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      • KCI등재후보

        유아의 기질과 부모의 언어통제 유형이 유아의 리더십에 미치는 영향

        홍희숙(Hee-Sook Hong), 장영숙(Young-Sook Jang) 중앙대학교 한국교육문제연구소 2013 한국교육문제연구 Vol.31 No.4

        본 연구에서는 유아의 기질과 부모의 언어통제 유형이 유아의 리더십에 미치는 영향에 대해 살펴보았다. 연구대상은 경기도 수원시와 인천시에 소재한 6곳 유치원에 재원 중인 만 4세 유아 250명과 그들의 부모 250명이다. 유아의 기질을 살펴보기 위하여 정인희와 황혜정(2009)에 의해 개발된 부모용 유아 기질 평정척도를 사용하였으며, 부모의 언어통제 유형을 측정하기 위해서는 Bernstein(1971)과 Gumperz(1973)의 연구를 토대로 도혜숙(1997)이 제작한 도구를 사용하였다. 유아의 리더십을 측정하기 위하여 장영숙과 황윤세(2009)에 의해 개발된 교사용 유아 리더십 측정도구를 사용하였다. 본 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째 유아의 기질과 유아의 리더십의 관계를 살펴본 결과, 유아의 리더십은 유아의 기질의 하위변인 중 반응성, 적응성, 지속성, 전환성과 유의미한 정적 상관을 나타내었다. 둘째, 부모의 언어통제 유형과 유아의 리더십의 관계를 살펴본 결과, 부모의 인성지향적 언어통제와 지위지향적 언어통제는 유아의 리더십과 유의미한 정적 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 유아의 기질과 부모의 언어통제 유형이 유아의 리더십에 미치는 영향을 살펴본 결과, 아버지의 인성지향적 언어통제, 아버지의 지위지향적 언어통제, 어머니의 지위지향적 언어통제, 어머니의 인성지향적 언어통제, 유아 기질 중 규칙성과 적응성의 순으로 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 유아의 리더십을 가장 많이 예언하는 변인은 아버지의 인성지향적 언어통제이었다. 본 연구는 유아의 리더십을 발달시키기 위해서는 유아의 기질에 대한 올바른 이해 뿐 아니라 부모가 바람직한 언어통제 유형을 사용해야 한다는 것을 시사한다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of young children's temperament and their parents' verbal control modes on young children's leadership. The subjects of this study consisted of 250 young children and their parents in six kindergartens of Incheon and Suwon City. In-Hee Jung and Hae-Jeong Hwang's young children's temperament scale for parents(2009) was used for the test of young children's temperament, and Hae-Sook Do's instrument(1997) was employed for the evaluation of parents' verbal control modes. In order to evaluate young children's leadership, young children's leadership scale for teachers developed by Young-Sook Jang and Yoon-Se Hwang(2009) was used. The results of the study were as follows. First, responsiveness, adaptability, persistence, and transformation among young children's temperament were positively correlated with their leadership. Second, for both fathers and mothers, human nature-oriented verbal control mode and position-oriented verbal control mode among parents' verbal control modes were positively correlated with young children's leadership. Third, young children's leadership was most significantly explained by fathers' human nature-oriented verbal control mode followed by fathers' position-oriented verbal control mode, mothers' position-oriented verbal control mode, mothers' human nature-oriented verbal control mode, young children's regularity and adaptability. Fathers' human nature-oriented verbal control mode was the most predictable factor in explaining young children's leadership. This study showed the importance of desirable use of parents' verbal control mode as well as better understanding of young children's temperament for fostering young children's leadership.

