were increased. In conclusion, older women were subjected to self-organization theory and phase shift in dynamic theory.
The purpose of this study was to compare pregnant women's gait parameters and mechanical energies caused by changes in hormone levels and anatomical features such as body mass, body-mass distribution, joint laxity, and musculo-tendinous strength from pregnancy to postpartum. Ten subjects (height: 161±6.5cm, mass: 62.7±10.4 kg, 66.4±9.3 kg, 68.4±7.7 kg, 57.2±7.7 kg) participated in the four times experiments (the first, middle, last term and after birth) and walked ten trials at a self-selected pace without shoes. The gait motions were captured with Qualisys system and gait parameters were calculated with Visual-3D. Pregnant women's gait velocities were decreased during the pregnancy periods, but increased after birth. Stride width and cycle time were increased during pregnancy,but decreased after birth. Thigh energy (77.4%) was greater than shank energy (19.06%) or feet (3.54%) about total energy of the lower limbs. Their feet (Left R2=0.881, Right R2=0.852) and shank (Left R2=0.318, Right R2=0.226) energies were significantly increased (positive correlation), but double limb stance time (DLST, R2=0.679) and body total energy (R2=0.138) were decreased (negative correlation) for their velocities. These differences suggest that thigh segment may be a dominant segment among lower limbs,and have something to do with gait velocities. Further studies should investigate joint power and joint work to find energy dissipation or absorption from pregnancy period to postpartum.
Cycling that transform human energy into mechanical energy is one of the man-machine systems out of sports fields. Benchmarking means " improving ourselves by learning from others ", therefore benchmarking toward dominant cyclist is necessary on field. the goals of this study were to provide important factors on multi-disciplines (kinematics, physiology, power, psychology) for a tailored-training program that is suitable to individual characteristics. Two cyclist participated in this study and gave consent to the experimental procedure. one was dominant cyclist (years:21 yrs, height:177 cm, mass:70 kg), and the other was non-dominant cyclist(years:21, height:176, mass:70). Kinematic data were recorded using six infrared cameras (240Hz) and QTM (software). Physiological data (VO2max, AT) were acquired according to graded exercising test with cycle ergometer and power with Wingate test used by Bar-Or et. al ( 1977) and to evaluate muscle function with Cybex. Psychological data were collected with competitive state anxiety inventory (CSAI-2) that were devised by Martens et. al (1990) and with athletes' self-management questionnaire (ASMQ) of Huh (2003). It appears that the dominant's CV(coefficient of variability) was higher than non-dominant's CV in Sports Biomechanics domain, that the dominant's values for all factors ware higher than non-dominant's values in physical, and physiological domain, and their values between cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety were contrary to each other in psychology. Further research on multi-disciplines may lead to the development of tailored-optimal training programs applicable with key factors to enhance athletic performance by means of research including athlete, coach and parents.
The anaerobic rumen fungus, N. frontalis N1-1, which had a high fiber-degrading capacity was selected to make a fungal additive and to evaluate its effects on ruminal fermentation. The fungal additive was added at the level of 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12%(w/v) in Lowe's medium and pH, gas production, dry matter degradation, CMCase, xylanase, and volatile fatty acid(VFA) were determined after 2, 4, and 6 days of incubation. Addition of high level of fungal additive (0.09 and 0.12%) decreased pH compared with control treatment(P$lt;0.05). The gas production was increased by the addition of fungal additive. The highest increase in gas production was achieved with 0.09, and 0.1% supplementation after 6 days incubation(P$lt;0.05). The degradation of dry matter was increased with incubation time up to 6 days and was significantly lower in control. Activities of carboxymethylcellulase(CMCase), and xylanase in the culture supernatant was increased by the addition of fungal additive with highest increase after 4 days of incubation. Total VFA production and acetate:propionate ratio also tended to increase by fungal additive after 4 days of incubation similar to results of enzyme activities.