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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is an organelle where most secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized, folded, and undergo further maturation. As numerous conditions can perturb such ER function, eukaryotic cells are equipped with responsive signaling pathways, widely referred to as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Chronic conditions of ER stress that cannot be fully resolved by UPR, or conditions that impair UPR signaling itself, are associated with many metabolic and degenerative diseases. In recent years, Drosophila has been actively employed to study such connections between UPR and disease. Notably, the UPR pathways are largely conserved between Drosophila and humans, and the mediating genes are essential for development in both organisms, indicating their requirement to resolve inherent stress. By now, many Drosophila mutations are known to impose stress in the ER, and a number of these appear similar to those that underlie human diseases. In addition, studies have employed the strategy of overexpressing human mutations in Drosophila tissues to perform genetic modifier screens. The fact that the basic UPR pathways are conserved, together with the availability of many human disease models in this organism, makes Drosophila a powerful tool for studying human disease mechanisms. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(8): 445-453]
<P>A versatile Raman spectroscopic method to determine the contents of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in CNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites is demonstrated, and important issues directly related to the accuracy of the measurement have been investigated. Initially, Raman microscopic mappings over an area of 6.0 × 6.0 mm<SUP>2</SUP> were carried out on CNT/PDMS composites, which revealed the existence of the partial localization of CNTs on a microscopic scale. Therefore, a laser illumination scheme covering a large sample area of 28.3 mm<SUP>2</SUP> was employed to acquire a sample spectrum representative of the whole CNT concentration. The peak area ratio between the CNT and PDMS peaks clearly varied with the CNT concentration, whereas the reproducibility of measurements was degraded for the composites containing more than 3.0 wt% CNTs because of the decreased Raman sampling volume arising from the absorption of laser radiation by the CNTs. The laser penetration depth was semi-quantitatively investigated by observing the spectra of thin-sliced samples collected by positioning a Teflon disk behind the sample, and Monte Carlo simulations were employed to examine the internal photon propagation as well as explain the experimental observation. In summary, the fundamental issues affecting the Raman measurement of the CNT containing polymer matrix have been clearly addressed, and the finding here will be a beneficial basis for successful Raman spectroscopic analysis of different CNT-containing composites.</P>
중년 고혈압 환자들의 운동능력에 대한 연구. 운동과학, 제6권 제2호. 169-178, 1997. 고혈압을 지닌 사람들에게 운동이 적절한 수준으로 제공되지 않았을 경우 자칫 위험 상황에 빠질 수 있다. 일선 현장에서 일반적으로 적용되는 나이를 고려한 운동강도의 설정은 고혈압을 지닌 중년인들에게는 일반인들보다 훨씬 위험을 초래할 수 있는 운동강도로 작용될 수 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 고혈압을 지닌 중년남성들의 운동 능력의 특성들을 구체적으로 살펴 고혈압을 지닌 사람들의 바람직한 운동처방의 기초자료를 제공하고자 하는데 목적이 있다. 본 연구의 피검자는 수축기 혈압이 140mmhg 이상, 이완기 혈압이 90mmhg 이상인 고혈압을 지닌 40-50대 성인 남자 9명과 검진상 혈압에 이상이 없는 9명을 무작위로 추출하여 운동능력의 특성을 조사하였다. 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) Body fat은 통계적으로 유의한 차이는 없었으나 고혈압 집단에서 높게 나타났다. 2) Hip/waist ratio는 고혈압 집단이 중심성 비만의 경향이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 3) 운동시간은 혈압상승으로 인한 운동중단으로 고혈압 집단이 정상집단 보다 평균 1분 정도 적은 것으로 나타났다. 4) 최대심박수 도달율을 고혈압집단이 낮게 나타났다. 5) V˙O₂max은 고혈압 집단이 정상집단보다 현저하게 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 6) V˙O₂max/㎏는 고혈압 진단이 정상집단보다 현저하게 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 7) VT는 유의한 차이는 없었으나 고혈압 집단이 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 8) R값은 차이가 거의 나타나지 않았다. 결론적으로 고혈압 집단은 동일한 강도로 운동을 했을 때 운동을 지속할 수 있는 시간과 유산소성 능력 등에서 현저하게 정상인과는 차이가 나는 것으로 나타났고 임상적으로 급격한 혈압의 상승으로 인한 운동중단의 사례가 많았다. 따라서 본 연구의 결과 고혈압을 지닌 중년인들의 운동강도의 설정은 반드시 운동검사 후에 적절하게 제시되어야 할 것으로 보인다. Ryoo, B.K. A study on the characteristics of aerobic capacity and body composition in middle aged men with hypertension. Exercise Science, 6(2); 169-178, 1997. The necessary exercise prescriptions and methods needed to treat these patients remains mostly in the theoretical stage. Therefore, implementing programs according to standard criteria for age or other factors can be dangerous. Generally, control is maintained through observation, but what is needed and lacking is concrete research results which can indicate the differences in exercise capacity between high blood pressure (hereafter HBP) sufferers and normal individuals. This research observed the differences in exercise and lung capacity between HBP sufferers and normal individuals for the purpose of presenting realistic data useful in prescribing exercise. Subjects for the research consisted or 9 men age 40-50 who were diagnosed as having HBP at the ## General examination Center and 9 nomal indiividuals were selected at random. The Bruce Protocol was used in all examinations and an automatic blood pressure check was conducted once every two minutes at all stages. Exercise was stopped when blood pressure exceed 240 sys and 110 dai. T test was performed for compared two group. The results of this study are as follows. 1) Body fat was not significantly high, however the high blood pressure group showed a higher body tat than the normal group. 2) In hip/waist ratio the high blood pressure sufferers showed a higher tendency toward central obesity. 3) Exercise time for the high blood pressure group was less than that for the normal group. 4) HBP group achieved only 90% of projected max heart rate showing a significant difference between the groups. 5) There was a significant difference in V˙O₂max. 6) The HBP sufferers also had a lower V˙O₂max/㎏ than the normal group. 7) The normal group scored higher than the HBP group in VT. 8) R value was about the same for the two groups. The general situation is that age is not being considered in prescribing exercise for patients. There is a clear need to provide graded exercise programs for pafients with poor exercise and lung capacity which, through moving gradually from low to high intensity, will improve lung exercise capacity.