      • KCI등재후보

        유아의 다중지능과 어머니의 양육태도

        장영숙,강경석,송경희 미래유아교육학회 2003 미래유아교육학회지 Vol.10 No.3

        본 연구는 성별과 연령에 따라 유아의 다중지능이 차이가 있는지를 알아보고, 유아의 다중지능과 어머니의 자녀 양육태도와는 어떤 관계가 있는지를 알아보고자 하였다. 본 연구는 유치원과 어린이집에 재원하고 있는 유아와 어머니 각각 181명을 대상으로 실시되었으며, 자료처리는 t-검증, 일원변량분석, 상관관계분석을 통해 이루어졌다. 본 연구의 결과, 유아의 음악 지능, 공간 지능, 언어 지능, 개인이해 지능, 자연탐구 지능 영역에서 성별에 따라 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났는데, 이 영역 모두에서 여아가 남아보다 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 개인이해 지능을 제외하고는 연령에 따라 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 유아의 다중지능은 각 영역에서 어머니의 애정적 양육태도, 통제적 양육태도, 그리고 자율적 양육태도와 정적인 관계가 있으며, 거부적 양육태도와는 부적인 관계가 있었다. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in multiple intelligence according to young child's gender and age, and to explore the relationship between young child's multiple intelligence and his/her mother's parenting styles. The subjects in this study were 181 young children and their mothers. Shearer's MIDAS for KIDS was used to measure young child's multiple intelligence, and Schaefer's MBRI(Maternal Behavior Research Instrument) was employed to measure mother's parenting styles. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS program. For the statistical analysis, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and correlational analysis were employed. The brief findings of this study were as follows : First, young child's gender made significant differences to the areas of multiple intelligence such as musical intelligence, spatial intelligence, linguistic intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, and naturalist intelligence. In these areas, the girls outperformed the boys. Second, young child's age produced no significant differences in the areas of multiple intelligence except intrapersonal intelligence. Third, young child's multiple intelligence was significantly correlated to his/her mother's affective parenting style, autonomous parenting style, and restrictive parenting style in a positive direction. Whereas, there was negative correlation between young child's multiple intelligence and his/her mother's rejective parenting style.

      • KCI등재

        5세 유아의 부모와 형제 관계에 대한 이해

        양진희(Yang Jin-hee), 최기영(Choi Kee-young) 한국열린유아교육학회 2005 열린유아교육연구 Vol.10 No.2

        이 연구는 부모관계와 형제관계에 대한 유아의 이해를 유아의 관점에서 해석함으로서 유아의 이해를 심층적으로 파악하고자 하는 질적 연구이다. 자료수집을 위하여 부모관계와 형제관계를 중심소재로 다룬 생활동화를 활용한 네 가지 활동을 전개함으로서 유아가 자신의 생활세계와 관련된 이야기와 자신의 내면세계에 대한 생각들을 풍부하고 자연스럽게 표출할 수 있도록 하였다. 이 연구의 결과 부모와의 관계에 대한 유아의 이해는 부모의 역할, 부모와의 갈등원인과 갈등해소로, 그리고 형제와의 관계에 대한 유아의 이해는 형제의 역할, 형제와의 갈등원인과 갈등해소로 범주화 할 수 있었다. 부모의 역할은 「함께해요」 등 네 가지로, 부모와의 갈등 원인은 「사랑받고 싶어요」 등 네 기지로, 갈등해소는 「달래주어요」 등 네 가지의 긍정적 해결방법과 「나 때문이에요」 등 네 가지의 부정적 종결방법으로 각각 범주화 할 수 있었으며, 형제의 역할은 「함께해요」 등 다섯 가지로, 갈등 원인은 「내 물건에 손대요」 등 여섯 가지로, 갈등해소는 「양보해요」 등 세 가지의 긍정적 해결방법과 「따져요」 등 네 가지의 부정적 종결 방법으로 각각 범주화 할 수 있었다. 이 연구의 결과는 바람직한 부모자녀관계와 형제 관계를 형성하기 위해서는 부모와 자녀가, 그리고 형제가 서로에게 각기 기대되는 역할을 충실히 이행해야 함은 물론이며, 발생한 갈등은 서로 조율하고 해결하려는 노력을 기울여야 한다는 사실을 보여주고 있다. The present study was to analyze young children's understanding of parent and sibling relationship. It was hoped that the analysis will disclose young children's thought about the other person of importance in the young children's other person relationship. The participants for this study were six five-year-old children(2 boys and 4 girls) whom were sampled from five-year-old children classes of B public kindergarten in chunbuk. For the data collection of this study, following four activities were established; 1) story discussion activity concerns with fairy tale content or young children's life world, 2) letter writing activity to the characters in the fairy tale or other persons, 3) young children's fairy tale rewriting activity of fairy tale content, 4) role play activity concerns with fairy tale content or young children's life world. Collected data were analyzed in the following procedures; a) transcription of recorded data that were collected through young children's four activities and parent interview b) integration of transcripted date, c) domain analysis of integrated date, d) data classification and taxonomy analysis, g) interpretation of classified data. Results found in this study were as follows: First, young children's understanding of parent-child relationship were analyzed with parent's role, the causes of conflict in the parent-child relationship, and the dissolution of conflict in the parent-child relationship. Second, young children's understanding of sibling relationship were analyzed with the role of sibling, the causes of conflict in the sibling relationship, and the dissolution of conflict in the sibling relationship.

