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      • KCI등재

        郭再祐 宜寧 倡義의 含意

        최재호(Choi Jae-ho) 국방부 군사편찬연구소 2015 군사 Vol.- No.96

        Kwak Jae-Woo(郭再祐) was the first person to raise Righteous Army during Im-Jin-Wae-Ran(壬辰倭亂), and in this paper I intend to analyze and research into the significance and background of his raising righteous army in Ui-Ryeong(宜寧). Firstly, I have given insight to the historical background and significance of the raising in Ui-Ryeong. as discussed in previous researches, the reasons why the continuous defeats of Cho-Seon in the early stages of Im-Jin-Wae-Ran were due to disorder in military administration and slackened discipline in national defence; however this paper puts emphasis on the necessity of looking into the exterior influential factor of the Japan, the world’s strongest military powerhouse at that time. In addition, I have discussed how his competence as a commander of the Righteous Army was possible to be formed, since Kwak was also a general who has outstanding realistic judgment and a sense of neutrality; and also the solidarity of the Ui-Ryeong troops. Secondly, I argued that Kwak’s raising of the Righteous Army in Ui-Ryeong contains more significance than just being the first, since he was able to raise the Army albeit the deficient conditions, especially centered around his relationship with Seon-Jo(宣祖). Moreover, I have examined the fact that Kwak’s raising gave peace to the unstable public at that time, and served as a catalyst for other raising of righteous armies to occur. Thirdly, I have confirmed that the strategic effects of the raising army in Ui-Ryeong is not just limited to local defence of Kyeong-Sang-Woo-Do(慶尙右道) beyond that it provides a turning point to the Choseon government to protect Ho-Nam(湖南) and the naval forces bases, restrain the exile of Seon-Jo and lead the participation of Myung(明) troops into war. In the thesis I have examined the defense strategies that Kwak adopted to fight against the Japanese troops three major skills, bird-rifle(鳥銃), swordwielding, charging at enemies and defense strategies adopted when positioned in a river. Among recent researches on the history of Im-Jin-Wae-Ran Righteous Army are at standstill. I proudly present this paper, as I wish this paper serves as a catalyst of more academic endeavors on the Im-Jin-Wae-Ran Righteous Army.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Morin exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts via the upregulation of Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression and the activation of the ERK pathway

        Lee, Moon Hee,Han, Min Ho,Lee, Dae-Sung,Park, Cheol,Hong, Su-Hyun,Kim, Gi-Young,Hong, Sang Hoon,Song, Kyoung Seob,Choi, Il-Whan,Cha, Hee-Jae,Choi, Yung Hyun UNKNOWN 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR MEDICINE Vol.39 No.2

        <P>In the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective efficacy of morin, a natural flavonoid, against oxidative stress and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in C2C12 myoblasts. Our results indicated that morin treatment prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure significantly increased cell viability and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species. H2O2-induced comet-like DNA formation and gamma H2AX phosphorylation were also markedly suppressed by morin with a parallel inhibition of apoptosis in C2C12 myoblasts, suggesting that morin prevented H2O2-induced cellular DNA damage. Furthermore, morin markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) associated with the induction and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the inhibition of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keapl) expression. Notably, these events were eliminated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA. Additional experiments demonstrated that the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by morin was mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. This phenomenon was confirmed with suppressed Nrf2 phosphorylation and consequently diminished HO-1 expression in cells treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK. Collectively, these results demonstrated that morin augments the cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling, which involves the activation of the ERK pathway, thereby protecting C2C12 myoblasts from H2O2,-induced oxidative cytotoxicity.</P>

      • Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins attenuate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions via suppression of NF-kB and STAT1 and activation of Nrf2/ARE-mediated heme oxygenase-1

        ( Jae Ho Choi ),( Sun Woo Jin ),( Eun Hee Han ),( Bong Hwan Park ),( Hyung Gyun Kim ),( Tilak Khanal ),( Yong Pil Hwang ),( Minh Truong Do ),( Hyun Sun Lee ),( Young Chul Chung ),( Hee Suk Kim ),( Tae 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2014 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.24 No.0

        Purpose: The consequences of precipitously rising allergic skin inflammation rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Natural product-based agents with good efficacy and low risk of side effects offer promising prevention and treatment strategies for inflammation-related diseases. We have already reported that Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins (Changkil saponins, CKS) have many pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, but its influence on AD remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of CKS, mainly platycodin D, on AD-like skin symptoms in mice and the possible mechanisms in cells. Methods: Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Four weeks after challenge, mice were treated with oral administration of CKS for 4 weeks. In addition, cells were used to evaluate the effect of CKS, mainly platycodin D, on the TARC expression regulated mechanism. Results: CKS attenuated DNCB-induced dermatitis severity, serum levels of IgE and TARC, and mRNA expression of TARC, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in mice. Histopathological examination showed reduced thickness of the epidermis/dermis and dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells and mast cells in the ears. Moreover, CKS and platycodin D inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC expression through the suppression of NF-κB and STAT1 and induction of Nrf2/ARE-mediated hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cells. Conclusion: We suggest that CKS and platycodin D inhibited the development of AD-like skin symptoms by regulating cytokine mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD-like skin symptoms.ⓒ2014 Elsevler Gmbh. All rights reserved.

