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      • 대행선에 관한 일고 -『한마음 요전』을 중심으로

        강문선(혜원)(Kang, Moon-Seon(Ven, Hye-Won)) 대행선연구원 2018 한마음연구 Vol.1 No.-

        This thesis aims at investigating the course of truth seeking Venerable Myogong Daehaeng (1927-2012) took by herself and at examining her full awakening to the truth, rather than viewing Daehaeng Seon from the standpoint of patriarch Seon, gongan Seon, ganhwa Seon, or the theory of original buddhahood. The scope of my investigation is restricted to the period ranging from Daehaeng’s childhood to her arrival at Baengnyeonsa Temple in Jecheon City in order to ‘dim her radiance and mingle with the dust of the world’ 和光同塵 as recorded in the Han mau m yojeon: Daehaen g sunim haengjanggi, peobeojip. My thesis is generally based on this book. Before and after Daehaeng’s teen life, Korea was in the gloomy conditions under Japanese colonial rule. On account of dire poverty and ill-treatment by her father, Daehaeng at that time had an extremely hard time: she frequently run away from home and slept in the open air. But on the contrary this situation allowed her to thoroughly investigate such things as ‘life’, ‘uncertain self-existence’, ‘refuge’, and ‘existence’. She pursued to find out a compassionate ‘father’ in her inner world as a replacement of her cruel father in the troubled external world. This is the starting point of Daehaeng Seon. At the age of nine, Daehaeng came to the recognition of life through the question of “Who led me to such a state?” She looked straight on the reality of the world full of discrimination and hardship, but discovered that there is an inner world, namely ‘he(father),’ in which people can find their inherent peace and refuge beyond this troubled world. In other words, she understood that ‘he’ and ‘I’ are coexistent. At the age of fourteen, when she met Master Hanam, she longed for seeing the actual appearance of ‘father’ with Hanam’s compassionate nature as condition. Ten years after that, she realized that the actual ‘I’ and inherent ‘he’ are non-dual. Before, the actual ‘I’ followed the inner ‘him’[master] but now she penetrated a basic spiritual barrier upon removing the boundary between ‘he’ and ‘I’. In 1950 when she was twenty-four years of age, Daeng became a novice nun. Master Hanam noticed Daehaeng’s capability of following the buddha-way and acknowledged that she had been free from affliction. Hanam gave her the dharma name Cheonggak 靑覺 and entrusted her with an order that she now go her own way. Daehaeng continued her traveling practice firmly abiding in the contemplation of no-thought in which she stayed only at the things touching to