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臺灣「工地書寫」於近兩年間興起,本文以林立青、曾文昌作品為例,透過比較其異同,探究非虛構寫作中的抒情主體。林立青以工地主任凝視工地人事物,其位置既是又不是工人,憑藉特殊的視野照見工地與工人在臺灣社會中所受忽視、歧視,以及其中的階級與權力。曾文昌身為鐵工師傅,自我表述人生經歷、價值觀、職業守則,此一現身已經接近自傳的形式。兩相對照,正可看出臺灣工地書寫中的抒情主體的真(Authenticity)與誠(Sincerity)。 The ‘construction site writing(工地書寫)’ has been popular in the past two years in Taiwan. This article takes Lin Li-Ching (林立青) and Tseng Wen-chang (曾文昌)’s works as examples toexplore the lyrical subject in non-fiction writing by comparing their similarities and differences. Lin, as the director of various construction works, puts his eyes on the people on the sites. As heholds double identities both as a worker and supervisor, he develops a special vision to reflect onthe neglect and discrimination on construction workers in Taiwan society, as well as the issues ofclass and power implied. As a blacksmith, Tseng self-describes his life experiences, values, andprofessional codes in his book. The appearance is almost an autobiography. By contrasting thesetwo authors, we can see the sincerity and authenticity of the lyrical subject in Taiwan’sconstruction site writing.
대만 ‘현장 서사(工地書寫)’가 최근 2년 사이에 일어나, 본문은 임립청, 증문창의 작품을 예로 들며, 그 차이를 비교하여, 논픽션 작품에서의 서정 주체를 탐구하였다. 임립청은 현장 주임으로 공사 현장의 일을 응시하고 있는데, 그 위치는 노동자이자 또한 노동자가 아닌 특수한 시야로 현장과 노동자들이 대만 사회에서 무시당하고 차별을 받는 것, 그리고 그중의 계급과 권력을 밝힌다. 철공 사부로서 인생역정, 가치관, 직업수칙을 스스로 밝힌 증문창은 자서전에 가까운 모습을 보였다. 서로 대조하여 대만 건설현장에서 쓰고 있는 서정의 주체인진(Authenticity)과 성(Sincerity)을 보여준다. The ‘construction site writing(工地書寫)’ has been popular in the past two years in Taiwan. This article takes Lin Li-Ching (林立靑) and Tseng Wen-chang (曾文昌)’s works as examples to explore the lyrical subject in non-fiction writing by comparing their similarities and differences. Lin, as the director of various construction works, puts his eyes on the people on the sites. As he holds double identities both as a worker and supervisor, he develops a special vision to reflect on the neglect and discrimination on construction workers in Taiwan society, as well as the issues of class and power implied. As a blacksmith, Tseng self-describes his life experiences, values, and professional codes in his book. The appearance is almost an autobiography. By contrasting these two authors, we can see the sincerity and authenticity of the lyrical subject in Taiwan’s construction site writing.
The definition of genres in Taiwan literature has undergone significant change in recent years. The transformation from “prose” to “non-fiction writing” manifests not only the confirmation of authenticity in the content, but also the innovation of expression in literary form. This paper discusses the emerging “Construction Site Writing” in Non-fiction writing and analyzes the formal expression of Lin Li-Ching (林立青) and Tseng Wen-Chang (曾文昌)"s works: Lin inherits the narrative skills from realistic literature and expresses the reality on construction sites through dialogue, vocabulary, dramatic structure, ending with negative sentences; Tseng represents his own construction site experience through a consistent narrator “I”, the chronological structure, and the use of words which are to make readers at the scene. Through the investigation of these two authors, it can be known that the focus of the Construction Site Writing should not be the issue of qualification of its writers, but rather, we should focus on how literary form is used to reflect the reality on the construction sites and how it presents the life situation on the sites.
