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( Ying Li ), ( Donggen Piao ), ( Haiyan Zhang ), ( Mi Hee Woo ), ( Je Hyun Lee ), ( Dong Cheul Moon ), ( Seung Ho Lee ), ( Hyeun Wook Chang ), ( Jong Keun Son ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2013 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.23 No.0
Cynanchum auriculatum and Cynanchum wilfordii are widely used as folk medicine in Eastern Asia. However, the indeterminacy in the authentic original plant material has resulted in the same appellative name being given to the two plants, and they are commonly misused. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an analytical method for discrimination as well as quality control of the two species. This study was to develop HPLC-UV methods for quality assessment of C. auriculatum and C. wilfordii anddiscrimination between the two species. Two HPLC methods to analyze eight marker compounds were established and validated. The first method analyzed seven marker compounds simultaneously on a reversed-phase column, while the second method analyzed a single marker compound, conduritol F, which exists only in C. wilfordii, on a Si-column. Thirty-nine batches of C. auriculatum and nineteen batches of C. wilfordii that were collected from different geographical regions of South Korea were analyzed by these methods. The constructed data matrix was subjected to principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis in order to classify the samples. The established methods offer a potential strategy for authentication and differentiation of the two species.
( Dongyup Hahn ), ( Dong Hwan ), ( Bora Mun ), ( Hiyoung Kim ), ( Chulkyeong Han ), ( Weihong Wang ), ( Taeho Chun ), ( Sunhee Park ), ( Dajeong Yoon ), ( Hyukjae Choi ), ( Sang Jip Nam ), ( Merrick Ekins ), ( Ju) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2013 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.23 No.0
Three novel scalarane sesterterpenes were isolated from a Korean marine sponge, Psammocinia sp., along with four known derivatives. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, MS and IR spectroscopic data. The three new compounds are 12-deacetoxy-23-hydroxyscalaradial (1), 12-dehydroxy-23-hydroxyhyrtiolide (2) and 12-O-acetyl-16-deacetoxy-23-acetoxyscalarafuran (3), respectively, and the four known compounds are 12-deacetoxy-23-hydroxyheteronemin (4), 12-deacetoxy-23-acetoxy-19-O-acetylscalarin (5), 12-deacetoxy-23-O-acetoxyheteronemin (6) and 12-deacetoxyscalaradial (7). They exhibited cytotoxicity against intractable human cancer cell lines A498, ACHN, MIA-paca and PANC-1, with an IC50 range of 0.4-48 μM. ⓒ2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserves.
( Yun Jeong Jeong ), ( Hyun Ji Cho ), ( Key Whang ), ( In Seon Lee ), ( Kwan Kyu Park ), ( Jung Yoon Choe ), ( Sang Mi Han ), ( Cheorl Ho Kim ), ( Hyeun Wook Chang ), ( Sung Kwon Moon ), ( Wun Jea Kim ), ( Yung ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2013 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.23 No.0
Matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) after an arterial injury. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-atheroscleroic effects ofmelittin, a major component of bee venom, in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Melttin significantly suppressed MMP-9 and MMP-2 secretion, as well as TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in the HASMCs. In addition, we found that the inhibitory effects of melittin on TNF-α-induced MMP-9 protein expression are associated with the inhibition of MMP-9 transcription levels. Mechanistically, Melittin suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-9 activity by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2, but did not affect the phosphorylation of JNK and Akt. Reporter gene and western blotting assays showed that melittin inhibits MMP-9 transcriptional activity by blocking the activation of NF-κB via IκBα signaling pathway. Moreover, the matrigel migration assay showed that melittin reduced TNF-α-induced HASMC migration. These results suggest that melittin suppresses TNF-α-induced HASMC migration through the selective inhibition of MMP-9 expression and provide a novel role of melittin in the anti-atherosclerotic action.ⓒ2012Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
( Jin Jin ), ( Yichuan Xiao ), ( Jae Hoon Chang ), ( Jiayi Yu ), ( Hongbo Hu ), ( Robyn Starr ), ( George C Brittain ), ( Mikyoung Chang ), ( Xuhong Cheng ), ( Shao Cong Sun ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2013 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.23 No.0
Immunoglobulin class switching is crucial for the generation of antibody diversity in humoral immunity and, when deregulated, also has severe pathological consequences. How the magnitude of immunoglobulin isotype switching is controlled is still poorly understood. Here we identify thekinase TBK1 as a pivotal negative regulator of class switching to the immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype. B cell-specific ablation of TBK1 in mice resulted in uncontrolled production of IgA and the development of nephropathy-like disease signs. TBK1 negatively regulated IgA class switchingby attenuating noncanonical signaling via the transcription factor NF-κB, an action that involved TBK1-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of the NF-κB-inducing kinase NIK. Our findings establish TBK1 as a pivotal negative regulator of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway and identify a unique mechanism that controls IgA production.