      • KCI등재
      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic Acid Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response through the Activation of Nrf2 Pathway in BV2 Microglial Cells

        ( Jae Won Lee ),( Yong Jun Choi ),( Jun Ho Park ),( Jae Young Sim ),( Yong Soo Kwon ),( Hee Jae Lee ),( Sung Soo Kim ),( Wan Joo Chun ) 한국응용약물학회 2013 Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) Vol.21 No.1

        3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid (THC) is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acids, which have been reported to possess a variety of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective activities. However, biological activity of THC has not been extensively examined. Recently, we reported that THC possesses anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. However, its precise mechanism by which THC exerts anti-inflammatory action has not been clearly identified. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of THC in BV2 microglial cells. THC effectively suppressed the LPS-induced induction of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, TNF-a, and IL-1b. THC also suppressed expression of MCP-1, which plays a key role in the migration of activated microglia. To understand the underlying mechanism by which THC exerts these anti-inflammatory properties, involvement of Nrf2, which is a cytoprotective transcription factor, was examined. THC resulted in increased phosphorylation of Nrf2 with consequent expression of HO-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. THC-induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 was blocked with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, indicating that p38 MAPK is the responsible kinase for the phosphorylation of Nrf2. Taken together, the present study for the first time demonstrates that THC exerts anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of Nrf2 in BV2 microglial cells, suggesting that THC might be a valuable therapeutic adjuvant for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders in the CNS.

      • Protective Effects of Hyperoside against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

        Choi, Jun-Ho,Kim, Dong-Wook,Yun, Nari,Choi, Jae-Sue,Islam, Md. Nurul,Kim, Yeong-Shik,Lee, Sun-Mee American Chemical Society and American Society of 2011 Journal of natural products Vol.74 No.5

        <P>In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of hyperoside (<B>1</B>), a flavonoid glycoside isolated from <I>Artemisia capillaris</I>, have been examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl<SUB>4</SUB>)-induced liver injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or <B>1</B> (50, 100, and 200 mg·kg<SUP>−1</SUP>) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl<SUB>4</SUB> (20 μL·kg<SUP>−1</SUP>) injection. Levels of serum aminotransferases were increased 24 h after CCl<SUB>4</SUB> injection, and these increases were attenuated by <B>1</B>. Histological analysis showed that <B>1</B> prevented portal inflammation, centrizonal necrosis, and Kupffer cell hyperplasia. Lipid peroxidation was increased and hepatic glutathione content was decreased significantly after CCl<SUB>4</SUB> treatment, and these changes were reduced by administration of <B>1</B>. Protein and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) significantly increased after CCl<SUB>4</SUB> injection. Compound <B>1</B> suppressed TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression and augmented HO-1 protein and mRNA expression and Nrf2 nuclear protein expression. These results suggest that <B>1</B> has protective effects against CCl<SUB>4</SUB>-induced acute liver injury, and this protection is likely due to enhancement of the antioxidative defense system and suppression of the inflammatory response.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/jnprdf/2011/jnprdf.2011.74.issue-5/np200001x/production/images/medium/np-2011-00001x_0006.gif'></P>

      • KCI등재

        함박꽃나무(Magnolia sieboldii)의 추출성분

        최인호,이학주,최돈하,박재인,최태호 한국목재공학회 2004 목재공학 Vol.32 No.2

        함박꽃나무 수피 및 목부의 EtOH 조추출물로부터 prep. TLC. silica gel 및 Sephadex LH-20 칼럼 크로마토그라피를 이용하여 4종의 화합물을 단리하였다. 이들 화합물들은 NMR, MS 등의 기기분석에 의해 sesquiterpene lactone 구조의 costunolide (Ⅰ)를 비롯하여, 리그난 배당체 화합물인 syringin (Ⅱ)과 1, 2-dihydroxyxanthone (Ⅲ) 및 vanillic acid (Ⅳ)으로 각각 동정하였다. Four phenolic compounds were isolated from the wood and bark of Magnolia sieboldii. The structures were determined as costunolide(Ⅰ), syringin(Ⅱ), 1,2-dihydroxyxanthone(Ⅲ), and vanillic acid(Ⅳ), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopie data.

