http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
In this paper we have reconstructed an armillary sphere based on the Method of an Armillary Sphere Making described in the Volume 1 of The Collection of Writings on the Scientific Instruments-Uigijipsol (儀器輯說, two volumes) edited in the 1850's by Nam Byong-Chul (南秉哲, 1817-1863) who was a famous Korean states-man-scientist. Nam achieved convenience and accuracy in the measurements of stellar positions in the manner of selective setting the equatorial, ecliptic and horizontal poles by adding a pole axis exchange ring called Jaigeukkwon (載極圈) between the Three Arrangers of Time and Four Displacements. We made use of 3-dimensional graphic software for modelling Nam's armillary sphere which consisted of five layers-eight rings. Results of simulation showed that the pole axis exchange ring functioned properly in setting the equatorial, ecliptic and horizontal coordinates simply by exchange of positions of specified holes on the ring. We ascertained that the invention of Jaigeukkwon solved inherent problems in the conventional Chinese armillary sphere in computation of real ecliptic coordinates. It was revealed that Nam Byong-Chul made great contributions in the East Asian history of armillary sphere making.
Armillary spheres called honchonui is to show that during the Chosen dynasty (1392∼ 1910), Korean astronomy and technology went on its own path distinctive not only from that of the West but also from that of China, both of which had great influences on it. Our study is based upon the research of written materials and the physical investigation of some existing instruments; its findings will be used for our reconstruction of armillary spheres that were made during the middle of the dynasty. During the Choson, armillary spheres were developed to facilitate the propagation of Confucian ideology, on the one hand, to improve the knowledge of astronomy, on the other. Recognizing their importance at both aspects, the kings devoted themselves to toe making and repairing of the instruments. As time went, individuals outside of the court began to participate in making them. During the middle of the dynasty, that it from the Japanese invasion to the end of King Yongjo's rule, the Korean scientists incorporated the knowledge from the West in the making of armillary spheres. The period of King Hyonjong's reign witnessed a real innovation in making of armillary clocks. Two important scholar-officials played a major role in the renaissance of Korean technology. Upon the king's order, Yi Minch'ol cast new armillary spheres with a water-operated mechanism ; Song Iyong was also ordered to make a "self-sounding clock", that it a weight-driven armillary clock which was affected by the import of a western-style clock through China and Japan. Their joint efforts indeed led to a breakthrough not only in the history of Korean technology but also in that of mankinds. In this way, they succeeded in making armillary spheres in their own way beyond both Chinese and Western traditions of horological instrumentation. To be sure, the reconstruction of armillary spheres for which this study is to lay foundation will further stimulate the efforts at illustrating the history of Korean technology.
The Striking Clepsydra Jagyongnu made in 1434 by King Sejong was well-known for its elaborate ball-operated time annunciating jackwork mechanisms. The details of the clepsydra is described on the Sejong Sillok(Veritable Records of King Sejong) Chapter 65. The clepsydra consists of four water-supply vessels different in sizes, two water-receiving vessels of the same size and two floating indicator-rods. At the top of each water-receiving vessels, ball-rack mechanisms are erected to generate discrete dual time-signals for annuniciating twelve double-hours and five night-watches and their five points. In this paper water-level control method for one-inflow clepsydra model is proposed for the Striking Clepsydra after re-examining the records, various literatures and the surviving parts of the New Striking Clepsydra which is the duplication of the Striking Clepsydra in 1536. The four water-suppy vessels were rearranged in the order of height; a reservoir, a compensating vessel, a constant-level tank and receptacle. This arrangement was supposed to be used for the Striking Clepeydra and water-level control technique was influenced by medieval Chinese overflow method used by Yensu and Shenkua of Sung Dynasty.