The sensilla type, number and distribution in male and female adults of Carabus elysii Thomson, 1856 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there are seven categories and 12 types of sensilla in C. elysii adults: three types of S.Ch, three types of S.T, two types of S.B and one each of B.B, S.Co, S.Ca and S.Cam. There is no difference between male and female in the types of sensilla. Apart from the significant difference in the number and distribution of S.B.2, S.Co and S.Ca between male dorsal and ventral surfaces, there are no significant differences between male and female antennae. In general, the number of sensilla in females is larger than that in males. The results provide a basic reference for future ultrastructure, electrophysiological, and comparative behavioral studies of Carabus species.
MiRNAs regulate the expression of target genes in diverse cellular processes and hence play important roles in different physiological processes, yet little is known about the stomach microRNAome (miRNAome) of the Tibetan pig. The objective of this experiment was to investigate differentially expressed stomach miRNAs participating in digestion. Firstly, we isolated total RNA by Trizol reagent from three Tibetan and three Yorkshire purebred pigs stomach samples at 90-day-old. Secondly, a comprehensive analysis of Tibetan and Yorkshire pig stomach miRNAomes was performed by small RNA sequencing in the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. Finally, SYBR Green Real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate the differentially expressed miRNAs. We identified 318 unique miRNAs, 260 were co-expressed in both libraries, 17 and 31 miRNAs were specifically expressed in Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs respectively. Fifty six differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by the identifying differentially expressed genes 6 (IDEG6). Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes analysis revealed that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with protein and fat digestion. Two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-214-3p and ssc-un39) participating in the digestion of lipid were identified. Additionally, qRT-PCR results suggested that a higher expression of miR-214-3p in the Tibetan pig stomach could lead to relatively lower expression of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2, which is an enzyme important for the digestion of glycerol phospholipid. This study has delineated the different stomach miRNAs expression patterns of Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs, which would help explain the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in digestion of Tibetan pigs, and contribute to utilize a the unique digestion merits of Tibetan pig in future porcine hybridization breeding.
Coordinated multiple points transmission and reception (CoMP) technology is used to mitigate the inter-cell interference, and increase cell average user normalized throughput and cell edge user normalized throughput. There are two kinds of radio resource schedule strategies in LTE-A/5G CoMP system, and they are called centralized scheduling strategy and distributed scheduling strategy. The regional centralized scheduling cannot solve interference of inter-region, and the distributed scheduling leads to worse efficiency in the utilize of resources. In this paper, a novel distributed scheduling scheme named 9-Cell alternate authorization (9-CAA) is proposed. In our scheme, time-domain resources are divided orthogonally by coloring theory for inter-region cooperation in 9-Cell scenario . Then, we provide a formula based on 0-1 integer programming to get chromatic number in 9-CAA. Moreover, a feasible optimal chromatic number search algorithm named CNS-9CAA is proposed. In addition, this scheme is expanded to 3-Cell scenario, and name it 3-Cell alternate authorization (3-CAA). At last, simulation results indicate that 9/3-CAA scheme exceed All CU CoMP, 9/3C CU CoMP and DLC resource scheduling scheme in cell average user normalized throughput. Especially, compared with the non-CoMP scheme as a benchmark, the 9-CAA and 3-CAA have improved the edge user normalized throughput by 17.2% and 13.0% respectively.
현대주의가 혁신의 새로운 세계로 부터 태어나고, 현대음악이 높은 궤도에 도달했을 때 그 진로는 오랜 전통으로 부터 이끌어진 것이다. 서양 문명의 마지막 거점으로 부터 동양의 음악적 아이디어(idea)가 아직도 새로운 것일 때부터, 동양 뿐만 아니라 서양의 음악적 아이디어가 다시 새롭게 조사되는 속에서, 문화적 교차로 인한 풍요로움의 중심지를 인도되는 과정을 Claude Debussy의 Syrinx(1913), Edgard Varese의 Density 21.5(1936), Luciano Berio의 Sequenza(1958), 그리고 Chou Wen-Chung의 Cursive(1963), 이상 4현대 풀룻 독주 작품을 통하여 설명하고 있다.
