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( Myung Jin Lee ),( Kye Hyung Kim ),( Jong Youn Yi ),( Su Jin Choi ),( Chung Jong Kim ),( Nak Hyun Kim ),( Kyoung Ho Song ),( Pyoeng Gyun Choi ),( Ji Hwan Bang ),( Wan Beom Park ),( Eu Suk Kim ),( San 대한내과학회 2014 대한내과학회 추계학술대회 Vol.2014 No.1
In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Ribavirin Against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Myung Jin LEE1, Kye-Hyung KIM1, Jongyoun YI2, SuJin CHOI1, Chung-Jong KIM1, Nak- Hyun KIM1, Kyoung-Ho SONG1, Pyoeng Gyun CHOI1, Ji-Hwan BANG1, Wan Beom PARK1, Eu Suk KIM1, Sang-Won PARK1, Hong Bin KIM1, Nam Joong KIM1, Myoung- Don OH1 Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea1, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Korea2 Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel Bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). No effective antiviral therapy is proven yet, but clinical use of ribavirin (RBV) has been tried. We investigated the antiviral effect of RBV against SFTSV in vitro. Methods: To test for cytotoxicity of RBV, Vero cells were treated with different concentrations of RBV (3.90 to 500 μg/mL, two-fold dilution) and analyzed by cell viability MTS assay 48h post-infection. To determine antiviral activity of RBV against SFTSV, Vero cells were infected with SFTSV strain Gangwon/Korea/2012 at 100 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) per well in a 96-well plate, and RBV was added at the concentrations showing no or minimal cytotoxicity. Viral RNAs were extracted from the culture supernatants and quantifi ed using one-step real-time reverse transcription- PCR to amplify the partial large segment of SFTSV. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA with Tukey`s post hoc test. Results: Cytotoxicity due to RBV was not observed at RBV concentration =31.3 μg/ mL. Viral RNAs at 24h post-RBV treatment were reduced with increasing RBV concentrations (1-32 μg/mL), compared with those of mock-treated cells (P <0.01, Figure). Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RBV was 3.69 μg/mL at 24h post-RBV treatment. Conclusions: Our study shows that RBV has antiviral effect against SFTSV in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies are required to evaluate the effi cacy of RBV in SFTS.
The purpose of this study was to compare the characterists and change in physique and physical function by college student of physical education major(287males and 40 females of age groups ranging from 18 to 26). The results were as following; 1) The characteristics of physique and physical function by sex and age. ① The male group of 18yrs old showed higher values in Height, Weight, Upper Limb Length, Strength, Flexibility, and Vital Capacity than any other groups, but female group showed lower values in Height, Weight, Chest Girth, Lower Limb Length, Thigh, Girth, Calf Girth and all of the Physical function. ② The male group of 19yrs old showed high values in power and Agility, then female group showed in Strength and Flexibility. ③ The male group of 20yrs old showed the lower values in Weight, Waist Girth, Upper Limb Length, Fore Arm Girth, Thigh Girh.Calf Girth, Vital Capacity, and female group are very lowed in Upper Arm Lenght, Fore Arm Length, Skin Fold Thickness and 5 minute Run. ④ The male group of 23yrs old showed the high values in Upper Arm Girth, Fore Arm Girth and Balance, and then female group higher in Weight, Chest Girth, Waist Girth, Upper Arm Girth, Fore Arm Girth, Thigh Girth, Power, Shuttle Run, Balance and vital capacity than any other age Groups. ⑤ In male group, Chest Girth, and Blood Pressure were significantly related, and Side Step and Trunk Extension were nagatively related to the age at 0.1% level, and then in female group, Sargent Jump, Standing Long Jump and Vital Capacity were showed a significantly related at 0.5% level. 2) The difference of physique and physical function between male and female by age. ① Everage difference in whole physique items except skinfold thickness was 9.8%, and that 21.1% in all of physical function except Trunk Flextion between male and female group subjects. ② About the ages, the 18yrs old male group showed the 22.8% higher values of 26 items, but 22yrs old male group were about 12.2% in 23 items, thus it is very lower than any other groups. 3) The difference of physique and physical function between General group and physical education group in age-matched. ① In the physique male physical education groups showed about 7% higher in Weight, Chest Girth, Upper Limb Length, Upper Arm Girth, Thigh Girth, and female group showed about 7% higher in Weight and Upper Limb Length. ② In the physical function, Trunk Flextion, 5 minute Run, and Blood Pressure(Diastolic) were about 8% high values in whole group, and female group showed about 8% higher in Standing Long Jump, Shuttle Run, and Trunk Extension. ③ In 22yrs old male and female physical education group were very dominated in physique and physical function than the other age group against the general group.