본 연구에서는 AR 모델을 이용한 인간의 팔운동 근전신호의 기능분리에 관한 방법을 제시하였다. 4가지 기능의 팔운동 시에 근전신호의 특성을 잘 나타낼수 있는 매개변수를 공분산범과 연속적 최소제곱 알고리즘을 이용하여 각 기능에 대한 모델의 매개변수와 적정차수를 결정하였다. 또한 팔 기능을 분류하기 위한 신뢰구간은 총합제곱오차의 평균과 표준차로 결정하였다. AR 모델의 오차를 이용하여 각 운동에 대한 기능분리를 실행한 결과 차수가 4차일 때 가장 높은 인식률을 얻을 수 있었으며, 차수가 증가할수록 인식률은 감소하였다. 따라서 본 연구의 결과는 의용생체공학이나 재활공학에 응용할 수 있으리라 기대한다. In this thesis, general method using autoregressive model in the functional separation of the myoelectric signal of human arm movements are suggested. Covariance method and sequential least squares algorithm were used to determine the model parameters and the order of signal model to describe four arm movement patterns; the forearm flexion and extension, the wrist pronation and supination. The confidence interval to classify the functions of arm movement was defined by the mean and standard deviation of total squares error. With the error signals of autoregressive(AR) model, the result showed that the highest success tate was obtained in the case of 4th order, and success rate was decreased with increase of order. This technique might be applied to biomedical-and rehabilitation-engineering.
본 연구에서는 世宗 자격루에 쓰인 잣대[浮箭]를 복원하기 위하여 당시의 計時機 유물들을 조사하여 十二時 百刻制의 모델을 구성하였다. 「世宗實錄」의 報漏閣記와 「漏籌通義」의 기록에 따라 11箭의 눈금에 따른 更點의 길이를 계산하였다. 이 잣대들은 「七政算內編」에 따라 계산된 漢暘의 二至後 日出入辰刻에 의거하여 차례가 정해졌음을 알 수 있었으며 잣대간의 시간차는 二刻(곧 12분)씩이었다. '보루각기'에는 밤의 잣대 (夜箭)가 12개라고 기록되어 있고 「누주통의」에는 11개로 적혀있어 두 가지 기록이 일치되지 않았으나 「칠정산내편」에 따라 편찬된 「누주통의」의 11箭으로도 1년간을 통용할 수 있도록 하였음이 밝혀졌다. 본 연구 결과는 조선조 초기의 천체 관측기기와 자격루를 비롯한 여러 가지 계시기의 복원에 활용할 수 있으리라 생각한다. The horary systems of early period of Choseon dynasty depended 'chiljeongsan naepyeon'(七政算內編, Seven Regulators Calendar, volume 1) based on the Shou-shih calendar of Yuan Dynasty. The day was diveded in twelve 'double - hours'(十二時), each corresponding to two hours of present time and one hundred equal intervals called 'gak' (刻), each corresponding to 14 min 24 sec of modern time-reckoning. The night was divided into five equal but seasonally variable night-watches(kyeong, 更), each of which was divided into five equal portions(points, cheom, 點). In this paper 'twelve double-hours' and 'one hundred interval horary system models were reconstructed based on the 'borugakki'(報漏閣記, Record of Time Annunciating Pavillion) and 'nujutongui'(漏籌通義, Operation manual of the clepsydra for the night-watches). The eleven floating indicator-rod (浮箭) were used for the clepsydra of night-watches during a year. These rods were graduated by the sun-rise and sun-set time of Seoul after summer and winter solstices indicated to 'chiljeongsan'. The horary system models will be useful for the reconstructing astronomical instraments and several time-measarement instraments as well as automatic striking water-clock(chagyeongnu, 自擊漏) of the King Sejong(世宗 1418~1450).