her comfortable mind. One day both at a graveyard and from her reflection in water, she reached a thorough realization that the ‘I’ in the actual world and ‘he’ in the fundamental nature are neither the same nor different. Thereafter, in her capacity as a free person, she set off to extend compassion to all sentient beings, manifesting unrestricted competency. Daehaeng had already realized that the troubled reality [guest] and secured inner fundamental nature [master] are both coexistent and non-dual. All Hanam did was merely to approve Daehaeng’s intent of Seon. Furthermore, Daehaeng did not know about the Chinese Chan (Seon) in Tang China. However, rather than being in the style of the ‘ordinary mind is free from troubles’ 平常無事 of Mazu Daoyi 馬祖道一, Daehaeng Seon corresponds to the lineage of Shitou Xiqian 石頭希遷 because Shitou Chan emphasizes the original self whose aspects in the actual world and fundamental nature are not rejected but maintained as they are, and considered as non-different. Like this, we can find that Daehaeng Seon embraces in Seon all the activities such as looking straight on both the nature and actual world; thereby finding out an inner refuge; and realizing one’s ‘original self’ in which one can reach the union of various phenomena. I think this features prominently in Daehaeng Seon. 본 논문은 ‘대행선’을 조사선, 공안선, 간화선, 본래성불론 등의 관점에서 바라보기보다는 그의 생애(1927-2012)에서 스스로 형성된 구도의 과정과 증오證悟를 살펴보는 데에 목표를 둔다. 연구의 범위는 유년기에서 제천 백련사에 당도하여 ‘화광동진和光同塵’하는 시기 이전까지로 하며, 『한마음 요전』을 중심으로 고찰했다. 대행의 10대 전후는, 암울한 일제 강점기였으며 가세의 몰락과 부친의 학대 가출과 노숙으로 이어진 극히 어려운 시기였다. 이로 인해 ‘생명’, ‘불확실한 자기존재’, ‘도피처’, ‘실존’ 등에 대해 궁구하게 되었으며 고난의 외부세계보다 내면에서 혹독한 아빠를 대신 할 수 있는 자애로운 ‘아빠’를 찾으려 한다. 대행의 선禪은 여기서 비롯된다. 대행의 나이 9세, ‘누가 나를 이렇게 만들었는가?’라는 간절한 물음은 현실이 분명 차별과 고난의 세계임을 직시한 것이지만, 이 를 벗어난 본래 평화롭고 위안처가 되는 내면의 세계, 즉 ‘그(渠= 아빠)’가 있음을 발견한다. 다시 말해서 ‘그’와 ‘나’가 둘이 공존함을 알게 된다. 14세, 모친을 따라 선지식 한암을 만나게 되고 스님의 자비로운 성품이 기인이 되어 ‘아빠’의 현실의 모습을 보기를 갈망한다. 10년 후, 현실의 ‘나’와 본래의 ‘그’가 불이임을 체득하게 된다. 그동안 현실의 ‘나’가 내면의 ‘그[주인공]’를 따라다녔는데 이제 ‘그’와 ‘나’가 소통이 되고 경계가 없어진다. 말하자면 초관初關을 투득透得한 것이다. 낙발落髮하기 전의 일이다. 24세(1950) 대행은 사미니가 되고, 한암은 대행과의 문답에서 대행의 법기法器를 알아보고 이미 신심身心이 투탈透脫되었음을 안다. 법명을 청각靑覺으로 내리고 ‘이제 네 길을 가라’고 부촉付囑한다. 대행의 만행은 계속되고 무심관으로 편안한 마음에 와 닿는 것에만 응주凝住할 뿐이었다. 어느 날 묘지에서, 또한 물에 비친 자신의 모습에서 현실의 ‘나’와 본래성의 ‘그’가 불일불이不一不異임을 철견徹見하였다. 견자성見自性한 것이다. 이후 ‘자유인’으로서 자재 한 권능으로 ‘입전수수入鄽垂手’의 길로 나섰다. 대행은 이미 고된 현실[客]과 안정된 내면의 본래성[主]을 직시하고 관찰하여 이 둘이 공존함을 알았고 객과 주가 불이임을 알았다. 한암은 대행의 선지禪旨를 인가했을 뿐이다. 또한 대행은 중국 당대唐代의 선을 알지 못했다. 그러나 그의 선은 ‘평상무사’의 마조계馬祖系 선禪보다 이를 비판하고 현실태와 본래성을 유지하면서 이 양자를 상즉시키는 ‘자기自己’를 중요시 하는 석두계石頭系 선禪에 상응됨을 살필 수 있었다. 이와 같이 대행선에서는 자연과 현실의 세계를 직시, 내면의 안락처를 발견, 이를 상즉相卽시키는 ‘자기自己’를 투득하는 것 등이 전부 선禪임을 알 수 있다. 이것이 바로 대행선의 특색이라고 본다.

