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Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.
A geochemical study on a hemipelagic core sediment taken from the northwest Pacific Ocean (eastern edge of the Shikoku Basin) was conducted to use of excess barium (Ba(ex)) for evaluate the paleoceano-graphic changes. Also, the excursion of sedimentary Ba(ex) was compared with those of biogenic opal, carbonate and organic carbon content in the sediment during the last glacial and interglacial periods. The calculated Ba(ex) derived from the major and minor element shows a distinctive glacial-interglacial variations, and the mass accumulation rate (MAR) of Ba(ex) shows coincident variations with the MARs of biogenic fractions. Especially, strong positive correlation (r$^2$=0.85) between the MAR of Ba(ex) and the MAR of biogenic carbonate is recognized. Based on the strong positive correlation(r$^2$=0.85) between the MAR of Ba(ex) and the MAR of carbonate content, we estimated the degree of carbonate dissolution rate during the glacial and interglacial periods. Assuming the proportional variation and the refractory nature of barium exist between two factors, the variation of index Ca/Ba ratio in sediment indicates the degree of carbonate dissolution. Sedimentary Ca/Ba ratios index clearly show a striking fluctuation between the glacial and interglacial periods with higher positive correlation during glacial and lower correlation during interglacial. This fact indicates enhanced carbonate dissolution during interglacial period. Thus, the sedimentary Ca/Ba ratio in sedimentary records can be used as one of the useful tools for estimation of the relative degree of carbonate dissolution. The excursion of Ba(ex) and the sedimentary Ca/Ba ratio follows the typical pacific carbonate dissolution type(enhanced dissolution during interglacial and reduced dissolution during glacial time) as suggested by previous work (e.g., Wu et al., 1990). Variation in sedimentary Ca/Ba ratio thus strongly supports that glacial-interglacial fluctuation in carbonate dissolution has been prevailed in the northwest Pacific Ocean.
This study investigated the characteristics of wood tar, produced as a byproduct during the production of charcoal using oak wood by the modified traditional kiln and mechanical steel kiln. The wood tar was analyzed with a number of techniques, including Py-GC/MS, NMR, MALDI-TOF, FT-IR, TG and DSC. The Py-GC/MS analysis indicated that modified traditional kiln generated a higher hydrocarbon ratio in the wood tar than that of mechanical steel kiln. On the other hand, mechanical steel kiln resulted in a higher proportion of phenolic and aromatic hydrocarbon components than that of modified traditional kiln. Those results were also confirmed by NMR analysis. The MALDI-TOF analysis suggested that the wood tar produced in the mechanical steel kiln had a slightly higher molecular weight than the wood tar produced in the modified traditional kiln. In addition, the FT-IR analysis showed characteristic peak of symmetrical stretching vibration of CH<sub>3</sub> from the modified tra-ditional kiln while characteristic peaks of the C-C and C-O stretching vibration were observed from the mechan-ical steel kiln. Moreover, TG and DSC analysis suggested that the mechanical steel kiln is more thermally sta-ble than that of modified traditional kiln. Those findings clearly showed that the method of making charcoal greatly affects the properties of wood tar.
This paper presents 3D geometric watermarking scheme for general 3D animation model, which it has most of the hierarchical structure with various transform nodes of geometry and interpolator. The proposed scheme selects some transform nodes with geometric property and embeds the watermark into the distance distribution of vertex coordinates in the selected transform node. Experimental results verified that the proposed scheme has the robustness against most of modifiers in public 3D editing tool as well as the invisibility.
Outcomes of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) as a complication of acute myocardial infarction are extremely poor, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 45% in surgically treated patients and 90% in patients managed with medication. Delaying surgery for VSR is a strategy for reducing mortality. However, hemodynamic instability is the main problem with this strategy. In the present case, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used to provide stable hemodynamic support before the delayed surgery. Awake ECMO was also used to avoiding the complications of sedatives and mechanical ventilation. Here, we describe a successful operation using awake ECMO as a bridge to surgery.
The continuous analysis, such as smoothness and uniform convergence, for polynomials and polynomial-like functions using differential operators have been studied considerably, parallel to the study of discrete analysis for these functions, using difference operators. In this work, for the difference operator ∇h with size h > 0, we verify that for an integer m ≥ 0 and a strictly decreasing sequence hn converging to zero, a continuous function f(x) satisfying ∇<SUP>m+1</SUP>hn f(khn) = 0, for every n ≥ 1 and k ∈ Z, turns to be a polynomial of degree ≤ m. The proof used the polynomial convergence, and additionally, we investigated several conditions on convergence to polynomials.