This paper describes a step-down AC voltage regulator using an AC chopper and auxiliary transformer, which is a series connected to the main input. The detail design of the AC regulator, logic and PWM pattern of the AC chopper is described and the three-phase AC regulator using two singlephase AC choppers with a three transformer configuration is proposed for three-phase application. The proposed three-phase system has the advantages of lower system cost due to reduced switch number and gate driver circuit as well as advantages of decreased size and weight because it uses a series compensated scheme. The proposed AC regulator has many benefits such as fast voltage control, high efficiency and simple control logic. Experimental results indicate that it can be used as a step-down AC voltage regulator for power saving purposes very efficiently.
The ability to provide quality power has become a significant issue in power systems. The main causes of poor power quality are harmonic currents, poor power factor, supply-voltage variations, etc. A technique of achieving both active current distortion compensation, power factor correction and also mitigating the supply-voltage variation (sag or swell) at the load side is presented in this paper. The operation and rating issues of the proposed Single-phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner are also highlighted. To reduce the total cost while simultaneously increasing the performance, the system is fully digitally controlled using the fixed-point TMS320F240 digital signal processor. The performances of the UPQC, which is composed by shunt and series PWM controlled-converters, have been verified on a laboratory prototype.
In this paper we define the degenerate Carlitz-type q-Euler polynomials by generalizing the degenerate Euler numbers and polynomials, degenerate Carlitz-type Euler numbers and polynomials. We also give some interesting properties, explicit formulas, a connection with degenerate Carlitz-type q-Euler numbers and polynomials.
In this paper we define the (p, q)-analogue of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials by generalizing the Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, Carlitz's type q-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials. We also give some interesting properties, explicit formulas, a connection with (p, q)-analogue of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials. Finally, we investigate the zeros of the (p, q)-analogue of Bernoulli polynomials by using computer.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of tumor cells, which are characterized by resistance against chemotherapy and environmental stress, and are known to cause tumor relapse after therapy. A number of molecular mechanisms underlie the chemoresistance of CSCs, including high expression levels of drug efflux transporters. We investigated the role of the antioxidant transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) in chemoresistance development, using a CSC-enriched colonosphere system. HCT116 colonospheres were more resistant to doxorubicin-induced cell death and expressed higher levels of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) compared to HCT116 monolayers. Notably, levels of NRF2 and expression of its target genes were substantially elevated in colonospheres, and these increases were linked to doxorubicin resistance. When NRF2 expression was silenced in colonospheres, Pgp and BCRP expression was downregulated, and doxorubicin resistance was diminished. Collectively, these results indicate that NRF2 activation contributes to chemoresistance acquisition in CSC-enriched colonospheres through the upregulation of drug efflux transporters.
There has been a growing interest and enthusiasm for the application of virtual worlds in learning and training. This research proposes a design framework of a virtual world-based learning environment that integrates two unique features of the virtual world technology, immersion and interactivity, with an instructional strategy that promotes self-regulatory learning. We demonstrate the usefulness and assess the effectiveness of our design in the context of information security learning. In particular, the information security learning module implemented in Second Life was incorporated into an Introduction to Information Security course. Data from pre- and post- learning surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning module. Overall, the results strongly suggest that the virtual world-based learning environment enhances information security learning, thus supporting the effectiveness of the proposed design framework. Additional results suggest that learner traits have an important influence on learning outcomes through perceived enjoyment. The study offers useful design and implementation guidelines for organizations and universities to develop a virtual world-based learning environment. It also represents an initial step towards the design and explanation theories of virtual world-based learning environments.