Today, the core achievements of university education are changing from how many students are exported to society and how much education services are provided to improve the university`s service quality, education service and learning outcomes. In particular, universities should shift from provider-centered thinking to consumer-centered thinking. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between educational satisfaction, learning outcome, and quality of education service in Yanbian University in China. The findings showed that factors such as university credibility, service consciousness and enthusiasm, lecture competency, educational facilities, welfare facilities and traffic conditions have positive effects on educational satisfaction. However, the moderation effect of learning outcomes on the quality of education service and the satisfaction of education was less than expected. As a result of the study, Yanbian University should be built and improve the service quality of the school by improving the satisfaction of the students, to grasp the service demand and trend of students and parents, to improve the education service system.
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中国经济自1978年实施改革开放以来,实现了长达30余年的高速增长,取得了举世注目的成 就,特别是进入21世纪以后中国的对外直接投资也出现了巨大变化,在 “走出去” 战略下,2010 年中国成为了世界第五位对外投资大国。中国对韩投资也由建交之初1992的0.01亿美元,2010年 增长到410倍规模的4.1亿美元,并且以服务业和小额投资为主进行,而制造业的投资则依据中国 政府制定的 “对外投资国别产业导向目录”,以运输设备、石油化工、通讯设备为主进行。 虽然目前韩国具有资源贫瘠、本地市场狭小、非关税壁垒较多、劳资关系僵硬等阻碍中国直 接投资的因素,但今后通过韩国政府的积极改善措施,以及中韩两国经济间密不可分的合作关 系,且韩国在制造业领域尖端技术方面的诸多优势,还有中国对韩投资可将 “中国制造” 转为 “韩国制造”,从而在国际市场上谋取更高的附加价值, 同时韩国已建立的包括美国和欧盟的庞大 的FTA国际网络,将为中国对韩投资提供坚实的基础,预计今后中国对韩直接投资热点频出、前 景广阔。 This study investigates the analysis and prospect of foreign direct investment by China Firms. The chinese economy 1978 reform opening with start about 30years 10% high-speed growth of year, currently with me under two key country of world economy rose to the surface. In 21 century China was executing an active large external direct investment specially zou chu qu strategy, to 2010 the place it charged as the world-wide 5 dignity large overcoat arrogance countries. The country direct investment China against 1992 the both nations amity becomes accomplished to 2010 it reached to 4.1 hundred million dollars of 410 boat size from 0.01 hundred million dollars. Also service sector and it is advanced with small-scale market putting first, the case of manufacturing industry is the transportation machine and petrochemistry and electronic industrial part. Currently to Korea re-with Department of Energy narrow domestic demand market, high labor cost, the labor relation which stiffens, the obstacle element exists more or less in non-tariff barrier back Chinese direct investment. The advanced technologies and FTA network applications from the manufacturing industry territory which the active support and China of the ROK Government possess the Korean investor who the Chinese enterprise is quick with character with the fact that it will increase. The prospect of the country direct investment China against consequently dawns very.
For the emergency patients in need of immediate resuscitation, cardiac catherization along with intensive cardiac monitoring is necessary to evaluate the cardiovascular stability. But this method requires machinery, technique and time which limits its use in emergency situations. In 1961, Allgower and Buri first discribed shock index, heart rate divide by systolic blood pressure, as easy to calculate and easy to use in acute settings given the simple measurements of the heart rate and the blood pressure. It has been said in circulatory failure patients shock index is inversely related to left ventricular stroke work. Because shock index is an indicator for resuscitation and also a prognostic indicator it could be applied in triaging an emerency patients. Therefore we studied the significance and the possible triage application of shock index in emergency patients. In the period of 6 months from May 1 to October 31, 1994. Among total 15,782 patients, who visited Yonsei University-affliated Yong Dong Emergency Department, 2425 patients were included in the study. There were 201 admissions to the intensive care unit and 2105 patients to general beds and 199 selected patient from discharged. Retrospective chart review for pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic pressure and shock index was done. Statistical analysis was performed using t'-test, p value of less than 0.05 was designated significant. Average shock index for ICU patients were 0.96 ±0.50, general ward admittees were 0.67 ±0.18, and discharged were 0.65 ±0.16. There were significant statistical difference in shock indices between ICU and general ward patients, and ICU and discharged patients. Shock index is helpful in identifing patients with potential for admission to the ICU in emergency situations. Therefore we conclude that the shock index should be recognized as a triage tool.