The aim of our study was to characterize and optimize a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) formulation by a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with a desirability function. The independent factors were the amounts of Capryol PGMC (X(1)), Tween 20 (X(2)), and Transcutol HP (X(3)). The dependent variables were droplet size (Y(1)), equilibrium solubility (Y(2)), and cumulative percentage ofdrug released in 15 min (Y(3)) from the SNEDDS formulation. The responses were fitted to a second-order quadratic model and statistical validation of the fitted models was carried out by analysis of variance. Various response surface graphs and contour plots were constructed to understand the effects of different factor level combinations on the responses. The optimized SNEDDS formulation consisting of Capryol PGMC-Tween 20-Transcutol HP at proportions of 5:58.4:40 (w/w) was prepared and a comparison of the predicted values and experimental values was found to be in close agreement. Furthermore, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study of the optimized SNEDDS formulation showed a 2.2-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability compared with that of the suspension. In conclusion, the BBD demonstrated its effectiveness in optimizing the SNEDDS formulation and in understanding the effects of formulation variables on the performance of SNEDDS.ⓒ2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 101:4584_4596,2012
( Yichuan Xiao ), ( Jin Jin ), ( Mikyoung Chang ), ( Jae Hoon Chang ), ( Hongbo Hu ), ( Xiaofei Zhou ), ( George C Brittain ), ( Christine Stansberg ), ( Qivind Torkildsen ), ( Xiaodong Wang ), ( Robert Brink ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2013 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.23 No.0
Microglia are crucial for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Peli1 is abundantly expressed in microglia and promotes microglial activation during the course of EAE induction. Peli1mediates the induction of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines in microglia and therebypromotes recruitment of T cells into the central nervous system. The severity of EAE is reduced inPeli1-deficient mice despite their competent induction of inflammatory T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Notably, Peli1 regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway signaling by promoting degradation of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (Traf3), a potent inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and gene induction. Ablation of Traf3 restores microglial activation and CNS inflammation after the induction of EAE in Peli1-deficient mice. These findings establish Peli1 as a microglia-specific mediator of autoimmune neuroinflammation and suggest a previously unknown signaling mechanism of Peli1 function.
Effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity were investigated. When male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of DAS in corn oil for three consecutive days, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1-selective p-nitrophenol hydroxylase was dose-dependently suppressed. In addition, the activities of CYP 2B-selective benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase were significantly induced by the treatment with DAS. Western immunoblotting analyses also indicated the suppression of CYP 2E1 protein and/or the induction of CYP 2B protein by DAS. To investigate a possible role of metabolic activation by CYP enzymes in thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity, rats were pre-treated with 400 mg/kg of DAS for 3 days, followed by a single intraperitoneal treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg of thioacetamide in saline for 24 hr. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly elevated by thioacetamide were protected in DAS-pretreated animals. Likewise, the suppressed antibody response to sheep erythrocytes by thioacetamide was protected by DAS pretreatment in female BALB/c mice. Taken together, our present results indicated that thioacetamide might be activated to its toxic metabolite(s) by CYP 2E1, not by CYP 2B, in rats and mice.
Mollugin originally isolated from Rubia cordifolia is a pharmacological compound for its anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and anti-viral activity. In the present study, a cocktail probe assay was performed for determination of the selective inhibitory effect of mollugin on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLM). Incubation of isoform-specific substrate probes CYPs withmollugin (0-25μM) in HLM resulted in strong inhibition of CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation, showing IC(50) values of 1.03 and 3.55μM without and with pre-incubation, respectively.Mollugin-caused inhibition of phenacetin O-deethylation was concentration-dependent in HLMs, but not time-dependent. In addition, the Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated a typical competitive inhibition.Inhibitory effects of mollugin on human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP1A1 and 1A2 were comparable. Taken together, the results suggested that mollugin might cause herb-drug interaction through selective inhibition of CYP1A2 in humans receiving herbal medications, including R. cordifolia.ⓒ2012 Elsevier Lrd . All righrs reserved.
( Kyu Yeon Jun ), ( Hanbyeol Kwon ), ( So Eun Park ), ( Eunyoung Lee ), ( Radha Karki ), ( Pritam Thapa ), ( Jun Ho Lee ), ( Eung Seok Lee ), ( Youngjoo Kwon ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2014 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.24 No.0
We describe our rationale for designing specific catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II (topo II) over topoisomerase I (topo I). Based on 3D-QSAR studies of previously published dihydroxylated 2,4-diphenyl-6-aryl pyridine derivatives, 9 novel dihydroxylated 2,4-diphenyl-6-thiophen-2-yl pyridine compounds were designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. These compounds have 2-thienyl ring substituted on the R(3) group on the pyridine ring and they all showed excellent specificity toward topo II compared to topo I. In vitro experiments were performed for compound 13 to determine the mechanism of action for this series of compounds. Compound 13 inhibited topoisomerase II specifically by non-intercalative binding to DNA and did not stabilize enzyme-cleavable DNA complex. Compound 13 efficiently inhibited cell viability, cell migration, and induced G1 arrest. Also from 3D-QSAR studies, the results were compared with other previously published dihydroxylated 2,4-diphenyl-6-aryl pyridine derivatives to explain the structure-activity relationships.ⓒ2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.