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<P>Among different sterilization methods, heat-treatment of bone is recognized as one of the simple and practical methods to lower the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and overcome the risks of rejection and disease transfer from allograft and xenograft during bone transplantation. In order to best characterize the micro-structural mechanical property of bone after heat treatment, the nanoindentation technique was applied in this study to measure the localized elastic modulus and hardness for interstitial lamellae and osteons lamellae of bovine cortical bones at temperature 23°C (room temperature-pristine specimen), 37°C, 90°C, 120°C and 160°C, respectively. The elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) of interstitial lamellae obtained higher values as compared with osteons lamellae which show that interstitial lamellae are more stiff and mineralized than osteons. Moreover, as a specimen pre-heat treated at 90°C, the E and H values of interstitial lamellae and osteons were closed to a pristine specimen. For a specimen pre-heat treated at 120°C, both interstitial lamellae and osteons obtained an increase in E and H values. As a specimen pre-heat treated at 160°C, the interstitial lamellae and osteons obtained a slight decrease in E and H values. These findings are correlated to results reported by other researchers [1, 2] that calcified collagen molecules starts to degenerate at about 120°C and complete at 160°C. Interestingly, when a specimen was pre-heat treated at 37°C, both interstitial lamellae and osteons obtained significant decreases in E values of 57% and 40%, respectively as compared to the pristine specimen; while in H values, there was a decrease of 27.4% and 15%, respectively. Thus, this paper will investigate the mechanical properties of bovine cortical bones under various temperature ranges by nanoindentation technique.</P>
The eyes of male and female Rhagophthalmus ohbai are of very different sizes and possess approximately 3000 and 35 facets, respectively. In the male eye one can distinguish a smaller dorsal region with 500 facets and a larger ventral one with ca. 1800. Ultrastructural differences between them have been described earlier in this journal (Lau and Meyer-Rochow, 2006). Electrophysiological recordings from the two eye areas have now revealed that the ventral region is maximally sensitive to light of 600 nm wavelength, while the dorsal eye region responds maximally to light of 540-560 nm wavelengths. In the dorsal eye region sensitivity to UV-radiation at around 360 nm wavelength, being twice as high as that of the ventral eye region, amounted to ca. one quarter of peak wavelength sensitivity. The regional differences in spectral sensitivity seem to be a reflection of the different tasks of the two eye regions: looking downward to see the yellow light emitted by a female, sensitivity towards longer wavelengths would be advantageous, but looking upward into the twilight sky, sensitivity to shorter wavelength would be a more appropriate adaptation.
Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), particularly carbon nanotube and graphene-based materials, are rapidly emerging as one of the most effective adsorbents for wastewater treatment. CNMs hold great potential as new generation adsorbents due to their high surface to volume ratio, as well as extraordinary chemical, mechanical and thermal stabilities. However, implementation of pristine CNMs in real world applications are still hindered due to their poor solubility in most solvents. Hence, surface modification of CNMs is essential for wastewater treatment application in order to improve its solubility, chemical stability, fouling resistance and efficiency. Numerous studies have reported the applications of functionalized CNMs as very promising adsorbents for treating organic and inorganic wastewater pollutants. In this paper, the removal of organic dye and phenol contaminants from wastewater using various type of functionalized CNMs are highlighted and summarized. Challenges and future opportunities for application of these CNMs as adsorbents in sustainable wastewater treatment are also addressed in this paper.
The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a serious global health crisis. Increasing evidence suggests that elderly individuals with underlying chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), are particularly vulnerable to this infection. Changes in the routine care of PD patients should be implemented carefully without affecting the quality provided. The utilization of telemedicine for clinical consultation, assessment and rehabilitation has also been widely recommended. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide recommendations in the management of PD during the pandemic as well as in the early phase of vaccination programs to highlight the potential sequelae and future perspectives of vaccination and further research in PD. Even though a year has passed since COVID- 19 emerged, most of us are still facing great challenges in providing a continuum of care to patients with chronic neurological disorders. However, we should regard this health crisis as an opportunity to change our routine approach in managing PD patients and learn more about the impact of SARS-CoV-2. Hopefully, PD patients can be vaccinated promptly, and more detailed research related to PD in COVID-19 can still be carried out.