The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics, change in physique and physical function of college students majoring physical education and Taekwondo (454 males and 64 females of age groups ranging from 18 to 26). The results are as following: 1. The male group of 23yrs old in physical education showed highest values in 7 items(Weight, Chest Girth, Fore Arm Girth, Thigh Girth, Calf Girth, Scapular Skinfold Thickness and Suprailiac Skinfold Thickness). 2. In the Physical function, the male group of 18yrs old showed highest values in Power, Flexibility, and then 21yrs old at Back Strength, Vital Capacity, and 23yrs old at Grip Strength, and 25yrs old at Blood Pressure, respectively. 3. In the physique, the male group of 22yrs old showed highest values in Weight, Chest Girth, Thigh Girth, Calf Girth, and then 24yrs old Upper Arm Girth, Fore Arm Girth, and 19yrs old at Height, Upper Limb Length, respectively. 4. In Physical Function, the 22yrs old showed highest values in Back Strength, Vital Capacity, and then 23yrs old at Side Step, Trunk Extension, but 18yrs old showed lower Values in Grip Strength, Side Step, Vital Capacity and Blood Pressure. 5. The female group of 22yrs old showed highest values in 8 items(Height, Sitting Height, Waist Girth, Upper Limb Length, Lower Limb Length, Skinfold Thickness), and then 18yrs old at 5 items (Weight, Upper Arm Girth, Fore Arm Girth, Thigh Girth, Calf Girth), respectively. 6. In the physical function, the 22yrs old showed highest Values in Grip strength, Back Strength, Power, 5 Minute Run, and 18yrs old at flexibility, Harvard Step Test, respectively. 7. In the change of the physique for two years(1988-1989) in the male group, majoring Physical education the 22yrs old showed increase in 4 items, and the 20yrs old in 3 items, but 18yrs old showed decrease in 3 items. 8. In the change of the physical function for two years in the male group, the 20yrs old showed increase in 4 items, and the 21, 25, 26yrs old in 3 items, but the 19yrs old showed decrease in 6 items, and 18, 22 yrs old in 5 items, respectively. 9. The change of the physique for two years in all female group, of 18, 19, 20, 21yrs old showed increase in 11 items except Skinfold Thickness. 10. In the change of physical function for two years in female group, the 18yrs old showed increase in 3 items, and then 20yrs old in 5 items, but 19, 22yrs old decreased 12 items, respectively. 11. The highest significant difference in physique between male and female was found in weight(mean Value 17.5%), and the lowest difference was found Thigh Girth, Calf Girth(1,3%), Upper Limb Length, Lower Limb Length(2.5%). 12. The Highest difference in physical function was Strength (mean Value 40%), Vital Capacity (33%), Power(22%), but Lower Trunk Flexion, Foot Balance(3.4%). 13. In the difference of Physique and physical function between physical education major and taekwondo major, the physical education showed higher values in skinfold Thickines (mean Value 16.5%), Weight, Waist Girth(4.7%) and Strength(33%), Endurance(5.6%), but subjects majoring Taekwondo showed higher values in Flexibility and Foot Balance. 14. In all male groups, Waist Girth, Scapular Skinfold Thickness, Back Strength, Sargent Jump, Trunk Extension and Diastolic Blood Pressure were showed a significantly related at 0.001 level.
The purpose of this study was to examine educational effectiveness for the classroom horticulture program that can be utilized in the culture domain of practical arts in elementary school. The subjects in this study were students in two sixth grade class of elementary school. The statistical technique used for the academic achievement were percentage and t-test. The findings of this study were as follows: (1) when the two class were compared with each other after experiment, the experiment class were significantly better in cognitive achievement than the control class; (2) the culture skill achievement of the experiment class students was higher than that of control class students; (3) most students of the experiment class responded that the classroom horticulture program was very enjoyable and attractive. A summarized above, It was found that the classroom horticulture program for the academic achievement by the elementary school students in practical arts was more effective than the conventional one.
