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Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of personality by each Sasang constitution on sleep using Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule(PANAS) and NEO-personality inventory(NEO-PI). Methods The subjects of this study were 2,078 people who had information on Sasang constitutional type and personality(PANAS, NEO-PI) among the data established at the Korean Medicine Data Center. Sleep time and sleep quality were investigated through self-written questionnaires. Sleep time was collected by hand-writing, and sleep quality was checked on a 4 point Likert scale. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to see the correlation between personality and sleep in each constitutional type. Logistic regression was performed using personality as independent variables to find out how much personality affects sleep time. In order to find out how much personality affects sleep quality, regression analysis was performed using personality as independent variables. Results & Conclusions Sleep time was hardly affected by personality. As a result of Pearson correlation analysis, sleep time in all subjects did not show a significant correlation with personality. In logistic regression on sleep time as the dependent variable, no statistically significant results were obtained except for the Negative Affect(NA) in Taeeumin. Sleep quality showed a statistically significant correlation with the negative affect(NA), neuroticism(N), extraversion(E), Physical Component Summary(PCS) and Mental Component Summary(MCS). As a result of regression analysis on sleep quality as the dependent variable, neuroticism(N), negative affect(NA), positive affect(PA), and extraversion(E) were found in the factors affecting sleep quality. Besides, how much personality affected sleep quality might differ in each constitution. In all constitutions, sleep quality was affected by N, but the rank of N was different in each constitution. The sleep quality of Soyangin was not affected by E, and the sleep quality of Taeeumin was specifically affected by O.
This article is concerned about the awkward or confusing expressions that occur when Korean students speak or compose English as a means of communication. Awkward or confusing expressions occur when speakers do not convey what they want to and when they express something different from what they want to. And Korean students sometimes use some words and phrases differently from what native English speakers use by the same words or phrases. For example, Korean students use the word, enjoy, differently from the standard English meaning. In English they use enjoy to mean ‘to experience joy and pleasure in something’. But some Korean students use enjoy only to convey ‘to participate in a certain entertaining activity like playing cards’. But there is a big difference between ‘to experience joy and pleasure in something’ and ‘to participate in a certain entertaining activity like playing cards’. And some Korean students use at that time as a meaning of then. But in English they do not use the phrase like that. At that time is used to give background information to make clear of some situation or condition at a time it is mentioned in the conversation.
This research was designed as a cross-sectional data analysis in order to examine whether the variables from a firm's financial performance and the executive's demographic characteristics are linked to executive cash compensation in the restaurant industry. Total of 88 executives in the U.S. restaurant industry were gathered from EXECUCOMP database to identify the determinants of executive compensation. The results reveal that there are no statistically significant associations between the two demographic variables(age and gender) and change of executive total cash compensation in the U.S. restaurant industry. However, four financial variables out of five financial variables are significantly associated with change of executive total cash compensation, so restaurant companies do tend to follow the pay-for-performance rule, rather than demographic characteristics, to determine changes in executive compensation.
Purpose – The minimum wage has been considered one of critical issues in overall labor market, especially for the hospitality industry. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of minimum wage’s increase on the hospitality industry’s productivity in Korea. Design, data, and methodology –For this study, the minimum wage is represented by both the amount of minimum wage and the growth rate of minimum wage. Also, the each hospitality industry’s productivity index, the consumer price index for each expenditure type, and real GDP were gathered from various secondary data bases for this study. The data used for this study is the annual panel data from 2000 to 2018 in Korea. The panel unit root test and panel fixed effect model were adopted to achieve the objective of this study. Result – The empirical results showed that only the amount of minimum wage in previous year negatively influences on the productivity of hospitality industry for the current year. Otherwise, the amount of minimum wage in the current year, as well as both previous and current growth rate of minimum wage don’t significantly influence on the productivity of hospitality industry for the current year. Conclusions – The results offer some insights into the effect of minimum wage on the productivity of hospitality industry in Korea. Theoretically, this study provides a new type of conceptual framework that verifies relationships between minimum wage and firm’s performance for the hospitality industry in Korea
1. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to report Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Constitution Theory and the present state of Chinese Health Administration Center. 2. Methods: We visited China for "China Technology Survey" in 2009. Our purposes were to research for the study of constitutional medicine in China and to search for the Development Plan of Constitutional Medicine Through the Research of Chinese Constitutional Medicine. This paper is the report of the "China Technology Survey". 3. Results & Conclusions: In China, the concept and diagnosis of TCM constitutions is nine(Balanced Constitution, Qi-deficient Constitution, Yang-deficient Constitution, Yin-deficient Constitution, Phlegm-dampness Constitution, Damp-heat Constitution, Stagnant blood Constitution, Stagnant qi Constitution, Inherited specific Constitution). And Chinese government established the Classification and Diagnosis Standards for the Constitutions of TCM in 2009. TCM Constitution Theory is being widely applied at Health Administration Center that treats 'predisease' patients. Theses Chinese clinical implications of constitutional medicine are a good example for "Sasang Constituional Medicine" Care Service.
To develop the new physiologically active materials from ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)leaves, the ginsenoside-rich fraction (GL-1) was isolated and transformed into highly absorbable metabolites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To transform the ginsenosides in GL-1 into deglycosylated ginsenosides, GL-1 was treated with organic acids (0.1 and 1% lactic and acetic acid solutions) and fermented with isolated strains (P1-P4, and M3) from red ginseng extract for 7 days. The treatment of 0.1% lactic acid of GL-1 induced the highest transforms of partially-deglycosylated ginsenosides such as Mc, F2, and Rg3 (intermediate metabolites). On the other hand,Compound K (Compd K, final metabolite) contents in GL-1 ferments with strain M3 showed about 6-time higher than that of control (not fermented). Consequently, the strain M3 was finally selected for the mass production of Compd K with well-absorbable property in GI tract and physiological activity.
1438년 장영실은 경복궁 흠경각(欽敬閣) 내부에 자동물시계인 옥루(玉漏)를 제작하였다. 흠경각루(欽敬閣漏)는 수격식(水激式, 물의 흐름을 이용하여 수차를 운행하는 동력방식)으로 운영되는 것으로 중국의 수운의상대(水運儀象臺, 1092년경 제작)의 수격방식과 유사하다. 하지만 동력 방식을 제외한 내부 구조에 대한 것은 흠경각루의 외형모습인 가산 형태, 시보인형의 구성과 배치, 작동구조 등에 의해 결정된다. 장영실은 흠경각루의 내부 기어장치의 구성과 연결 등에 대해서 새로운 제작기술을 사용하였다. 우리는 수격식 동력 방식에서 내부 공간에 따른 각각 운행 장치들의 구성과 동력전달체계에 대하여 분석하였다. 또한 수차가 일정한 회전력을 갖도록 제어하는 천형(天衡) 장치에 대하여 고찰하였다.