      • KCI등재

        기획논문 : 호서선비문화가 가진 교육콘텐츠로서의 의미와 가능성

        김세정 ( Sea Jeong Kim ),양선진 ( Seon Jin Yang ) 충남대학교 유학연구소 2015 儒學硏究 Vol.33 No.-

        지금 21세기 사회는 인문학, 과학기술, 사회과학, 예술학 영역을 포함하는 ‘통섭적 융합문화시대’라고 평가된다. 유학(儒學)에 대한 연구도 근대적인 분과학적 입장에서 벗어나 다른 학문.문화.사유 등과 통섭적으로 융합시킬 수 있는 연결지점을 찾는 일이 필요하다. 다시 말해, 유학의 콘텐츠를 현재의 삶과 문화 등과 연결시킬 수 있는 그 무언가를 찾는 일이 요구되는 것이다. 21세기에도 유효한 유학의 사상을 발굴하여 이를 새롭게 조명하여 ‘교육적 가치를 지닌 콘텐츠’로 되살려야 할 것이다. 그 점에서 이 논문의 주제인 ‘호서선비문화가 가진 교육콘텐츠로의 의미와 가능성’을 찾는 일은 이러한 시대적 요구와 맞닿아 있다. 콘텐츠는 산업적.경제적 측면의 상품뿐만 아니라 교육적 측면에서 의미를 지닌 내용물(content)이다. 곧 교육콘텐츠는 ‘교육적 가치를 지닌 내용물’이라고 정의할 수 있다. 교육콘텐츠로서 ‘선비정신’은 유학에 대한 부정적 인식을 넘어서 이 시대에 유학의 가치를 새롭게 되살릴 수 있는 장점이 있다. 특히 선비정신은 인성교육진흥법 시행과 관련하여 그 필요성이 더욱 요청되며, ‘세방화’하는 세계적 추세와 ‘교육과정 지역화’에 들어맞는 교육콘텐츠로서 의미와 가치를 지니고 있다. 이에 충청지역의 학생들을 교육하기 위해 ‘호서선비문화의 정신’이 교육콘텐츠로서의 가능성을 탐색하는 일은 너무도 당연한 것이라 할 수 있다. 이와 같은 문제의식을 바탕으로 이 논문은 다음의 세 과정을 거쳤다. 먼저 유학의 역사와 사상을 통해 선비 정신에 대해 정리하였다. 더불어 그것이 현대적으로 어떠한 시사점을 주는지에 대해서도 논의하였다. 다음으로, 오늘날의 호서 지역에서 형성된 선비정신을 호서유학의 흐름과 사상적 특성을 통해 살펴보았다. 물론 이 두 과정을 거치면서, 선비정신과 호서의 선비문화가 교육콘텐츠로서 어떠한 의미와 가능성을 지녔는지도 검토하였다. 마지막 결론에서는 지금까지의 논의를 간략하게 정리하고 남은 문제를 짚어보았다. The current 21st century society is considered ‘the era of convergence culture’ in which different fields such as the humanities, the technology, social sciences, and science of arts etc go on reciprocal exchanges. In this context, the research on Confucianism (儒學) must liberate itself from the modern standpoint of disciplinary division and seek for points of connection on which it can combine with other disciplines, cultures, and thoughts. Thus it is necessary to carry out the search for what can connect Confucian contents with the present-day life and culture. In this 21st century, the rediscovery and consideration of useful Confucian thoughts and the revival of them as ‘contents filled with educational values’ is regarded as very important. From this point of view, the authors think that the search for ‘the significance and possibilities of educational contents in Ho-seo’s Seon-bi culture’ as the subject of this paper can meet those demands of the era. The term ‘contents’ refers not only to the goods in economics and industry, but also to the valuable things contained in the education. From this aspect, it can be said that educational contents are ‘things filled with educational values’. The Seon-bi spirit (the intellectuals’ spirit) thus can start from the point of overcoming misunderstandings of the Confucianism and reviving Confucian values. Especially, the Seon-bi spirit becomes more important in the context of the enforcement of the Law for Stimulation of Humanity Education, and can be seen as valuable educational contents appropriate to ‘the curriculum localization’. It is regarded as reasonable to investigate the significance and possibilities of constructing the ‘spirit of the Seon-bi culture in the Ho-seo area’ as educational contents to cultivate students in the Chung-cheong area. Based on that standpoint, the paper is developed into three processes as follows. Firstly, the authors try to re-define the term ‘seon-bi spirit’ by considering the Confucian history and thoughts. Together with it, the authors discuss what suggestion this spirit can give from the modern aspect. Secondly, the authors examine the Seon-bi spirit rising in the Ho-seo area nowadays, based on the theoretical characteristics of the Ho-seo Confucianism. After those considerations, the authors try to find out the significance and possibilities of the Seon-bi spirit and the Seon-bi culture in Ho-seo as the educational contents. In the conclusion, the authors summarize the above contents and point out some outstanding questions.