      • 어린이 멀티미디어 교실 운영의 교육적 효과성 확인 연구

        김영희,임명희,박애경 동남보건대학 2003 論文集-東南保健大學 Vol.21 No.2

        Young children are the main target of the technological ages at the 21th century. Now, their growth, development, and education have affected large settings of internet world including multimedia factors. The purpose of this study was to provide an educational effects on the multimedia technology practice for young children. By this article, the following issues were explored. First, it was presented whether crriculum level on the multimedia technology practice for young children would be appropriate in accordance with age in teachers' opinions. Secondly, it was presented whether a level of satisfaction on the multimedia technology practice for young children would be to what extent in teachers' opinions. Finally, it was presented whether a self-evaluation feeling of satisfaction on the multimedia technology practice for young children would be to what extent in preschooler's opinions. Based upon mentions in the above, the following recommendations were addressed. First, an education hours on the multimedia technology practice for young children is appropriately about 40-50 minutes. Secondly, the multimedia technology practice for young children must be considered individual differences. Finally, the assistant teachers' role and guidance on the multimedia technology practice for young children are very important. At any rate, this topic will be gone deep into studies in the future.

      • KCI등재

        약년자 폐암의 임상적 관찰

        심영수,김건열,한용철,유빈,한성구,정희순 대한내과학회 1987 대한내과학회지 Vol.32 No.5

        Carcinoma of the lung is generally considered as a disease of middle age and elderly. But lung cancer is now so prevalent that patients below the age of 40 years must be increaseing. We reviewed the records of 483 lung cancer patients who had been diagnosed in the department of internal medicine of Seoul National University Hospital from March 1984 to February 1986, and the clinical features of the young patients under 40 years were compared with those of the control group patients over 40 years. The results are summarized as follows; 1) Seven percent of 34 cases of 483 patients were belong to the young age group patients (less than 40 years). The youngest patient was 22 years old. 2) Male to female ratios of young group and the control group were 3.25:1, 5.9:1 respectively (p$gt;0.05). 3) The mean duration of symptoms from the onset to the definite diagnosis was 2.7 months in young group and 2.3 months in the control group (p$gt;0.3). 4) The most common initial symptoms in the young group were dyspnea (26.5%), hemoptysis (20.5%), cough or sputum (20.5%), chest pain (8.8%) which were also the most common initial symptoms in the control group. (p$gt;0.25) The incidence of superior vena cava syndrome was significantly higher in the young age group (23.5%) than in the control group (7.1%) (p$lt;0.05). 5) In the young group, the proportion of adenocarcinoma (35%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (18%) (p$lt;0.05). 6) The proportion of smoker was significantly lower in the young age group (13 cases, 38.2%) than in the control group (77.7%). The histological type of 13 smokers of the young group was squamous cell carcinoma in 12 cases and adenocarcinoma in 1 case. 7) All non-small cell lung cancer patients in young group were belong to stage Ⅲ. 8) Distant metastasis rate of the young group (74%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (54.8%) (p$lt;0.05).

