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나노입자의 환경 유출에 따른 인체 및 생태계에 미치는 독성 문제가 제기됨에 따라 나노입자의 환경 안정성에 대한 우려가 증대되고 있다. 다양한 나노 연구분야중에서도 환경 시료 내 나노입자의 검출 및 분석에 대한 연구가 최우선과제로 인식되고 있다. 유도결합플라즈마 질량분석기(ICP-MS)는 무기물질에 대한 정확하고 정밀한 분석기술로서, 환경 시료 내에 존재하는 금속나노입자의 검출을 위한 유망한 분석기술이다. 이에, 본 연구에서는 실시간 모드의 유도결합플라즈마 질량분석기술(RTSP-ICP-MS)의 원리 및 분석절차를 소개하였으며, 구연산(citrate)으로 코팅된 은나노입자를 대상으로 분석기술의 적용 가능성을 평가하였다. RTSP-ICP-MS 분석 결과, 60 nm와 100 nm 은나노입자의 입자수 기준(number-weighted) 평균 크기는 53.0±7.4 nm와 103.6±13.8 nm였다. RTSP-ICP-MS 분석결과를 검증하기 위해 전자투과현미경(TEM) 분석을 실시한 결과 입자의 평균크기는 각각 60.1±3.7 nm와 96.8±9.5 nm였고, 동적산란기(DLS) 분석을 통한 z-average 값은 59.1±0.2 nm와 95.3±0.8 nm로 나타났다. 다양한 기술을 적용한 은나노입자의 크기분석 결과를 통해 RTSP-ICP-MS 기술을 이용한 금속나노입자의 분석가능성을 검증하였다. 향후, 다양한 환경 매질(담수, 폐수, 슬러지, 퇴적물 및 토양 등)내에 존재하는 금속나노입자의 검출 및 분석을 위한 향후 연구가 필요하다. Significant concern has been laid on the environmental safety of nanoparticles due to their exposure and toxicity to human and ecosystems. Among the research topics, detection and analysis of nanoparticles in the environmental matrix is regarded as the most important and pressing work. Owing to its precise and accurate analytical power to inorganics, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a very promising tool to detect metal nanoparticles in the environmental samples. Here, we introduced the principles and procedures of on Realtime Single Particle mode ICP-MS (RTSP-ICP-MS) technique and evaluated its applicability to citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). RTSP-ICP-MS determined AgNPs of 60 nm and 100 nm to 53.0 ±7.4 nm and 103.6±13.8 nm, respectively, which were the number-weighted average sizes. Comparative measurements suggested that sizes by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were 60.1±3.7 nm and 96.8±9.5 nm and z-averages by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) were 59.1±0.2 nm and 95.3±0.8 nm, respectively. The results prove the feasibility of RTSP-ICP-MS for metal-nanoparticles. We have many challenges to be overcome for detection and measurement of metal nanoparticles in environmental samples such as fresh water, wastewater, sludges, sediments and soils.
Gamak Bay, Deukryang Bay, and Doam Bay were designated as Environmental preservation sea areas for conservation of fishery resources by the Korean government. It is essential to maintain the chemical status of these environments, particularly for heavy metals that pose potential risks to fishery resources. This study was, therefore, carried out to investigate the concentration distribution and potential risk of seven heavy metals, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, and Hg present in the surface sediments (n = 116) of these sea areas during March and August 2009. The metal concentrations in the sampling sites was found to be highly variable. The dominant metals were Zn (mean = 118.22 mg/kg) for Gamak Bay, Cr (mean = 19.07 mg/kg) for Dyukryang Bay, and Zn (mean = 39.07 mg/kg) for Doam Bay. Overall, the order of the target metals was Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > As > Hg > Cd. Additionally, the metal concentrations were categorized as less than Igeo Class 2 `Moderately polluted`; except for As determined during March in Gamak Bay. As had concentrations that categorized it under Igeo Class 3 `Moderately/strongly polluted`.
In this study, we have developed a portable light-scattering turbidimeter by combining an MPU(microprocessing unit, ADuC-848) and an AD/DC converter. In short, the developed device has a simplified circuit structure and showed improved performance. The calibration curve for NTUmanual vs NTUsensor was found to be linear over the range of 0 NTU to 40 NTU. Calibration sensitivity (slope) was and was 0.9996. In addition, the calibration curve for NTUmanual vs NTUsensor was linear over the range of 0 NTU to 400 NTU. Calibration sensitivity is and is 0.9999.
The present study analyzed total mercury in whole blood from total of 4500 samples: adults = 2000, students = 1000 and infants = 800 (parents = 600), of Korean that were collected between 2010 and 2011 survey years using Gold Amalgamation-Direct Mercury Analyser (DMA-80). Geometric mean (GM) of adults, students and infants (parents) were 3.90 μg/L, 2.15 μg/L, 2.06 μg/L (3.23 μg/L), respectively, showing proportional relationship between age and total mercury concentration in whole blood. When the samples were analyzed in relation to gender, total mercury concentration was higher in male samples (3.11 μg/L) than female samples (2.76 μg/L). When the samples were analyzed in relation region, total mercury concentration was higher in coastal area samples (3.60 μg/L) than inland area samples (2.98 μg/L) with significance (p<0.05). Total mercury concentrations of 496 pairs of mother and infant showed low linearity with R^2=0.026. The above statistical analysis was performed using PASW Statistics 18 (Version 18.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL).