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It is well known that duty-cycling control by dynamically adjusting the polling interval according to the traffic loads can effectively achieve power saving in wireless sensor networks. Thus, there has been a significant research effort in developing polling interval adaptation schemes. Especially, Dynamic Low Power Listening (DLPL) scheme is one of the most widely adopted open-looping polling interval adaptation techniques in wireless sensor networks. In DLPL scheme, if consecutive idle (busy) samplings reach a given fixed threshold, the polling interval is increased (decreased). However, due to the trial-and-error based approach, it may significantly deteriorate the system performance depending on given threshold parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel DLPL scheme, called SDL (Sequential hypothesis testing based Dynamic LPL), which employs sequential hypothesis testing to decide whether to change the polling interval conforming to various traffic conditions. Simulation results show that SDL achieves substantial power saving over state-of-the-art DLPL schemes.
Giovanni Palestrina, named after his birthplace, was born in 1525. He was an Italian Renaissance period composer who wrote music almost solely for the purpose of the Catholic church and also secular madrigals. To the world of musicians, the name Palestrina became associated with an element called ‘stile antico’. The music of Palestrina reconstructed the Roman Catholic Musicin the music of the late 17th century and served to represent all church music in the Renaissance period. And it has been loved since the Roman period until now. The music of Palestrina is representative on the acappela masses, the essence of the Catholic Church Music. Especially, it is very interesting fact that the music with secular songs was used as the model in the masses which were more than a half of his church music. Intellectual rights(in modern sense) were not recognized yet at that time and we can assume now that it was not clear to make a distinction between the secular musicand the religious one in that period. After Palestrina usedsecular melodies and songs in his masses even though the pope prohibited using secular music in the religious music, the music like the opera and the concert was seemed to blossom into the Baroque in Italia.
Backgrounds: Although zinc acts as a major regulator of neuronal physiology, its dyshomeostasis may cause neuronal cell death. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to attenuate ischemic brain injury and to suppress Zn2+-induced neuronal cell death, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Methods: We determined the direct Zn2+-chelating capacity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, using specific Zn2+ fluorescent dyes (Zinpyr-1 and Zinquin) in SH-SY5Y cells. Results: NaHS significantly suppressed the Zn2+-mediated increase in the fluorescence intensities of Zinpyr- 1 and Zinquin in a dose-dependent manner. NaHS significantly inhibited cell death induced by extracellular or intracellular Zn2+ overload. Furthermore, Zn2+-mediated increases in the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and protein kinase C were highly suppressed by NaHS treatment. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that NaHS has the capacity to chelate extracellular and intracellular Zn2+, and could therefore be used in the protection against Zn2+ neurotoxicity.
Leopold Mozart was born 1719 in Augsburg and died 1787 in Salzburg. He was an violinist, composer, and vice-capellmeister of Salzburger Court Orchestra. He was a music-theorist and writer about music. But now he is known as only a father of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. His capability and quality of music and his personalty have been underestimated and negative. Yet, throughout his letters to his son Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, he seems to have been an excellent music expert, educator, good father and Wolfgang’s spiritual mentor. The Study of letters is very important not only for te studies about Wolfgang Mozart but the studies about music in the 18th century as well. 레오폴트 모차르트는 1719년 독일 아욱스부르크에서 태어나 1789년 잘츠부르크에서 사망한 음악가이다. 그는 바이올린 연주자이며 작곡가로 잘츠부르크 궁정악단의 궁정음악부감독(Vice-capellmeister)를 역임하고, 음악이론가이자 음악교육자로서 성공했던 인물이다. 하지만 레오폴트 모차르트는 음악사에서는 “볼프강 아마데우스 모차르트의 아버지”로 알려져 있다. 레오폴트모차르트의 음악에 대한 전문성과 가치가 심하게 폄하되어 있고, 심지어는 몇몇 미디어와 화 등의 비전문적 접근으로 인해 그에 대한 인간적인 평가마저 훼손되어 있다. 본 논문은 이런 문제점을극복하기 위해, 레오폴트 모차르트가 아욱스부르크에 있는 볼프강 모차르트에게 보낸 편지 BD 346(1777년 10월 9일)과 BD 348(1777년 10월 12/13일)을 분석 연구하다. 이 편지 속에는 레오폴트의 가족에 대한 사랑과 18세기 음악에 대한 전문적인 정보가 담겨 있다. 모차르트 가족들이주고받은 편지에는 18세기 음악과 18세기 사회상을 이해하고, 볼프강 모차르트의 성장 과정을 이해할 수 있는 귀중한 정보가 담겨 있어 지속적인 연구와 관심이 촉구된다.
Recently, essential oils are used for aromatherapy. Most essential oils are said to be anti-bacterial; some may be anti-viral or anti-fungal. I investigated the effects of peppermint pure essential oil on the heat shock-induced apoptosis in human astrocyte cell line CCF-STTGI. In previous studies, heat shock has been reported to induce the apoptosis or programmed cell death through the activation of caspase-3. We studied the heat shock-induced apoptosis through flow cytometry, DNA electrophoresis, and giemsa staining. Interestingly, these events were inhibited by pretreatment of peppermint pure essential oils in CCF-STTGl cells. Peppermint oil also inhibited the heat shock-induced apoptosis in primary cultured rat astrocytes. In addition, this Peppermint essential oil inhibited the heat shock-induced activation of caspase-3. These results suggest that peppermint pure essential oils may modulate the apoptosis through the activation of the interleukin-I -converting enzyme-like protease.
Numerous lines of evidence indicate that some of the neurotoxicity associated with Alzheirner's disease (AD) is due to proteolytic fragments of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Most research has focused on the amyloid p (AP). However, the possible role of other cleaved products of APP is less clear. Lately It has been reported that a recombinant carboxy-terminal 105 amino acid fragment (CT105) of APP induced strong nonselective inward currents in Xenopus oocyte. In a brain with Atheirner's disease (AD), to investigate the roles of carboxyl-terminal fragment (CT105) of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in apoptosis processes possibly linked to neurodegeneration associated with AD, we examined the effects of the CT of APP with 105 amino acid residues (CT105) on the alteration of apoptosis triggers in neubroblastoma cells. We have investigated whether Radix Polygalae and Rhizoma Acori Grammei mixture extract (RP+RAG) inhibits CT1O5-induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells. We found that RP+RAG inhibits CT105-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cel!s. Treatment of the cells with RP+RAG inhibited CT105-induced DNA fragmentation and Tunel assay of nuclear chromatin and inhibited the caspase-3 expression in SK-N-SH cells. As the result of this study, In RP+RAG group, the apoptosis in the nervous system is inhibited, the repair against the degerneration of neuroblastoma cells by CT105 expression is promoted. These results indicate that RP+RAG possess strong inhibitory effect of apoptosis in the nervous system and repair effect against the degeneration of neuroblastoma cells by CT105 expression