      • KCI등재

        기해사행(己亥使行) 통신부사(通信副使) 황선(黃璿)의 관직생활

        임선빈 ( Yim Seon-bin ) 고려대학교 민족문화연구원 2018 民族文化硏究 Vol.81 No.-

        이 논문은 1719년에 기해통신사의 부사로 일본에 다녀온 황선의 사례를 통해 조선후기 통신사행 참여가 관직생활에 미친 영향을 살펴보았다. 황선은 1710년 과거 급제를 통해 벼슬길에 나아갔으며, 초기에는 주로 중앙부서의 실무직에 근무하였다. 그런데 ‘專對’ 능력을 인정받아 38세의 젊은 나이로 1719년의 기해사행 통신부사 직무를 수행하게 되면서 그의 관직은 고속 승진을 하였다. 통신사행에 참여하기 전 황선의 관직은 통신부사에 부합하지 않는 낮은 직위였으나, 사행을 떠나기 전 2개월에 걸쳐 여러 차례의 관직 제수를 통해 통신부사 임무를 수행하기에 걸맞는 종3품 관직인 세자시강원 보덕에까지 올랐다. 10개월에 걸친 통신사행을 다녀온 후에는 다시 그 노고에 대한 치하의 의미로 당하관 최고위 품계로 資窮이라고 일컫는 통훈대부를 거치지 않았음에도 불구하고, 국왕의 특지에 해당하는 備忘記를 통해 당상관인 통정대부에 오르고, 국왕을 측근에서 모시는 승정원 승지에 제수되었다. 황선은 보통 2, 30년이 걸려도 오르기가 쉽지 않은 당상관직을 통신사행 참여로 인해 관직생활을 시작한 지 10년 만에 제수 받았다. 이후 황선은 경종이 즉위하자 세자시강원에 근무했던 인연으로 다시 승지가 되었으나, 3년여 유배생활을 하는 어려움을 겪기도 했다. 반면에 영조 초에 이르면 가선대부로 승진하고 재상급 관료가 되었으며, 경상도관찰사에 제배되었다. 그러나 1728년(영조 4)에 발발한 무신란에서 경상도 지역의 난을 토벌한 직후 47세의 나이로 군중에서 갑자기 죽었다. 황선의 卒逝에 대해서는 당대는 물론 후대에도 의혹이 분분했으며, 그의 사후 녹훈에 대해서도 논란이 있었다. 그러나 마침내 황선은 좌찬성에 증직되고, 忠烈이라는 시호를 받았으며, 후손들도 녹용될 수 있었다. 한편, 경상도 지역민들에 의해 황선의 훈적을 기리는 사우 愍忠祠가 세워졌는데, 이 사우는 중앙 조정의 정국동향과 서원정책에 따라 훼철과 복원이 진행되기도 했다. 황선의 관직생활을 사례로 선택하여 자세히 검토해본 결과, 일본통신사의 통신부사경력이 그의 승진에 큰 도움이 되었으며, 국왕을 측근에서 모신 직무가 관직생활의 진퇴에 미친 영향도 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 조선후기 관원의 관직생활을 재구성할 때, 『승정원일기』가 유용한 자료로 활용될 수 있음을 입증하였다. This paper examines how participation in communication embassy affects the operation of bureaucracy in the late Joseon Dynasty through the official career of Hwang Seon, who visited Japan in 1719 as a deputy envoy in Kihae communication embassy. In 1710, Hwang Seon passed the Civil Service Examination and was mainly given practical positions in the central office in his early days. Then, he was on the fast track promotion not until 1719, when he started to perform the deputy envoy in age 38 during Kihae communication embassy visit, getting credit for his ‘expertise (專對)’ ability. Before he participated the trip, his position was too low to meet the stands of the deputy envoy position. However, over 2 months prior to the trip, he was constantly assigned a position until he became first tutor in Academy for the Crown Prince (世子侍 講院), which was appropriate to serve a deputy envoy position. Even though he didn’t passed Tonghundaebu, which was the first rank position in Danghagwan, and its nickname was ‘nowhere up to go (資窮)’, after 10 months visit, with a direct exceptional order “Bimangki” from the king, he was promoted to Tongjeongdaebu, which was the ministerial rank position (Dangsanggwan) higher than Danghagwan, in recognition of hard work he had done. Also, he was assigned to serve a royal secretary position who closely assists the king in “Seungjungwon”. As a result of participating communication embassy, Hwang Seon was able to win the ministerial rank position in just 10 years, which is the position usually takes more than 20-30 years and still hard to get promoted. Hwang Seon served a royal secretary position after the reign of Gyeongjong, since he had already worked in Academy for the Crown Prince. However, his work performance as the royal secretary also led to his three years banishment. On the contrary, after the reign of King Yeongjo. Hwang Seon was promoted to grand minister Gaseondaebu, and also was assigned to the junior second rank Gyeongsang province governor. However, in the following year (1728), he suddenly died at the war zone at the age of 47, immediately after he defeated the military official uprising in Gyeongsang province. His decease was contentious among his period and even in later generations, and his posthumous award was also controversial. However, Hwang Seon was eventually canonized as a fourth state councilor Jwachansung and the title “Unswerving Loyalty” was granted. Furthermore, his descendants were also hired in royal officials. Meanwhile, “Minchoongsa”―a shrine dedicated to Hwang Seon―was constructed by Gyeongsang province residents, and this shrine was both disposed and restored, depending on the central government situation and its Seowon policy. After examining the case of Hwang Sun's official career in detail as an example, it is confirmed that the communication embassy career of the Japanese ambassador was a great help for his promotion. Also we could find how the work as a royal secretary position had affected his official career. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that “Seungjungwon Diary” can be used as a useful data when reconstructing the governmental official’s career life in the late Joseon dynasty.