觀象授時를 帝王의 가장 근본된 책무로 여겼던 조선의 역대 왕들은 다양한 형태의 천문계시 儀器를 제작하였으며, 깊은 애착을 가지고 이를 修補하며 운용하는 데 지속적으로 관심을 기울였다. 조선조 전체를 통하여 크게 세 차례에 걸쳐 수행된 천문의기 제작사업 중에서 으뜸이 되는 世宗대의 각종 儀表創制事業은 이미 잘 알려진 대로 그 규모와 기술적인 깊이에서 어느 나라, 어느 王朝에서도 類例를 찾을 수 없을 정도였다. 임란 이후 영조조에 이르는 기간에는 연이은 전란으로 많은 것이 무너져내린 속에서 한편으로는 옛 제도를 복원하고, 다른 한편으로는 새로운 서양 역법에 적응하기 위하여 노력하던 가운데서 제반 의기들이 제작 또는 중수되었다. 그리고 정조 이후 후기에 들어서서는 이미 새 역법이 완전히 이해되었고 그것의 운용이 정착됨에 따라 서양의 제도에 맞춘 다수의 천문관측기기들이 또 다시 제작되었다. 顯宗代에 제작된 이래 수차례의 중수를 거쳐 正祖代에도 작동되었던 이민철의 수격식 혼천의는 자동보시장치를 갖춘 것으로서 동아시아 혼천의 역사상 가장 독특한 형태의 전시용 혼천의겸 시계였다. 이것과 동시에 제작된 송이영의 혼천의를 보면 당시에 이미 서양문물과의 접촉 및 기술습득이 상당한 수준에 이르렀음을 알 수 있다. 그러나 혼천의가 왕권을 상징하며 또한 건국초부터 고수해 온 왕조의 유교적 정치이념을 구상화 한 의기이었으므로 이민철은 전승된 옛법에 의하여 이 혼천의를 제작하였던 것이다. 이민철 혼천의는 그 자체로서 조선 왕조의 뛰어난 시계 제작 기술의 精髓가 집약되어 이루어진 귀중한 창작품이기도 하지만, 서양 문물에 눈뜨기 시작한 당시의 시대 상황을 간접적으로 대변하고 있는 등 중요한 史料的 가치도 지니고 있다. 傳統 固守와 新文明 導入이라는 兩 命題 아래에서 이민철에게는 옛 제도인 수격식 혼천의를, 송이영에게는 서양 자명종식 혼천의를 동시에 제작케 한 조정의 조치는 현재의 우리들에게 시사하는 바가 적지 않다. 이민철이 전통 수격식 혼천의를 만드는 가운데서도 「書傳」에 기록된 환의 제도를 변개하고 필요한 부분을 더할 수 있었던 것은 이미 싹트고 있었던 實學사상과 아울러 조선에 전래되기 시작한 서양문물의 도입과 상당한 관계가 있다고 보아야 할 것이다. 이민철의 혼천의는 전란의 폐허 속에서 조선 중기의 여러 왕들이 지속적으로 시도한 세종조의 천문계시의기 복원사업의 白眉로 일컬을 수 있을 만큼 뛰어난 창작품이며, 세계의 천문시계 제작사에도 자랑할 만한 또 하나의 과학기술 遣産이라고 할 수 있다. King Hyo˘njong's period (r. 1664-1674) witnessed a real ingenuity in making astronomical instruments and clocks. While keeping traditional driving and tine-annunciating mechanisms, innovative striking armillary clocks were made under the influence of the Western-style self-sounding clocks introduced via China and Japan. Song Iyo˘ng, Professor of Astronomy, made a demonstrational armillary clock using the Japanese self-sounding clockwork, and Yi Minch'o˘l, an Army Protector, made the armillary striking clepsydra using the traditional water-operated mechanism. In this paper Yi Mincho˘l's four armillary clocks were investigated. The first made in 1664 was an improvement of Ch'oe Yuji's instrument of 1657. In 1669 Yi Minch'o˘l's second water-operated armillary clock of his own origin was created according to the petition by Song Chun'gil asking the restoration of the old Jade Clepsydra. It was repaired in 1687 by Yi Minch'o˘l himself and installed in the Chejo˘ng Pavilion (Chejo˘nggak) during the reign of King Sukchong. The last repair was carried out in 1704 by An Chungt'ae and the fourth armillary sphere was located in the Kyujo˘ng Pavilion (Kyujonggak) during the reign of King Yo˘ngjo. The armillary sphere of the Chejo˘ng Pavilion is known to have been in operation even during the period of King Cho˘ngjo's reign, but Yi Minch'o˘l's armillary clocks had been missing afterwards. Examining the historical records and remaining Song Iyo˘ng's clock, the authors proposed a reconstructed model of Yi Minch'o˘l's water-operated armillary clock. It consists of three parts: an armillary sphere combined with the sun- and moon-carrying systems, a water-operated driving mechanism, and the time-annunciating mechanism. The armillary sphere and the striking mechanism are thought to have had very similar arrangement to those of the remaining weight-driven demonstrational armillary clock except for the differences in size and driving mechanism. The model was compared with King Sejong's two clepsydras- the Striking Clepsydra and the Jade Clepsydra - in terms of the driving and the time-annunciating mechanisms developed by Chang Yo˘ngsil who employed the Sino-Arabic technologies of the horological instruments. It was found that Yi's clocks were among the last survivors of the Korean tradition of the self-striking clepsydra since King Sejong and also of the East Asian water-operated time-keeping instruments.