In this paper, we have compared and contrasted competing influences of greenhouse gases (GHG) warming and aerosol forcing on Asian summer monsoon circulation and rainfall based on CMIP5 historical simulations. Under GHG-only forcing, the land warms much faster than the ocean, magnifying the pre-industrial climatological land-ocean thermal contrast and hemispheric asymmetry, i.e., warmer northern than southern hemisphere. A steady increasing warm-ocean-warmer-land (WOWL) trend has been in effect since the 1950’s substantially increasing moisture transport from adjacent oceans, and enhancing rainfall over the Asian monsoon regions. However, under GHG warming, increased atmospheric stability due to strong reduction in mid-tropospheric and near surface relative humidity coupled to an expanding subsidence areas, associated with the Deep Tropical Squeeze (DTS, Lau and Kim, 2015b) strongly suppress monsoon convection and rainfall over subtropical and extratropical land, leading to a weakening of the Asian monsoon meridional circulation. Increased anthropogenic aerosol emission strongly masks WOWL, by over 60% over the northern hemisphere, negating to a large extent the rainfall increase due to GHG warming, and leading to a further weakening of the monsoon circulation, through increasing atmospheric stability, most likely associated with aerosol solar dimming and semi-direct effects. Overall, we find that GHG exerts stronger positive rainfall sensitivity, but less negative circulation sensitivity in SASM compared to EASM. In contrast, aerosols exert stronger negative impacts on rainfall, but less negative impacts on circulation in EASM compared to SASM.
The eyes of male and female Rhagophthalmus ohbai are of very different sizes and possess approximately 3000 and 35 facets, respectively. In the male eye one can distinguish a smaller dorsal region with 500 facets and a larger ventral one with ca. 1800. Ultrastructural differences between them have been described earlier in this journal (Lau and Meyer- Rochow, 2006). Electrophysiological recordings from the two eye areas have now revealed that the ventral region is maximally sensitive to light of 600 nm wavelength, while the dorsal eye region responds maximally to light of 540-560 nm wavelengths. In the dorsal eye region sensitivity to UV-radiation at around 360 nm wavelength, being twice as high as that of the ventral eye region, amounted to ca. one quarter of peak wavelength sensitivity. The regional differences in spectral sensitivity seem to be a reflection of the different tasks of the two eye regions: looking downward to see the yellow light emitted by a female, sensitivity towards longer wavelengths would be advantageous, but looking upward into the twilight sky, sensitivity to shorter wavelength would be a more appropriate adaptation.
Hybrid thin film nanostructures composed of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and self-assembled polymer films with different spatial distributions of NPs were analyzed by optical waveguide spectroscopy (OWS). Specifically, the dielectric constants were calculated using effective medium theory for the incorporation of 1 vol% Au NP into the block copolymer (BCP) films having a cylindrical nanodomain morphology. Three cases were considered: uniform distribution of NPs in the film; selective distribution of NPs only in the cylindrical domains; and segregation of NPs to the center of the cylindrical domains. The optical waveguide spectra derived from the calculated dielectric constants demonstrate the feasibility of experimentally distinguishing the composite nanostructures with different inner morphologies in the hybrid metal NP-BCP nanostructures, by the measurement of the dielectric constants using OWS.
Lepomis macrochirus from the family Centrarchidae, commonly known as Bluegill sunfish, is an introduced freshwater fish in Korea that thrives in lakes, ponds, reservoirs and rivers. Since its introduction into Korea in 1969, Lepomis macrochirus has rapidly dispersed out and increased in number almost all over the freshwater ecosystems in Korea. Consequently this species causes a severe ecological problem, threatening native fishes due to its omnivorous foraging behaviors upon fish juveniles and many freshwater invertebrates. To address population genetic structure of L. macrochirus, 74 fish samples from 10 populations were collected and compared for their mitochondrial D-loop control region. As the result we found that the genetic diversity of L. macrochirus is extremely low such as resulting only four haplotypes with a few nucleotide differences among them. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the source of population genetic variation is largely retained in the comparisons among individuals within populations, while it is relatively low with slight significance at the highest hierarchical group. This distribution pattern differs from what is expected when biogeography is under the influence of natural geographic barriers such as mountain ranges in Korea. Instead the result is accord with the influential role of random spreading events facilitated by local people for aquaculture and fishing, and subsequent dispersals since its single point of introduction into Korea.