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        조선 독서인(讀書人)의 상우론(尙友論)-「상우부(尙友賦)」와 「상우오찬(尙友五贊)」을 중심으로-

        이군선 ( Lee Goon-seon ) 동방한문학회 2017 東方漢文學 Vol.0 No.71

        맹자가 상우에 대하여 언급한 이래로 많은 문인들이 상우에 관하여 언급하였다. 이들의 관점은 명분이 같지 않고 사업이 서로 다르더라도 정신적으로 사모하고 벗하여 그와 같아지기 위해 노력하고자 한 점에서 긍정적인 의미를 지닐 수 있다. 이와 관련하여 본고는 윤선도의 「상우부」와 신최의 「상우오찬」을 살펴보았다. 윤선도는 자신이 상우의 대상으로 삼은 인물들을 본받기 위한 전제 조건으로 선비는 반드시 그 뜻을 높이하고 학문을 크게 해야 한다고 하여 상우의 의미를 자신의 수양에 두었다. 신최는 상우를 자신의 부족한 점을 채워 자아의 완성을 돕는 측면에서 접근하였다. 이들은 모두 상우의 대상에 걸맞을 수 있도록 노력을 경주할 수 있는 동력을 상우에서 찾았다고 할 것이다. 그러나 상우는 현세와 어긋나고 삶이 순탄하지 않으면 현세에 대한 불만을 야기할 수 있고 고상한 정조를 숭상하여 옛사람에게 벗한다는 것을 구실로 삼아 염세적인 경향으로 흐를 수도 있으며 정신적인 결합을 강조한 나머지 현세에서의 벗을 부정하는 결과를 가져올 수 있는 위험성도 지니고 있다고 할 것이다. Since Mencius mentioned Sangwu (尙友), many writers have mentioned about Sangwu. Their point of view could be positive in that they did not have the same cause and were different from each other in their business, but they yearned and were mentally dedicated to try to be similar. In this regard, this study examined Yun Seon-do`s “Sangwu-bu” and Shinchoe`s “Sangwuochan.” Yun Seon-do put Sangwu`s meaning in his self--discipline as a pre-requisite to imitate the characters that he had set as the object of Sangwu, and that scholars must heighten its meaning and enlarge its scholarship. Shinchoe approached Sangwu in terms of helping one complete one`s self-sufficiency. It is said that all of them found the power in Sangwu to make an effort to match Sangwu`s object. However, Sangwu can be dissatisfied with the current world if life is out of line and not smooth, and it may flow into a pessimistic tendency as an excuse to take up the noble elegance and to make friends with the old people. It is also said that it emphasizes the spiritual union so much that it carries the risk of denying the friends in the current world.

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        회당(晦堂) 윤응선(尹膺善)의 「독이제십변(讀夷齊十辨)」과 「이제후변(夷齊後辨)」 일고