      • KCI등재

        결핵성 흉막염의 치료에 있어서의 프레드니솔론의 효과

        조재연,심재정,인광호,유진목,안태훈,강경호,유세화,김건,최영호,유홍옥,김동순 대한내과학회 1990 대한내과학회지 Vol.38 No.1

        Tuberculous pleurisy is a relatively common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. To evaluate whether prednisolone treatment can prevent pleural adhesion and result in early absorption of effusion in tuberculosu pleurisy, we studied 51 cases of exudative tuberulous pleurisy patients from Dec. 51 to Aug. 1987 by prospective randomized trials. Prednisolone was administered 5㎎/㎏/day for 3 wks in the steroid group. The results obtained were as follows: 1) At 3 months after treatment, the effusion was nearly absorbed in 6 of 18(33.3%) patients of steroid group, in 4 of 33(12.2%) patients of the non steroid group, and in 10 of the total 51(19.6%) patients. 2) At 9 months after treatment, pleural adhesion above the minimal degree was observed in 17 of 33(51. 5%). patients of the steroid group, in 8 of 18(44.4%) patients of non steroid group, and in 25 of 51(49.0%) patients in total. Among those patients, severe adhesion was developed in 2 of 51(4%) patients. 3) Pleural adhesion was developed in 14 of 33(42.4%) patients of the small amount group and 11 of 18(61.1%) patients of the large amount group. 4) Pleural adhesion was developed in 7 of 15(46.4%) patients of the early treatment group(<10 days of symptom onset), and 18 of 36(50%) patients of the late treatment group(>10 days). In conclusion, pleural adhesion was observed in a relatively large number of patients with tuberculous pleurisy after chemotherapy. Prednisolone resulted in early absorption of fluid, but could not prevent pleural adhesion significantly.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic Acid Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response through the Activation of Nrf2 Pathway in BV2 Microglial Cells

        Lee, Jae-Won,Choi, Yong-Jun,Park, Jun-Ho,Sim, Jae-Young,Kwon, Yong-Soo,Lee, Hee Jae,Kim, Sung-Soo,Chun, Wanjoo The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology 2013 Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) Vol.21 No.1

        3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid (THC) is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acids, which have been reported to possess a variety of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective activities. However, biological activity of THC has not been extensively examined. Recently, we reported that THC possesses anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. However, its precise mechanism by which THC exerts anti-inflammatory action has not been clearly identified. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of THC in BV2 microglial cells. THC effectively suppressed the LPS-induced induction of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IL-$1{\beta}$. THC also suppressed expression of MCP-1, which plays a key role in the migration of activated microglia. To understand the underlying mechanism by which THC exerts these anti-inflammatory properties, involvement of Nrf2, which is a cytoprotective transcription factor, was examined. THC resulted in increased phosphorylation of Nrf2 with consequent expression of HO-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. THC-induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 was blocked with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, indicating that p38 MAPK is the responsible kinase for the phosphorylation of Nrf2. Taken together, the present study for the first time demonstrates that THC exerts anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of Nrf2 in BV2 microglial cells, suggesting that THC might be a valuable therapeutic adjuvant for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders in the CNS.

      • Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of morin against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress are associated with the induction of Nrf-2-mediated HO-1 expression in V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts

        Lee, Moon Hee,Cha, Hee-Jae,Choi, Eun Ok,Han, Min Ho,Kim, Sung Ok,Kim, Gi-Young,Hong, Su Hyun,Park, Cheol,Moon, Sung-Kwon,Jeong, Soon-Jeong,Jeong, Moon-Jin,Kim, Wun-Jae,Choi, Yung Hyun Spandidos Publications 2017 International journal of molecular medicine Vol.39 No.3

        <P>Natural phytochemicals of plant origin, including flavonoids, have been found to be potent antioxidants providing beneficial effects against oxidative stress-related diseases. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant properties of morin, a flavonoid originally isolated from the flowering plants of the Moraceae family. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(center dot+)) radical scavenging activity were determined. We also investigated the cytoprotective effects of morin against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that morin had strong scavenging effects against ABTS' radicals with enhanced SOD activity, which varied in a dose-dependent manner. Morin was found to reduce H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and nuclear DNA damage, and it recovered cell viability damaged by H2O2 via inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated apoptosis. Notably, the treatment of V79-4 cells with morin markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) but not quinone oxidoreductase-1, which was associated with the increased expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the downregulation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 expression. Based on our findings, we conclude that morin effectively ameliorated oxidative stress-induced DNA damage through intrinsic free radical scavenging activity and activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.</P>

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