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Cho, Kyung-sook. 1997. The Semantic Analysis of English Modal Auxiliaries. Linguistics, 5-2, 77-98. The purpose of this paper is to study the semantic relationship among English modal auxiliaries. For this purpose, firstly, I analyzed the meanings of central modal auxiliaries in terms of the kinds and the degrees of modality. In the kinds of modality, there are four types such as [epistemic], [deontic], [capacity] and [generic]. Also, there are three degrees of modality: [necessity], [approximate necessity] and [possibility]. Through this analysis, I tried to show the semantic relationship among several central modal auxiliaries. Next, I analyzed the meanings of marginal modal auxiliaries that have some different morphological, syntactic properties to central modal auxiliaries, in terms of the kinds and the degrees of modality. Through this analysis, I tried to show semantic similarities and implicational differences between central modal auxiliaries and marginal modal auxiliaries. (Honam University)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diet quality of the menus delivered by 17 free meal service centers for the low-income home-bound elderly in Chung- cheong buk-Do. Statistical data analysis was compleleted using the SPSS package program for descriptive analysis, T-test, and ANOVA. The meals offered by free meal service centers were not met the 1/3 recommended dietary allowances in calcium and vitamin B_2. There were significant differences between dependent variables(nutrient content, nutrient density, nutrient deficiency, NAR, MAR, food group intake patterns) and independent variables (operation type, operation status, operation period, nutritionist, food cost).
이 글은 정해년(1767)에 있었던 친경, 친잠의식을 축하한 김수장 가곡이 어떻게 해서 창작되었는지를 살폈다. 논의는 크게 다음 네 가지로 진행되었다. 첫째, 1767년 2월26일에 거행된 왕이 주관하는 친경의식을 살폈다. 친경의식은 동적전(지금의 전농대 일대)에서 거행되었다. 둘째, 1767년 3월10일에 거행된 왕비가 주관하는 친잠의식을 살폈다. 친잠의식은 폐허인 경복궁 옛터에서 거행되었다. 셋째, 김수장은 친잠의식 하루 전날인 3월9일 축하가곡을 창작했다. 이 창작날짜는 김수장이 친경례 안에 들어와 있는 친잠례임을 확실히 인식했음을 말해준다. 넷째, 김수장은 병조 서리를 거쳐 몇 가지 산직 노직을 거치는 가운데, 정해 친경친잠의식 때에 이들 행사에 관여하게 되고, 그 결과 이들 축하 시조를 창작하게 되었던 것으로 보인다. This study is focused on how Kim Sujang Gagok which celebrated Chingyeon g?Chinjam procedure was created on ChungHae year (1767). It largely consists of four main parts. First, it studied Chingyeong procedure which was arranged by the King on 26 February 1767. Chingyeong procedure was performed at the East Jeokjeon (this area is now Jeonnong-dong). Second, it also studied Chinjam procedure which was arranged by the Queen on 10 March 1767. Chinjam procedure was performed at the old ruins of Gyeongbok Palace. Third, Kim Sujang created the celebrated Gagok on 9 March, the day before Chinjam procedure. It tells that he certainly recognized Chinzamryae was contained within Chingyeongryae. Finally, While Kim Sujang served as a Seoli of Byeongjo and then got an additional office and a practical office for old man, he got involved in Chingyeong·Chinjam procedure on ChungHae year. And consequently, it seems that he created those celebrated Sijo.
This study illustrates the analytical results of micropollutants in Kyung-an of Pal-dang reservoir. Sampling was performed 7 times form Aug. 2000 to Oct. 2002. The analytical method used in this study enables us to detect about 300 kinds of chemicals commonly found in surface water at ppt level by GC/MS. This investigation was focused on pesticides and phthalates of micropollutants present in Kyug-an stream. Regarding analytical results, 2∼9 kinds of pesticides and 6∼7 kinds of phthalates were detected and their total concentrations were 0.2∼3.6㎍/L and 3.1∼9.1㎍/L, respectively. Pesticides (isoprothiolane, molinate and flutolanil) and phthalates(dimethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibuthyl phthalate and buthyl benzyl phthalate) were selected for target compounds to evaluate the removal efficiency of three treatment processes (ozone, UV, and ozone/UV process). Of applied processes, Ozone/UV process showed the highest removal efficiency for all target compounds. UV process was also reasonable for eliminating pesticides and phthalates beside dimethyl phthalate. Ozone process was effective for pesticides oxidation but not for phthalates.
In this rapid changing period, the study about traditional life is necessary to preserve our culture. Un Moon Sa Buddist nuns' school was chosen for this study because that temple could be the last place to be affected by modern western culture. The purpose of this survey was to find out the change of traditional living pattern of Buddist nuns and lighting conditions of their school(Un Moon shool for Buddist nuns), and to compare it with last survey in 1985. The results of the survey were as follows. 1) Nuns' living area was enlarged as much as about 2.5 times since 1985 and leisure space too. 2) Students' living schedule was not changed so much since 1985, but the distance of moving trace was increased because of addition of working time. 3) Their private living pattern was almost sitting style on the floor as ever, but the public space such as ones for guests, leisure and kitchen were transferred to chair -using style. 4) The average rate of daylight of nuns' living space was 1.3% during day time and average illumination was 33 Lux during night time. So their lighting conditions was insufficient for reading books.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of iron, food habit, general characteristics for pregnant women and to suggest the direction of nutritional education for pregnant women. Among 171 pregnant women who provided baseline data, 21 women voluntarily participated Fe supplementation and nutrition education program. Nutritional education was provided six times at two-week intervals in the form of telephone interview. The effectiveness of nutritional education was evaluated by measurement of Fe status before and after nutrition education. It appealed that most of subjects took less amount of energy, calcium and iron than Korean RDA. The results indicated that nutrition education was ineffective to improve Fe status for pregnant women. The main barrier of nutritional education process was overconcern about weight gain and body shape, inadequate Fe intake for food source. In addition, the indirect education by telephone interview appeared unsuitable. Therefore, our results indicated the further study to develop nutritional education materials for Pregnant women to overcome the limitation of telephone interview.
