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& & 본 연구는 밀사에 의한 환경스트레스가 닭의 품종에 따라 스트레스 및 대사 연관 유전자들의 발현에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 알아보고자 실시하였다. 공시계는 한국재래닭과 백색 레그혼으로 두 품종 모두 40주령 때 대조구(540 cm2/수) 및 고밀도구(311 cm2/수)로 분리하고, 50주령까지 10주간 사육하였다. 사양시험 종료 후, 각 개체의 간으로부터 total RNA를 추출하고, 스트레스, 소포체(ER) 스트레스 및 대사 연관 유전자들의 발현을 real-time PCR을 이용하여 분석하였다. 한국재래계는 분석된 모든 스트레스 표지 유전자들의 발현이 밀사구와 대조구 사이에 유의적인 변화를 보이지 않았다. 그러나 백색레그혼의 경우, HSP70과 HSP90α 유전자의 발현이 유의적으로 높게 나타났다(P<0.05). 분석된 ATF6, GRP78, SREBP2 등의 발현은 품종 간 차이를 볼 수 없었지만, XBP1의 경우 백색레그혼이 한국재래계에 비하여 높은 발현을 보였다(P<0.05). 분석된 유전자들 중 FABP4, FATP1, ACSL1 등의 경우, 한국재래계에 비하여 백색레그혼에서 높은 유전자 발현을 보였다(P<0.05). GLUT의 발현은 품종 간에는 영향을 받지 않지만, 밀사에 의한 영향을 받고 있음을 보여주었다. 고밀도사양 체계는 닭의 품종과 관계없이 스트레스 요인이 될 수 있으며, 닭의 품종이나 개량의 정도에 따라 스트레스 반응에 대한 유전적 차이가 있음을 시사하고, 또한 밀사와 같은 환경적 스트레스는 간의 지방 및 포도당 대사에 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 보여주었다. & & Chickens are exposed to the external and internal stressors such as low and high temperature, high stocking density, feed restriction and disease. There have been a few studies on gene expressions through the investigation of chickens under direct exposure to the stress of high stocking density. The objective of the present study was to determine the expressions of genes associated with stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, lipid and glucose metabolism in two strains of chickens, Korean Native Chicken (KNC) and White Leghorn (WL), raised in high stocking density. A total of 164 chickens aged 40 weeks were randomly allotted to a 540 cm<SUP>2</SUP>/bird stocking density (control), whereas the chickens in a high density group were assigned in a 311 cm<SUP>2</SUP>/bird stocking density with feeding ad libitum for 10 weeks. Total RNA was extracted from the live for qRT-PCR. The expression levels of hsp70 and hsp90α were higher in WL subjected to stress with high stocking density compared with those genes in control (P<0.05), while the expressions of genes were not affected in KNC. ER stress marker gene XBP1 was also highly expressed in WL with stress (P<0.05), but the stress of high stocking density did not influence to ER stress marker genes in KNC. Lipid metabolism associated genes including FABP4, FATP1 and ACSL1 were highly expressed in WL compared with KNC when subjected to high stocking density stress (P<0.05). The expression of glucose transport gene GLUT2 and GLUT8 were increased in chickens exposured to the stress of high stocking density (P<0.05). The data indicate that WL is more sensitive to the stress of high stocking density compared with KNC and the stress may influence the modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver of chickens.
The main goal of this research is to examine the effect of snow-boarding participants` physical self concept and perceived freedom on their mental well-being. Towards this purpose, we first examined the effect of snow boarding participants` physical self concept on mental well-being, and later examined the effect of their perceived freedom on their mental well-being. The conclusion of our research is the following. First, snow-boarding participants` physical self concept partly affects mental well-being - specifically, physical appearance has a positive effect on mental well-being. Secondly, snow-boarding participants` perceived freedom partly affects mental well-being. Specifically, their self-acceptance, environmental circumstances, and focus and control on personal growth has a positive effect on their life purpose, environmental control, interpersonal relationships, autonomy, and social skills.
This thesis intends to promote concernments of national citizens as well as Kwangju citizens on 2015 Gwangju Summer U-Competition to analyze the relationship among local inhabitant recognition, support, and cooperation for a successful opening so that Koreans can hold the competition successfully. The conclusion is as followings. Gwangju citizens, on holding 2015 Gwangju Summer U-Competition, didn't have a significant difference in the relationship among positive economic environmental effects, support, positive social cultural effects, and cooperative relationship. But, positive social cultural effects and support, negative economical, social cultural/environmental effects and support, positive economical environmental effects and cooperation opinions, negative economical, social cultural/environmental effects and cooperative opinions, and the relationship between support and cooperation had a significant difference. Of the factors which had a significant difference, the relationship between negative social, cultural/environmental effects and supports had a negative (-) and others had a positive (+) value. As for the cause and result relationship among recognition, support, and cooperation opinion, all of the local inhabitants' recognitions had a positive (+) cause and result relationship among support and cooperation opinions, but low cause and result relationship among negative social cultural, environmental effects, support, and cooperation opinions.
