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The purpose of this study is to illustrate Ai Qing's poems after the year 1949, especially focusing on his political lyrics that cover almost half the existing two hundred seventy nine poems. In this period Ai Qing establishes a poetic trend that is different from the poems written before the year 1949. This trend toward political motivation has already appeared in his poems around the years of his stay at Yanan 延安 (1941-45). These poems are a full of his egoistic feelings to the White Terror, eulogies to the leaders of Chinese Communist and New Communist China, and abstract idealism for the proletariat. written in the style of a folk song. These poems are failure to stir the feelings of others, because they are vacant in content and low-grade in style. Among the poems after the year 1949, the short lyrics, containing diverse feelings of life's philosophy, are worth while paying our attention. These poems are sincere and good enough to show his sense of the in-depth imagination and the ability to associate imagery. Things that are difficult to grasp, vague, and elusive, are presenting clearly before the reader in these poems. Even though they are not many in quantity, they can be considered as being representative of his poems after the year 1949.
The purpose of this study is to illustrate the July Poetry Society’s category, especially focusing on its poetic genealogical tree during the War against Japan and the Civil War. The first step in mobilizing poets to support the anti-Japanese literary trend was taken in September 1932 with the poets of the Chinese Poetry Association 中國詩歌會. The sympathy on Chinese sufferings let many Chinese poets advocate a proletarian-oriented poetry before the advent of the Chinese Poetry Association. But the poets of the League of Left-wing were significantly full of adolescent fantasies for the proletarian revolution. As a result of this, their poetic language and imagery remain curiously abstract, formulaic, and propagandistic. These poems are failure to stir the feelings of others, because they are vacant in content and low-grade in style. Even though the poets of the July Poetry Society received the influence of both poets of the League of Left-wing and the Chinese Poetry Association, their poems were sincere and good enough to show personal point of view with portraying the simple people’s living hardship under the years of the Anti-Japanese Resistance (1937-1945). Part Two examines three major poets, such as Zang Kejia 臧克家(1905-2004), Tian Jian 田間(1916-1985), and Ai Qing 艾靑(1910-1996) and their poetic influence on the birth of the July Poetry Society. But these three poets are excluded from the members of the July Poetry Society in this research. Part Three analyzes the poetry series and magazines published by the July Poetry Society, especially focusing on Hu Feng 胡風(1902-1985). In Part Four, the re-illumination of the poets of the July Poetry Society in the early 1980s was the result of long and painstaking adventure that Chinese poets had been finding a high ideal of being the model poetry of realism, quote unquote, “the convergence of poet’s personal feelings and national spirit.”
본고는 백곡 정곤수에 관한 최초의 본격 연구로, 그의 가족사랑과 가문의식을 집중적으로 탐구한 것이다. 임란을 맞아 청병진주사請兵陳奏使로 활약한 나라사상도 그의 가족사랑과 가문의식의 확장이라는 입장이다. 정곤수는 전통적인 가국논리家國論理에 입각한 유가주의를 견지하고 있었기 때문이다. 정곤수의 선세先世는 고려왕조에 벼슬을 하면서 환력과 학문으로 명성이 있었데, 이색李穡의 ‘서원대성西原大姓’은 이를 두고 한 발언이다. 이러한 가계를 바탕으로 정곤수는 개국공신 정총鄭摠의 주손으로 본생가인 성주와 양가인 서울 사이를 오가며 생활하게 된다. 정곤수의 가족사랑은 양가와 본생가에 동시에 나타났고, 특히 본생가의 재종형 정괄鄭适과 재종제 정구鄭逑에 대한 사랑은 각별한 것이었다. 가문의식은 가승이나 『서원세고西原世稿』를 만들고, 가문 관련 글을 작성하거나 묘갈 등을 세우는 것으로 구체화되었다. 여기에는 그의 가문이 동국명가라는 자부심이 게재되어 있었다. 특히 가문을 지탱하는 사상적 기반으로 ‘공경사상’을 들고, 이것이 진외증조부 김굉필을 거치면서 도학적 수양론으로 발전해가는 것을 보였다. 수제치평修齊治平의 유가적 논리에 따른 정곤수의 가족사랑과 가문의식은 애국의식으로 적극 표출되었다. 개국공신의 주손으로서의 자부심과 국가에 대한 헌신이 맞물리면서 나라사랑은 그에게 부여된 당연한 책무였기 때문이다. 우리는 여기서 ‘수신’이 ‘제가’로, ‘제가’가 다시 ‘치국’으로 확장되는 것과 함께, 역으로 ‘치국’이 ‘제가’로, ‘제가’가 다시 ‘수신’으로 수렴되는 순환구조를 이해하게 된다. 이러한 순환구조는 결국 ‘수기치인’이라는 유가 논리에 근간을 두고 있는 것이라 하겠다.
The purpose of this study is to revaluate Wang Jingzhi’s 汪靜之(1902-1996) representative love poems, especially focusing on his concern for the free, the romantic, and the western style love. His love poetry, inspired by the tide of the May 4th Movement that asserted the ideological emancipation and anti-feudalistic society, broke away from the restraints of traditional custom between man and women and came to literary prosperity. His poetry was one of the most effective means to head toward Chinese modernity, since he found out Chinese equivalent for Western romantic love affairs and developed the private self with modern individual sensitiveness in his many touching and brokenhearted love poems. This study also tries to find the distinctions of love poems between traditional and modern society, and summarize the causes through the analysis of the aspects of two cultures, women social status, and different aesthetic tastes. Wang Jingzhi’s love poetry of the 1920s was based on the awareness of the relativism between subject(self) and object(loving partner). At the same time, this poetry was characterized by its superb tendency to present sense impression of love affairs as well as experiencing sensual poetic sentiment. Therefore, it wasn’t until Wang Jingzhi’s arrival that modern Chinese poetry began in earnest to have the genre of love poem in its fullest sense.