      • KCI등재

        집단 미술 치료 프로그램이 유아의 다중지능 향상에 미치는 효과

        최영희 ( Young Hee Choi ), 차영희 ( Young Hee Cha ), 김세루 ( Se Ru Kim ) 한국상담학회 2011 상담학연구 Vol.12 No.3

        본 연구는 집단 미술 치료 프로그램이 유아의 다중지능 향상에 미치는 효과를 검증하고자 하였다. 연구대상은 전남 Y시에 소재하고 있는 N어린이집, T어린이집에 재원중인 만 5세 유아 40명(실험집단; 20명, 통제집단: 20명)을 선정하였다. 집단 미술 치료 프로그램을 8주 동안 2회씩 1회기당 60분씩 총 16회기를 실시하였다. 측정도구는 김옥희(1999)가 수정한 한국판 힐사이드의 지각된 지능 평가(K-HAPI)를 사전, 사후, 추후로 실시하여 이원변량분석(Repeated two-way ANOVA)을 실시하였다. 연구결과, 집단 미술 치료 프로그램을 실시한 실험집단의 유아들이 통제집단의 유아들보다 다중지능이 더 향상되었다. 또한 다중지능의 하위영역인 ‘음악적 지능', ‘신체 운동적 지능', ‘논리 수학적 지능', ‘공간적 지능', ‘언어적 지능', ‘대인관계 지능', ‘개인이해 지능'의 영역에서는 실험집단과 통제집단 간에 유의한 차이를 보여 긍정적인 효과를 나타냈다. 이러한 결과는 집단 미술 치료 프로그램이 유아의 전인발달을 도모하는 유아교육현장에 교수법으로 적용될 수 있음을 시사하고 있다. The present study is aimed to observe the effect of the group art therapy program on enhancing of a multiple intelligence of young children. The subject of this study are 40 of young children (experimental group: 20, control group: 20) in total. The age of the young children are 5 years old and they have been selected from the N and T kindergarten within Y city, Cheon-Nam Province in random. To measure the effect of the study, the pre- test, the post-test and the follow-up test have been done by adopting K-HAPI (the Korean version of hillside Assessment of Perceived Intelligence) which was modified by Ok-Hee Kim (1999). The experiment has been conducted totally 16 times and each experiment took 60 minutes. The data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA to compare the result between the experimental group and the control group. The results of study showed as follow: Firstly, the multiple intelligences of young children who belong to the experimental group have been improved comparing to the young children who belong to the control group. Secondly, I could confirm the positive by observing statistically significant difference within musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence; spatial intelligence. These results showed the possibility of the group art therapy program which can be adopted within the early childhood education field to support the whole- person development.

      • 생명과학 수업이 유아의 자연친화지능과 과학적 탐구능력에 미치는 영향

        이희수,오영희 培材大學校 人文科學硏究所 2011 人文論叢 Vol.28 No.-

        The purpose of the study was to provide the basic materials of scientific educational program suitable to young children by showing the effects of life science teaching on young children's naturalist intelligence and scientific inquiring ability. Research issue 1. What are the effects of life science teaching on young children's naturalist intelligence? Research issue 2. What are the effects of life science teaching on young children's scientific inquiring ability? 2-1. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to predict of the children's scientific investigation? 2-2. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to observe of the children's scientific investigation? 2-3. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to classify of the children's scientific investigation? 2-4. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to measure of the children's scientific investigation? 2-5. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to discuss of the children's scientific investigation? The target groups of the study are a class of twelve children of 4 years old who are total 24 students of two different day care centers in Daejeon City. The children of the experimental group, A, in one daycare center have been instructed with the life science teaching for the science activity for 16 weeks, while the control group, B, in a different day care center, have been instructed the standard of child care process for the science activity. The measurement of young children's naturalist intelligence and scientific inquiring ability had been used 'the multiple intelligence test (PMIT-E) for preschoolers' and 'the testing instrument of scientific inquiring ability'. To know the difference of their naturalist intelligence between the experimental group and the control group, the research material collected through such a testing instrument had been verified the corresponding sample, t and to know the difference of their scientific inquiring ability, the significance had been verified through the application of ANCOVA. The crucial result on the study is as follows. Firstly, the children who were instructed with the life science teaching statistically significantly improved the young children's naturalist intelligence more than the children who were not instructed with the life science teaching. Therefore, life science teaching has a positive effect on improving young children's naturalist intelligence. Secondly, the result after the study is that the life science teaching has a considerable effect on scientific inquiring ability. The experimental child group experienced a significantly noticeable point increase statistically compared to that of the opposing group. Therefore, life science teaching has a positive effect on improving young children's scientific inquiring ability. Therefore, life science teaching has an effective class on young children's naturalist intelligence and scientific inquiring ability.