The purpose of this study were to analyze the contents of practical arts subject and other subjects related to environmental education(EE), and to suggest various aspects strategies for field application. This study was carried out through review of literature, contents analysis in the related fields. The norms in the analysis of the goals of EE by each subject were 4 domains: information and knowledge, skills, value & attitude, action and participation. The norms in the analysis of the contents of EE by each subject were 11 domains : natural environment, artificial environment, population, industrialization/urbanization, natural resources, pollution, environmental preservation and conservation, environment sanitation, environment ethics, environmentally sound and sustainable development(ESSD), and sound consumption life. Environmental education should be activated actually in extracurricular clubs and discretionary Activity. The field experience learning in environmental education should be considered good method to develop environmentally sound attitude and to cultivate environmental sensitivity. According to the result more concern about balanced EE in content areas is need at the elementary school level, Similar studies for k and secondary school levels are needed. The developmental study of EE guide book and teacher training for teaching EE using the book are also recommended.
The purpose of this study was to review the direction of experience learning of practical arts education based on the theories of experiential learning. The major findings of this study were as follows; 1.As result of reviewing literature, the concept of experiential learning, experiential learning and its related education theory, four model of experiential learning were discussed. 2.Experiential Learning of Practical Arts Education should be conceived as a process, not in terms of outcomes. Experiential learning is described as a process whereby concepts are derived from and continuously modified by experience. 3.Experiential learning of Practical Arts Education should be a continuous process based in experience. experiential learning is a continuous process based in experience has important educational significance. 4.Experiential Learning of Practical Arts Education should be demanded the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed style of adaptation to the world. New knowledge, skill, or attitudes are achieved through confrontation among four modes(concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation) of experimentation. 5.Experiential Learning of Practical Arts Education should be an holistic process of adaptation to the world. when experiential Learning is conceived as a holistic adaptive process, it provides conceptual bridges across life situations such as school and work, portraying learning as a continuous, life process. 6.Experiential Learning of Practical Arts Education should be involved dealings between the person and the environment. 7.Experiential Learning of Practical Arts Education should be the process of creating knowledge.
We consider the question of servicing warranties for repairable items. During the warranty period, each time an item fails the manufacturer has the obligation to restore the item to operational condition either by repairing the item or by replacing it by a new item. For products with phase-type lifetime distributions where the phases represent the condition of the item. We develop algorithms to determine the expected cost of servicing a warranty and use it in making the repair/replacement decision. Illustrative numerical examples are presented.
제주도에서 Alfalfa를 재배하는데 硼砂의 시용효과를 검토하기 위하여 10a當 硼砂 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0kg을 시용하고 2倜의 품종 즉 Superstan Brand 21 Alfalfa와 Rover Brand 21 Alfalfa를 6月 10日과 7月 10日에 播種하여 生草收量을 조사 검토하였다. 硼砂의 施用量 및 파종기에는 有意의 차가 있고 硼砂施用과 파종기의 상호작용에도 有意性이 인정되나 其外에는 有意의 차를 인정할 수 없었다. 1회 파종 즉 硼砂處理와 同時에 파종한 것은 1.0kg 1.5kg 施用區가 Alfalfa 增收에 가장 果的이고 이들 間에는 大差가 없으나 이들에 비하여 2.0kg인 區는 오히려 생초수량이 저하되었고 0.5kg의 施用區도 無處理에 대하여 有意的인 增收效果가 認定되었다. 硼砂處理한 1個月後에 파종한 것은 생초수량이 2.0 및 1.5kg 施用區에서 가장 많았고 0.5kg 처리구는 無施用區와 차이를 인정할 수 없었다. 본 시험의 결과 適正量의 硼砂의 施用은 Alfalfa의 增收를 助長하며 施用된 硼素의 流失도 迅速히 이루어지는 것 같다. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of borax application to the green yield of alfalfa on Che ju-do. Seeds of two varieties of alfalfa, Superstan Brand 21 alfalfa and Rover Brand 21 alfalfa, were sown on the tenth of June and on the tenth of July, Before seeding, borax was applied to the soil at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg per ten are. The results obtained are summarized as follows : The value of F for the borax amount applied and for the interaction of the borax amount and seeding date was remarkably significant. But the value for variety and other interaction was not significant. In the case of alfalfa sown on the tenth of June in borax-treated soil, the yield of the alfalfa was more than the control's yield. This tendency was most pronounced with 1.0 and 1.5kg of borax per ten are. But application of 2.0kg was less effective in increasing the yield than treatments with 1.0 and 1.5kg. In the case of those sown on the tenth of July, one month after borax application, the treatments with 1.5 and 2.0kg of borax per ten are gave highly significantly yield increases. But there was no significant difference between application of 0.5kg and the control. According to this study borax application was effective in increasing the yield of alfalfa on Cheju-do. However boron losses by percolation or chemical fixation appeared to occur rapidly on the trial field.