The purpose of this study is to carefully revaluate the historical and aesthetic characteristics of Shao Xunmei’s 邵洵美(1906-1968) third collection of poetry Shi ershiwu shou 詩二十五首(Twenty-five Poems), especially focusing on his concern for harmonizing poetic contents with formal device. His enthusiasm for decadent imagination and technique of weaving highly symbolic seductive images became distinctly visible throughout the Twenty-five Poems. Generally speaking, Shao’s third collection of poetry is superior to his first and second collection of poetry in aesthetic value. In his “Self-preface 自序,” he attempts to suggest that poets should employ different forms for different inspiration―the form always being appropriate to the subject. Also he said poet’s mission is to evoke an object that suggests the meaning, not to explain an object concretely. Because the inspiration experienced by a poet is unique enough to match the faith in Christianity, the poet is reduced to the use of a complex and godlike symbolization in an effort to give expression. As a result of this, Shao’s aesthetic achievement is superb and has a special significance in that these poems reflect his study on the characteristics of decadent literature as being chinese avant-garde.
Recovery of detoxifing and excretory functions of residual liver after parital hepatectomy (removed about 70% of total liver) were studied by determining the detoxication of benzoic acid, as measured by the urinary excertion of hippuric acid, and biliary excretion of sulfobromo phthaleine. In evaluating the detoxication function, the ration of urinary hippurate-C^14 to benzoate-C^14 (H/B ration) was also estimated by thin layer chromatography after administration of sodium benzoate-C^14 as a more significant criterion of the function than the amount of urinary hippurate (Choi and Ryoo: Kyungpook Med. J., 10:145, 1969). Immediately after the partial hepatectomy, urinary H/B ratio showed about 2/5 of normal rats while the amount of urinary hippurate was decreased only to 2/3 of normal. The reduction of H/B ratio was more signiifcant on 1-2 days post-hepatectomy and gradually recovered through liver regeneration. Biliary excretion of intravenously injected sulfobromophthaleine also revealed more decrease 1-2 days post-hepatectomy than immediate after the poeration, but on 4 days post-hepatectomy the exretory function was almost completely recovered.
추가된 분절의 색과 길이가 네온 색 확산에 미치는 효과를 알아보기 위한 연구를 수행하였다. 정우현과 이일우(2010)의 연구에서 사용된 네온 색 확산 자극의 일부를 변형하여 배경이 회색인 자극을 실험에 사용하였다. 추가된 분절의 색은 세 수준으로 흰색, 녹색, 검은색이었다. 추가된 분절의 길이는 네 수준으로 구성되었으며 시각(visual angel)으로는 각각 0.05°,0.66°,1.32°,1.93°이었다. 무작위로 선별된 두 개의 자 과제 수행결과 추가된 분절의 색이 검은색이면 네온 색 확산이 약해지고 추가된 분절의 색이 흰색이거나 녹색이면 네온 색 확산이 강하게 지각되었다. 이러한 결과는 배경의 밝기와 추가된 분절의 밝기가 네온색 확산에 중요한 역할을 할 가능성을 시사한다. 실험 결과 추가된 분절의 길이가 시각 1°보다 길면 네온 색 확산이 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 연결성이 위배되는 경우에 주관적 윤곽이 뚜렷해짐과 동시에 색 확산이 감소하는데 분절의 추가는 연결성의 위배되는 조건과 일치한다. 본 연구 결과는 네온 색 확산 자극의 연결성이 위배되었다고 지각되기 위해서는 추가되는 분절이 어느 정도의 길이를 유지해야하며 이 기준이 약 1° 정도일 가능성을 시사한다.
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清代中前期是中国历史上最深刻的伎乐转型期, 男旦演员完全取代女伎成为娱乐新宠, 活跃于演艺圈和娼妓业。这一时期因此成为男旦业影响中国文学最为深刻的时期。男旦成为小说形象, 主要影响同性恋文学。愿意写作此类题材的高水平作家的数量在增加, 他们对男性同性恋的好感度也在提高, 这导致同性恋文学品质的提高, 甚至促成了同性恋小说雅化进程的开始。男旦成为小说题材, 还为清代小说增添了阴柔品格。男性饰演女性, 本质上是男性的阳性品质受到损害, 阴柔品质在增加。认真研究男旦文化对文学的影响, 对中国的现实文化战略具有一定的参考意义。 It was a transition of music and dancing in the early and middle Qing dynasty, when female impersonators became popular in space of female kabuki. The industry of female impersonators gave the most profound impact on Chinese literature. It is mainly that female impersonators had an influence on homosexual literature. The first class writers who would be willing to create the literature images were on the increase. The writers felt well disposed towards the actors, which improved the standard of work and led to elegance of homosexual literature. Because of the decreasing of masculinity and the increasing of femininity, those works were getting feminine and tender. It has practical strategic significance for China to study the effect of culture about female impersonators.