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( Tuan Hiep Tran ),( Thiruganesh Ramasamy ),( Hyuk Jun Cho ),( Yong Ll Kim ),( Bijay Kumar Poudel ),( Han Gon Choi ),( Chul Soon Yong ),( Jong Oh Kim ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2014 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.24 No.0
The main aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of raloxifene (RXF), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, by incorporation into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). RXF-loaded SLN was prepared by homogenization-sonication technique and characterized through physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and cytotoxicity studies. The optimized SLN formulation exhibited a spherical shape with average size around 140 nm, easing its transport across the lymphatic system. Augmentation in the profiles of C(max) (308%) and AUC (270%) indicated a significant enhancement in the rate and extent of bioavailability by SLN formulations compared to free drug. In vitro cytotoxicity study performed in NIH-3T3 cells revealed that RXF-SLN was cytocompatible, and SLN remained unchanged during the freeze-drying process. Furthermore, the optimized formulation was quite stable at room temperature for more than two months, exemplifying its superior performance. In conclusion, SLN provides a promising platform for the pronounced enhancement of RXF bioavailability.
( Tilak Khanal ),( Hyung Gyun Kim ),( Minh Truong Do ),( Jae Ho Choi ),( Yong Chul Chung ),( Hee Suk Kim ),( Youn Joon Park ),( Tae Cheon Jeong ),( Hye Gwang Jeong ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2014 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.24 No.0
Genipin is a compound found in gardenia fruit extract with diverse pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism underlying genipin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of genipin on COX-2 expression and determined that exposure to genipin dose-dependently enhanced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX-2 metabolite, in RAW 264.7 cells. These effects were mediated by genipin-induced activation of the COX-2 promoter, as well as AP-1 and NF-κB luciferase constructs. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt and MAPKs were also significantly activated by genipin, and Akt and MAPKs inhibitors (PD98059, SB20358, SP600125, and LY294002) inhibited genipin-induced COX-2 expression. Moreover, genipin increased production of the ROS and the ROS-producing NAPDH-oxidase (NOX) family oxidases, NOX2 and NOX3. Inhibition of NADPH with diphenyleneiodonium attenuated ROS production, COX-2 expression and NF-κB and AP-1 activation. These results suggest that the molecular mechanism mediating ROS-dependent COX-2 up-regulation and PGE2 production by genipin involves activation of Akt, MAPKs and AP-1/NF-κB.ⓒ2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oxidative stress-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The current study investigated the protective effect of hirsutenone against disruption of the intestinal barrier in vitro and in a mouse model of colitis. Caco-2 cells were stimulated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH). Hirsutenone prevented the t-BH-induced increase in permeability by inhibiting the reduction in zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression, and rapidly stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Hirsutenone-mediated protection against the loss of ZO-1 depends on the activation of both ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Interestingly, hirsutenone-mediated activation of Akt, but not ERK1/2, signaling was EGFR-dependent. Hirsutenone increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through both EGFR/Akt- and ERK1/2-dependent pathways, contributing to the protective effects against TJ dysfunction. Colitis was induced in mice by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Hirsutenone administration improved the clinical parameters and tissue histological appearance, increased HO-1 expression, attenuated reduction of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA, and promoted BrdU incorporation in the colonic epithelium of TNBS-treated mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that hirsutenone reverse disordered intestinal permeability by activating EGFR/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, which are involved in the regulation of HO-1 expression. These findings highlight the potential of hirsutenone for clinical applications in the treatment of IBD.ⓒ2014 Elsevier inc All rights reserved.
( Jin Ah Kim ),( Dong Hwan Kim ),( Mohammad Akbar Hossain ),( Min Young Kim ),( Bokyung Sung ),( Jeong Hyun Yoon ),( Hongsuk Suh ),( Tae Cheon Jeong ),( Hae Yong Chung ),( Nam Deuk Kim ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2014 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.24 No.0
Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, is a naturally occurring phytochemical and is found in a variety of plants, including food such as grapes, berries and peanuts. It has gained much attention for its potential anticancer activity against various types of human cancer. However, the usefulness of resveratrol as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by its photosensitivity and metabolic instability. In this study the effects of a synthetic analogue of resveratrol, HS-1793, on the proliferation and apoptotic cell death were investigated using MCF-7 (wild-type p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mutant p53) human breast cancer cells. HS-1793 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis was determined by morphological changes, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) poly-merase, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase activities. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that HS-1793 induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression in both types of cells. Of note, HS-1793 induced p53/p21WAF1/CIP1-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, whereas it exhibited p53-independent apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, HS-1793 showed more potent anticancer effects in several aspects compared to resveratrol in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, these findings suggest that HS-1793 has potential as a candidate chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer.
Luotonin A, a pyrroloquinolinequinoline alkaloid, is a natural inhibitor of topoisomerase I. In the present study, cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition by luotonin A was examined in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human recombinant cDNA-expressed human CYPs using a cocktail probe assay to investigate potential drug-drug interactions. Luotonin A selectively inhibited CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation with an IC(50) of 6.3 μM in HLMs, and strongly decreased CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation dose-dependently in HLMs, but did not inhibit it time-dependently. Furthermore, the Lineweaver-Burk and secondary plots for the inhibition of CYP1A2 in HLMs well fitted competitive inhibition mode. Luotonin A showed the selectivity of inhibitory effects on CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP 1A1 and 1A2, respectively.Luotonin A was found to be a potent CYP1A inhibitor that might cause drug-drug interactions when co-administrated with CYP1A substrates.
A unique flurbiprofen-loaded nanoemulsion was listed earlier using a Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane emulsification technique, which gave constant emulsion droplets with a thin size distribution. In this study, a flurbiprofen-loaded nanoemulsion was developed further into a solid form using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a carrier by a spray-drying technique. The flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles with a weight ratio of flurbiprofen/PVP/surfactant mixture of 1/8/2 were connected with about 130,000-fold enhanced drug solubility and had a mean size of about 70nm. In these nanoparticles, flurbiprofen was found in an altered amorphous state. Additionally, the nanoparticles gave significantly shorter T(max), and greater AUC and C(max) compared to the commercially available product. Specially, the AUC of the drug from the nanoparticles was about 10-fold greater compared to the commercially available product. Therefore, these flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles can be convenient for distributing a poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen with improved bioavailability using uniform nano-sized particles.
Cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hydrogel was developed for application to wound dressings. Todetermine the optimum conditions for wound dressing materials, PEO with different molecular weights and variousPEO/poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) compositions were irradiated in order to obtain cross-linked hydrogelsusing an electron beam with various beam intensities. The contents of the PEGDA influenced the gel fraction,swelling ratio, mechanical properties, and water vapor transmission rate. To evaluate the healing effect of PEO/PEGDA cross-linked hydrogel for wound dressing, wounds on the backs of mice were covered with PEO/PEGDAhydrogel films. Healing under the wet environment of the hydrogel dressing was faster than with a gauze controland a commercial reference. The results demonstrate the possibility of the facile production of mechanically robustand transparent wound dressing materials with improved wound healing characteristics.