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The purpose of this study was to make a comparative analysis of the units on『 my career 』in Practical Arts Textbook According to 2011 Revised National Curriculum and to seek future policy direction which can be improved even better, if any, for further revision. To implement this proposal, the study employs 6 different textbooks published in 2011. An analysis criteria for textbook analysis were established through the analysis to a great deal of previously studies on textbook analysis. The analysis criteria were decided to be unit structure and page numbers. the system of unit, learning objectives, Supporting Materials, the component contents. summary, when it comes to the study method, content analysis which is appropriate for both quantitative and qualitative evaluation was used. The conclusion and suggestions drawn from this study were as follows The number of title was not the same as the component of contents described in 2011 Revised National Curriculum. In terms of composition of units, there were three stages: introduction, development and wrapping up. The introduction and wrapping up stages were similar in terms of composition. According to the results of analysis, various kinds of appropriate and inappropriate aspects were discovered from textbooks. More careful consideration is required in the statement and guidelines for object of curriculum so that a verity of textbooks including the differentiated, abundant materials can be written from angles. Further studies are needed comparative analysis of other Units on the framework suggested in this study. 이 연구는 2015년에 발행되어 학교 현장에 보급된 6종 실과 교과서의 ‘나의 진로’ 단원을 비교 분석하였다. 이 연구의 분석 준거는 단원의 배치와 쪽수, 단원 구성 체제, 학습목표, 학습내용요소, 단원보조 내용 및 활동, 체험활동, 평가이다. 분석을 통하여 얻어진 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, ‘나의 진로’단원 배치와 쪽수는 교과서간에 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 본문 구성의 대부분은 문장과 삽화의 형태로 제시되었다. 또한 단원보조 자료 중에서 용어에 대한 설명은 모든 교과서에 공통적으로 들어 있었다. 셋째, 정리하기의 형태는 다양하게 나타났다고, 가장 많은 유형은 자기평가로 나타났다. 넷째, 내용요소는 그 수나 진술 방식에 있어서 교과서 간에 차이가 있었다. 이 연구의 결과를 토대로 다음과 같이 제언한다. 첫째, ‘나의 진로’ 단원은 초등학교 진로교육에 매우 중요한 단원이므로 분석된 결과를 일선 학교 진로지도에 적극 활용해야 할 것이다. 둘째, 향후 실과 교과서 개발 시 목표는 대단원, 중단원에 모두 제시하는 것이 바람직 할 것이다. 셋째, 평가의 유형은 수렴적인 것보다는 확산형 유형이 많이 개발되고, 제시되어야 할 것이다. 넷째, 실과 검정 교과서의 분석 연구는 일선 학교에서 교과서를 채택하거나 교재 연구 시 많은 도움을 줄 수 있으므로 많은 연구가 이루어지고 그 결과가 학교 현장에서 적극 활용되어야 할 것이다.
Formed insert type tool satisfy both the surface roughness and geometric accuracy, so that cutting edge of formed tool can duplicate final feature. For experiment, the formed tools with various clearance angles are machined. And the tools are evaluated with respect cutting force, flank wear and surface roughness to optimistic condition.