딸기의 유통실태와 성숙중 품질변화를 조사하였다. 딸기의 수확 및 선별시에 상당한 품질손상이 있었다. 또 포장, 수송은 과일의 품온을 고려하지 않은채 이루어지고 있었다. 고령 딸기단지에서 생산된 딸기는 소매상 까지 약 25시간이 소요되었고, 계절별 가격차이가 매우 심하였다. 2-3월의 유통수명은 5-6일, 5-6월은 24-30시간이었다. 착색도 즉 a값과 색상변화도로서 본 숙도는 개화 후 28-32일째가 적숙기이였으며, 40일째 이후는 과숙기이였다. 개화후 24일째의 미숙과, 32일째의 적숙과, 40일째의 과숙과를 시료로 하여 품질을 평가한 결과 비타민 C, 당, 종합적인 품질은 적숙과가 미숙과나 과숙과에 비하여 현저히 높은 값을 보였고, 산도는 숙도의 진행에 따라 점차 감소하여 당산비는 증가하는 경향이었다. 또 과숙과는 다소 검붉은 빛이 났으며, polyphenol함량은 숙도의 진행에 따라 감소하였다. Circulation state and changes in quality during ripening of strawberry were investigated. Tissue damage of the fruit happened when it was harvested and selected. Strawberry has been harvested without considering of fruit temperature in the farm. It takes 25 hours from Goreung which is main production area of strawberry to retailer, and seasonal variation in the price was severe. Shelf-life of strawberry from Feb to Mar was 5-6 days, and was 24-30 hours from May to June. Desirable ripening stage was 28-30th day after blooming and 40th day and after this was over ripening stage when the degree of ripening estimated by color “a” value and color saturation. Overall eating quality and vitamin C content, and sugar content were more higher in the fruit of the desirable ripening stage than that of unripening and over ripening stage. The dark redness degree was high in the over ripening stage.
The Typological Comparison of Negation between English and Korean Cho, Kyung-Sook(Honam University) This paper aims to compare the phenomena of negation between English and Korean on the syntactic typological base, especially the phenomena of standard negation as well as quantifier negation and adverbial negation. In standard negation, these two languages show typological similarities of using a negative particle, and of accompanying a secondary modification of inserting an auxiliary verb. However, we can find important differences in two languages: First, in the contraction structures, English language uses the device of morphological negatives, while Korean language uses an auxiliary negative verb. Second, Korean has alternative negative particles, which show complementary distribution depending on the types of predicates and sentences. Moreover, Korean negative particles have much flexibility in their position of the sentences than English negative particle. More typological differences are found in the realms of quantifier negation and adverbial negation. English has four devices of expressing quantifier or adverbial negation; negated quantifiers, inherently negative quantifiers, negated adverbials, and inherently negative adverbials. However, Korean doesn't have any forms of inherently negative quantifiers and inherently negative adverbials. It only permits the devices of negated quantifiers and negated adverbials, in very limited cases, such as in the case of predicate derivation forms. Therefore, the semantic equivalents of quantifier negations and adverbial negations in Korean, are mostly the forms of indefinite expressions or adverbials combined with standard negation.
Cho, Kyung-sook. 1996. The meaning of Indefinites and Pronominal Anaphora. Linguistics, 6-1, 193-213. The purposes of this paper are to study certain proposals related with the semantic interpretation of indefinites and pronominal anaphora, and to discuss their differences and problems. In formal semantics, indefinites have been traditionally treated as existential quantifiers. However, the quantificational approach of indefinites can not explain anaphoric relations between indefinite NPs and pronouns in the donkey sentences or in the inter-sentential examples. Therefore, in order to explain these anaphoric relations in maintaining the non-referential interpretation of indefinites, two theories are proposed: the E-type Theory and the Discourse Representation Theory. The E-type approach considers indefinites as existential quantifiers, and pronouns as definite descriptions. On the other hand, the DRT approach considers both indefinites and pronouns as variables, and explains their anaphoric relations in the discourse representation structure. In spite of these differences, two theories have the same problem: the problem of proportion. (Honam University)
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze how the personality of elderly people affects their attitude toward death. Method: For this study, we investigated 86 old men and women with over the age of 60 in C and J nursing home for the old at Gwang ju city during January 5 to March 31, 2003. As a research tool, the total 20 questions of modified Shanans assorted survey method to measure personality style were used and the reliability of this study was Cronbach's α= 0.7507. For determination of attitude of death, the total 36 questions of FODS, which has been used by Suh, Hye-Kyung were used and the reliability of this study was Cronbach's α= 0.60. Using SPSS program, the collected data were analyzed by Frequency, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, respectively. Results: In the analyze of the results of personality complying with general characteristics, there were statistically significant differences in age. It was shown that the personality of the old with the age of 61-65 is positive. There were no significant differences in thee attitude toward death complying with general characteristics. The hypothesis in this study, the correlation that the more positive personality of the old, the more positive attitude toward death was supported. Conclusion: Since the elderly people with more positive personality may have more positive attitude toward death, it is considered that the old themselves, their family and workers might help to haw positive personality for the positive attitude toward death.