      • KCI등재

        소변중 질소 화합물을 이용한 우리나라 중년여성들의 단백질 영양상태에 관한 연구

        白喜英 淑明女子大學校 亞細亞女性問題硏究所 1987 아시아여성연구 Vol.26 No.-

        To compare the excretion of urinary nitrogen compounds and related biochemical parameters of middle-aged Korean women to those of young Korean adult females, a study was carried out on 60 subjects in 40-50 years of age and 30 subjects in their 20's who are leading their normal life style and on their ordinary diet. A dietary survey with 2-day food intake record was conducted and 2-day urine was collected from each subject. Average daily excretion of total nitrogen, urea N and creatinine were measured and related nutritional parameters were calculated. Following is a summary of main results. 1. Mean values of height and weight of middle-aged subjects were 157.2cm and 57.3kg, while those of young subjects were 160.2cm and 50.6kg, respectively. The differences between the two groups were significant (p$lt;0.01). Mean value of BMI of middle-aged group was 23.2, and this was significantly higher than that of young group, 19. 7 (p$lt;0.001). The number of Subjects in middle-aged group who had BMI value higher than 25 and thus identified as obese was 14, the prevalence of obesity being 23.3% 3. Average daily intakes of energy in middle-aged and young groups were 1,743 Calories and 1,609 Calories respectively and both were lower than Korean RDA of 2,000 Calories. Protein intake levels of middle-aged and young groups were 65.67g and 57.98g respectively and thus were both close to Korean RDA level of 65g. 4. Average daily excretion of total urinary N and urea N were 8.38g and 6.20g in middle-aged group and 6.57g and 5.05g in young group respectively. The differences between the two groups were significant (p$lt;0.005). However, when calculated per kg of body weight total urinary N and urea N were 147.3mg and 108.9mg in middle-aged group and 132.7mg and 102.5mg in young group respectively. The differences were not significant. The percentages of urea N to total urinary N were 75.0% in middle-aged group and 77.8% in young group. The difference eras not significant. 5. Average daily creatinine excretion in middle-aged group was 0.80g, which was significantly lover than that of young group, 0.95g(p$lt;0.001). The level is middle-aged group was about 15% decrease compared to young group. When calculated per kg body weight, daily creatinine excretion in middle-aged group was 14.04mg, which represents about 26% decrease compared to that of young group, 19.10mg. Decrease in urinary creatinine excretion in middle-abed subjects is considered to result from the changes in body composition, especially decrease in lean body mass. Therefore nutritional parameters utilizing urinary creatinine, such as urea N/creatinine N ratio, creatinine coefficient and creatinine-height index, gave conflicting results. The standards of these parameters were established mainly from studies carried out on healthy young adults and therefore would be inappropriate to be used in middle-aged and old subjects. Tore intense studies on these populations are necessary- to understand nutritional status and to establish general standards which can be used in these groups.

      • KCI등재

        어머니의 성격특성과 결혼만족도가 유아의 자기조절력 및 사회적 유능감에 미치는 영향

        이경희 ( Kyung Hee Lee ), 김영희 ( Young Hee Kim ), 신성일 ( Sung Il Shin ) 한국가족복지학회 2012 한국가족복지학 Vol.17 No.1