In this paper, reference-model following fuzzy controller (RMFFC) was proposed in order to overcome the difficulty of extracting rules and defects of the adaptation performance in the FLC. RMFFC comprised inner feedback loop consisting of the FLC and plant, and outer loop consisting of adaptation mechanism which of the FLC. A Referenced-model was used for design criteria of a fuzzy controller which characterizes and quantizes the control performance required in the overall control system. Tuning control rules of FLC is performed by the adaptation mechanism. For this, the fuzzy model for tuning the control rules is designed in accordance with the feature of error information. Proposed algorithm was verified through simulation for various plant models which have different characteristics. And the results are obtained as follows. 1) Control performance required by a skilled operator was reflected to the control. 2) Unnecessary rule modification did not occur in steady-state, after completion of learning, by using the following error information 3) Performance of RMFFC was improved in various disturbances, comparing with conventional FLC and MRAC.
This study aims to investigate temporal characteristics of the human eye movement control systems, especially the saccadic systems to various visual stimuli. The eye motion transducer using infra-red photoelectric method and a target system which operates on non-predictable manner were constituted as basic measurement system. A measurement and recording systems are described for the recording and analysis of various types of saccadic eye movements (SEM) and of saccadic peak velocity (PV) associated with 10 and 20 degrees horizontal, vertical visual target. Statistical results for average peak velocities (□) of uniocular (right eye) movements are given for a group of 5 normal subjects and compared with other researchers. Most of SEM generate various corrective movements (CM) and these were categorized to saccadic and glissadic CM. It is suggested that the occurrence of corrective saccades to be dependent upon visual feedback informations. The production rate of CM to 10, 20 degrees target steps or pulses was 20% and 46% respectively. The magnitude of corrective errors were within 1-2 degrees and saccadic gain was 0.9. The saccadic peak velocity (PV) statistics showed no difference for horizontal directions and downward values were slightly faster than upward movement for vertical saccades. No significant differences are shown for horizontal and vertical movements. The velocity statistics were compared with other method and discussed the possibility of research and clinical tools that could be used on oculomotor modeling and neurological diseases.
The most distinctive feature of Jagyeongnoo is its simple and secure mechanisms devised for automatic audio-visual time announcing system. The Veritable Records Sejong Sillok suggested that special emphasis had been put upon signaling subdivided night-watches with mechanical logic operator. In this paper, the details of the night-watch signalling mechanism was described at full length. Through the recent reconstruction of the whole system of Jagyeongnoo which has been missing for several hundred years, the authors could discover the real ingenuity of Jang Yeong-sil displayed on the first Korean mechanical clockwork.
Jagyeungnoo, 'The Self Time Announcing Clepsydra', used as the national standard clock system from the first day of July in 1434 was invented by Jang Yeong-sil under the royal command of King Sejong in 1433. It was famous for its elaborated time announcing mechanism and its time keeping accuracy from the beginning. However this original system was destroyed during Japanese invasion started 1592. At present day only a few parts of rebuilt one in 1536 in King Jungjong's era were survived and later assigned as the National Treasure # 229. These remains are two cylindrical time measuring vessels with a dragon sculptured on the outer surface and a few relic parts associated with this system. Recently the Jagyeongnoo restoration project was conducted by National Palace Museum and Konkuk University. The whole restoration procedure followed along the written record Borukaki in King Sejong's Veritable Record, i.e, Sejong Silok and relics survived from 1536 system. This series of papers are associated with Jagyeungoo restoration project since the written record was delicate and sometime need engineering explanation. The first part of this series is about detailed reproduction processes of the water vessels of Jagyeungnoo system. This includes measuring dimensions of relics and casting process of the vessels.