        李君善 ( Lee Goon-seon ) 동방한문학회 2020 東方漢文學 Vol.0 No.82

        晦堂 尹膺善은 明의 王直이 지은 「夷齊十辨」을 바탕으로 「讀夷齊十辨」과 「夷齊後辨」을 지었다. 「독이제십변」에서 회당은 왕직의 「이제십변」에서 사마천의 『사기』 「백이열전」 오류를 지적한 것은 일정한 의미를 지니지만 백이숙제가 ‘말고삐를 잡고 간한 것’과 ‘수양산에서 굶어 죽은 것’ 등에 대한 비판은 주자가 이미 확정한 논의에서 벗어나는 것으로 파악하고 조목조목 비판하였다. 본고는 회당이 이렇게 왕직을 비판한 것은 주자가 확정한 도는 바뀔 수 없는 정도라는 인식이 바탕에 있었기 때문으로 파악하였다. 또한 회당은 「이제후변」에서 백이숙제의 죽음은 순국으로 두 임금을 섬기지 않는다는 법을 세웠다는 점에서 평가를 하였고 의당의 자정은 정도 수호를 위한 순도라고 하였는데 본고는 회당의 이러한 평가를 통해 회당이 백이숙제의 죽음보다 의당의 자정에 더 숭고한 가치를 부여한 것으로 파악하였다. 결론적으로 회당의 「독이제십변」은 주자가 확정한 정론에 왕직이 이의를 제기한 것에 대한 비판이고, 「이제후변」은 의당의 자정에 대한 가치를 부여한 것으로 이는 주자가 정립한 성리학을 정도로 보고 이를 지키고자 한 위정 척사의 사상과 밀접한 관련이 있다. Hoidang Yun Eung-seon wrote “Dokyijesipbyeon” and “Yijehubyeon” based on “Yiijesipbyeon” written by wáng zhí in Ming. In “Dokyijesipbyeon”, Hoidang has a certain meaning that wáng zhí's “Yijesipbyeon” points out the errors of “Baekyiyeoljeon” of SimaQian's “Shiji”, but Baekyisukje's criticisms of “Holding the reins and reporting” and “Hungered in Mountain Shouyang” were found to be out of the discussions that Zhu Xi had already concluded, and criticized clause by clause. In this paper, it is found that the fact that Hoidang criticized wáng zhí is because it was based on the recognition that Zhu Xi determined it as a right path that cannot be changed. Hoidang also assessed in “Yijehubyeon” that Baekyisukje's death as martyrdom with which a law was established that two kings wouldn’t be served. Jajeong of Uidang said that it is a pure path for protecting a right path, and this paper identified Hoidang's evaluation as giving Hoidang more sublime value to Ujeong's Jajeong than Baekyisukje's death. In conclusion, Hoidang's “Dokyijesipbyeon” is a criticism of wáng zhí's objection to orthodox as confirmed by Zhu Xi, and “Yijehubyeon” gave Uidang's value to Jajeong, which is closely related to the Movement to Reject Heterodoxy's thought of seeing Zhu Xi's Sung Confucianism as the right path and protecting it.

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        Influence of Gas Nitriding on the Damping Capacity of Fe‑17Mn Alloy

        Seon‑Min Choi,Ji‑Sook Park,Kyongjun An,이영국 대한금속·재료학회 2019 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.25 No.1

        Fe-17Mn alloy has been attracted as a high damping alloy due to its excellent damping capacity and tensile properties. For itsindustrial application, it is necessary to improve both wear resistance and anti-oxidation. To solve this problem, gas nitridingwas performed at 520 °C for 10 h using cold-rolled specimens. The nitrided specimen revealed a thick nitride layer of~ 68 μm with ~ 20%Mn and a hardness value of ~ 650 Hv on the matrix of ε martensite and γ austenite without the diffusionlayer. The damping capacity of the nitrided specimen was decreased with increasing the thickness ratio of nitride layer tomatrix. However, when the thickness ratio was ≤ 1.5%, the damping capacity of the nitrided specimen was similar to that ofthe nitride-free specimen. This indicates that the wear resistance and anti-oxidation of Fe-17Mn alloy can be improved bya thin nitride layer without the loss of its damping capacity.

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        Multi‑tissue lipotoxicity caused by high‑fat diet feeding is attenuated by the supplementation of Korean red ginseng in mice

        Seon‑A Jang,Seung Namkoong,이성률,Jin Woo Lee,Yuna Park,Gyeongseop So,Sung Hyeok Kim,Mi‑Ja Kim,Ki‑Hyo Jang,Alberto P. Avolio,Sumudu V. S. Gangoda,Hyun Jung Koo,Myung Kyum Kim,Se Chan Kang,Eun‑Hwa Sohn 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2020 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.16 No.1

        Background Excessive intake of fat, one of the causes of obesity, is associated with low-grade infammation in various susceptible organs and eventually causes tissue toxicity. This study examines the multifaceted suppressive efects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRG) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced lipotoxicity and infammatory responses in the aorta, liver, and brain. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD with or without KRG for 12 weeks. The improvement efect in KRG on lipotoxicity and infammatory potential was determined in the blood and the aorta, liver, and brain tissues. Results KRG signifcantly inhibited 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity by >20% in vitro. KRG supplementation suppressed HFD-associated body weight gain, lipid profle changes, and excessive fat deposition in the liver and increased leptin, insulin, and ALT levels in the blood. Infammatory markers in the aorta, liver, and brain were also signifcantly reduced by KRG treatment. In microvascular endothelial cells, the 15% cyclic stretch-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) expression was signifcantly attenuated in the presence of KRG. Conclusion KRG supplementation attenuates HFD-mediated body weight gain, lipid profle changes, and multi-tissue infammatory responses.