        본 연구에서는 어머니의 성격특성과 결혼만족도가 유아의 자기조절력과 사회적 유능감에 어떠한 경로를 통해 영향을 주는지를 살펴보아 유아의 자기조절력과 사회적 유능감을 향상시킬 수 있는 방안을 탐색하고, 유아교육 현장이나 부모교육 및 가족복지 프로그램, 상담현장에서 실제적으로 활용할 수 있는 기초자료를 제시하는데 그 목적이 있다. 본 연구의 대상은 5-7세 유아의 어머니 335명이었다. 본 연 구의 결과를 요약하면, 첫째, 유아의 자기조절력에 영향을 미치는 어머니 변인은 신경증, 외향성, 성실 성, 개방성, 결혼만족도로 나타났다. 둘째, 유아의 유능성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 어머니 변인은 개방 성, 성실성이었으며, 유아의 자기조절력도 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 유아의 방해성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 어머니 변인은 친화성, 결혼만족도이었으며, 유아의 자기조절력도 영향을 미치는 것 으로 나타났다. 넷째, 유아의 불안정성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 어머니 변인은 신경증, 성실성이었으며, 유아의 자기조절력도 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, 유아의 지도성에 가장 큰 영향을 미 치는 어머니 변인은 성실성, 친화성이었으며, 유아의 자기조절력은 유의한 영향을 미치지 못하였다. 여섯째, 유아의 친사회성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 변인은 어머니의 결혼만족도와 개방성이었으며, 유아 의 자기조절력도 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 유아의 자기조절력과 사회적 유능감 을 증진시키기 위한 프로그램 개발 및 교육에서 먼저 고려되어야 하는 것이 어머니의 성격특성과 결혼 만족도라는 것을 시사해 주고 있다. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the mother`s personality and marital satisfaction on young children`s self-regulation and social competence. The subjects of this study were 335 mothers whose children, between 5-7 years of age, were enrolled in 4 one of kindergartens in Cheongju city. Data were analyzed not only by frequency, through Pearson`s correlation using the SPSS 12.0 program but also by path analysis using the AMOS 7.0 program. The results of this study were as follows. First, the mother`s agreeable personality directly affected young children`s self-regulation, but that mother`s conscientiousness and openness had both a direct and indirect infuence. The mother`s neurotic personality negatively influenced the mother`s marital satisfaction as well as young children`s self-regulation. Second, the strongest variables affecting young children`s capability were mother`s openness and conscientiousness personality. Third, the most significant variables for young children`s disruptiveness were the mother`s agreeable personality as well as marital satisfaction. Fourth, The mother`s neuroticism and conscientiousness dominantly affected young children`s apprehension of including mother`s ones. Fifth, young children`s leadership was affected by the mother`s conscientiousness and agreeableness the most. Sixth, young children`s self-regulation directly affected their own social competence except for leadership.

      • KCI등재

        HLM을 이용한 교사 창의성과 유아 창의성 간의 관계 분석

        김호(Kim ho), 김재철(Kim jae chul), 노영희(Noh young hee) 한국열린유아교육학회 2007 열린유아교육연구 Vol.12 No.2

        본 연구는 유아의 개인 변인(성, 지능 성격)과 교사 창의성이 유아 창의성에 대해서 어떠한 효과를 갖는지 위계적 선형 모형을 활용하여 규명하고 있다. 본 연구를 위해서 대전광역시교육청 산하에 있는 25곳의 유치원 중에서 42학급을 선정하였다. 연구 대상은 만 5세 유아 총 765명과 해당 학급의 교사 42명이었다. 연구결과, 유아 창의성은 학급 간에 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 본 연구에서 설정한 학급 수준 변인인 교사 창의성은 유아 창의성에 주효과를 가지지 않았지만, 유아변인인 유아의 지능과 성격은 유아 창의성에 주효과를 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 교사 창의성은 유아의 지능 및 성격과 상호작용하여 유아 창의성에 효과를 미치는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which the individual variables of young children (such as sex, intelligence, and personality) and teacher creativity can explain the creativity of the young children. The data used in this study was collected from 42 teachers and 765 kindergarten students. The instruments employed here were Torrance Tests of Creativity Thinking (TTCT) and Chon's (2001) Korean Figural Creativity Test for Young Children. The statistical analysis utilized in this study is the Hierarchical linear Model technique. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: First, the examination of the ratios from group dispersion between classes and individual dispersion within a group indicates that differences in the young children's creativity exist between different classes as well as within classes among classmates. Second, the teacher creativity, which is the class level variable, shows no significant direct influence on young children's creativity, whereas young children's intelligence and personality, which are children level variables, show significant influence on young children's creativity. Teacher creativity and young children's variables have interaction effects on young children's creativity.

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