This study performed an analysis among sports immersion, bland article recognition, and purchase intention determination of badminton affinity members and leaded to the conclusion as followings. First, as for the relationship among sports immersion, bland article recognition, and purchase intention determination of badminton affinity members, recognition immersion of sports immersion had a positive effect on truth of brand characteristic, ability, and purchase intention determination, behavior immersion of sports immersion on the strength of brand characteristic, and recognition immersion, behavior immersion of sports immersion on interest in brand characteristic and strength/ friendliness, and uniqueness of brand. Second, as for the relationship among brand article recognition and purchase intention determination of badminton affinity members, truth ability of brand characteristic had a positive effect on purchase intention determination, and strength friendliness, and uniqueness of brand image on purchase intention determination.
텔로미어(telomere)는 염색체 양 말단에 위치하는 DNA와 단백질의 복합체로서 (TTAGGG)n의 단순 반복 염기 서열로 이루어져 있다. 그러나 일부 조류 및 척추동물의 경우 염색체의 양 말단 부위외 간질적 위치에도 telomeric DNA sequence가 분포한다. 본 연구는 닭 염색체에 있어 telomeric DNA의 분포 양상을 제시하고자 한국 재래닭의 초기 배아로부터 염색체 표본을 제작하고, telomeric DNA probe를 이용한 FISH를 수행하여 염색체 상 텔로미어의 분포 양상을 분석하였다. 분석 결과, 닭의 모든 염색체 양 말단부에 텔로미어가 분포하는 것으로 나타났으며, 더불어 대형 염색체 중 1번의 1q32, 1p11, 1p23 위치와 2번 염색체의 2q24 및 3번 염색체 3q32에 interstitial telomeric signal(ITS)이 존재하는 것이 확인되었다. 이러한 한국 재래닭 염색체의 텔로미어 분포 양상은 이전 Gallus domesticus에서 발표한 분포 양상과 거의 일치한 것으로 나타났다. 한국 재래닭의 각 염색체별 텔로미어 함유율은 4.6~16.3% 정도로 분석되었으며, 거의 대부분의 염색체에서 단완 말단부의 telomeric DNA의 함량이 장완 말단부보다 높은 것으로 나타났다. 닭 염색체에서 ITS의 존재와 분포 양상은 핵형학적으로 진화 과정 중 염색체 간의 융합에 의해 신생 염색체가 형성되었을 가능성을 시사한다. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the ends of chromosomes consisting of DNA sequences arranged in tandemly repeated units (TTAGGG)n. However, this hexamers can also occur at non-telomeric sites in some avians and vertbrate. This study was carried out to present the distribution of telomeric DNA sequences in Korean Native Chicken chromosomes. The fluorescence in situ hybridization technique using a telomeric DNA probe was performed to the metaphase spreads of chicken early embryonic cells. Telomeric DNA signals were detected at the ends of chromosomes including macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, surprisingly, chromosome 1 showed very distinct interstitial telomeric DNA hybridization patterns which located two interstitial sites in the p-arm at 1p11 and 1p23, and one in the q-arm at 1q32. Inchromosome number 2 and 3 also displayed interstitial telomeric signals (ITS) in the long arms at 2q24 and 3q32, respectively. The pattern of telomeric DNA distribution in Korean Native Chicken chromosomes was in agreement with a previously reported in Gallus domesticus. The relative amount of telomeric DNA sequences in each macrochromosomes ranged from 4.6% to 16.3%. Distribution of telomeric DNAs at the end of p-arm was much more than that of q-arm in almost chicken chromosomes. The distribution of ITS in chicken chromsomes implicate to tandem chromosome fusions that might have occurred during the process of karyotype evolution.
This study aims at presenting the effectiveness on educational aspect related to Taekwondo poomsae learning, with the traits of theories and skills, and administrational aspect in Taekwondo halls re-registration of smartphone-used poomsae educational programs. So, this study leaded to the conclusion as followings. First, the amusement and effectiveness of smartphone-used Taekwondo poomsae educational programs had a significant effect on educational effectiveness. Second, the amusement and effectiveness of smartphone-used Taekwondo poomsae educational programs didn't have a significant effect on re-registration. The amusement of poomsae educational programs had a significant effect on recommendation intention, but utility didn't have a significant effect. Fourth, the educational effect through smartphone-used Taekwondo poomsae educational programs didn't have a significant effect on re-registration and recommendation. But, re-registration had a significant effect on recommendation intention. But, as for the causal relationship among educational programs, educational effectiveness, re-registration, and recommendation of the participants in smartphone-used Taekwondo poomsae education, the anmsement and utility of martphone-used poomsae educational programs had an effect on re-registration through educational effectiveness. The relation with recommendation intention was not effective a little. But, as for the amusement and utility of poomsae educational programs, total effectiveness was higher than directive effectiveness in general relationship among educational effectiveness, re-registration, and recommendation.