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        Fracture Behavior of Locally Corroded Steel Pipeline in District Heating System Using the Combination of Electrochemistry and Fracture Mechanics

        Seon‑Hong Kim,Yoon‑Sik So,Jung‑Gu Kim 대한금속·재료학회 2020 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.26 No.11

        To identify the effects of the stress concentration at the pit on the fracture of the district heating (DH) pipeline, the stressincrease with the wall thickness reduction was formulated. The formula includes the stress intensity factor with the pittingcorrosion. As a result of the application of the DH pipeline conditions to the ASME B31.3 code formula and corrosion test,the interplay with only uniform corrosion and stress due to the internal pressure can not be an immediate reason for the DHpipeline fracture. The KIvalue which is calculated by loss of thickness due to both uniform and localized corrosion exceededfracture toughness value (42 MPa√m) of the weldment pipeline steel (ASTM A106 Gr. B) under all of the studied conditions.

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        연결어미 ‘-든지’의 통사 · 의미적 특징

        목지선(Mok, Ji-seon) 한국어문학회 2017 語文學 Vol.0 No.136

        The ending ‘-deunji’ is divided into single construction and reduplication construction based on the number of proposition combined. It may be used as a final ending, connective ending, or ending of embedded sentence in terms of the presence or types of following elements. This study examines various usage of ‘-deunji’ particularly in a form of the reduplication construction such as ‘-deunji, -deunji’ and analyzes its syntactic and semantic characteristics. First, the primary condition of using ‘-deunji’ is the availability of the list of items for selection, and therefore the ending does not merely require the performance of selection. This may be supported by the fact that ‘-deunji’ is often employed in the reduplication construction to represent the meaninglessness of selection, and that it also appears in a form of ‘infinitival construction + -deunji.’ On the other hand, the form of ‘proposition + -deunji’ contains a semantic feature so that it can be repeated as ‘ending 1, ending 2, ....., ending n + following phrase,’ when the range or standard of selection is decided by the characteristics of the following phrase. However, it is difficult to conclude that the preceding endings merely function to enumerate items, while the last ‘ending n’ has a distinct function. According to this study, the reduplication construction of ‘-deunji, –deunji’ can be divided into ‘-deunji -deunji + following phrase’ and ‘-deunji -deunji + hada.’ First of all, the form of ‘-deunji -deunji + following phrase’ can be sub-categorized in accordance with the presence of the expression that characterizes the listed objects in the following phrase. In the form where the reduplication construction of ‘-deunji’ is followed by the phrase, the necessity of selection varies depending on the proposition in the phrase. The use of the form depends on the necessity of selection, and the form can be distinguished by the way in which the followed expression imposes limitation on the ‘-deunji’ phrase. In this respect, this article argues that ‘-deunji -deunji + following phrase’ has three types in regard to the openness of proposition list and the necessity of selection: extreme openness, semi-openness, and closeness. The first type is conditioned by the complete absence of the following phrase expression that intends to define the category or characteristics of the listed proposition. In this case, the reliability of the former “deunji” statement does not affect the meaning of following phrase, and other objects can be listed as many as the speaker wants, so it shows the extreme openness. The second type is used when the expression that defines the category or selection criteria of listed propositions is followed by the phrase that contains semi-openness in the followed expression. This type can be divided again based on whether or not the followed phrase or noun (phrase) presents the selection criteria that characterizes the listed objects. The latter pattern is often used when the speaker only intends to provide a list of objects. Lastly, the third type is the expression that put a limit on the number of listed propositions and selections in the following phrase, and it therefore represents the closeness of listed objects. Therefore, the pattern of extreme openness does not demand the listener’s act of selection, while that of semi-openness and closeness requires the performance of selection.

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