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        Annotated catalog, biological notes and diagnoses of the flower bugs (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae sensu lato) in the Korean Peninsula

        Jung, Sunghoon,Yamada, Kazutaka,Lee, Seunghwan Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2013 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.20 No.1

        The flower bugs or minute pirate bugs, Anthocoridae sensu lato, are represented by 12 genera and 24 species in the Korean Peninsula. The present catalog includes three newly recorded species to the fauna: Anthocoris confusus Reuter, Bilia japonica Carayon et Miyamoto, and Montandoniola pictipennis (Esaki). Distributional data and bibliographical references of each taxon are included. Biological notes (habitats, prey types, etc.) and diagnoses based on the local materials of the Korean Peninsula are also presented for the field of applied entomology.


        Development and mating behavior of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the constant temperature

        Lee, K.Y.,Yoon, H.J.,Lee, K.S.,Jin, B.R. Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2016 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.19 No.2

        <P>Osmia cornifrons is a cavity-nesting solitary species used as an apple pollinator in Korea. To elucidate the developmental characteristics of O. cornifrons, we investigated its development from the egg to adulthood, including a dormant prepupal phase and mating through indoor rearing (25 degrees C, 65% R.H.). The egg durations of the female and male bees were 3.6 +/- 0.8 days and 3.1 +/- 1.3 days, respectively. During larval development, the head widths of the 1st to 5th instars ranged from 0.7 +/- 0.1 mm to 1.3 +/- 0.1 mm. The peak of the growth in head width was the 2nd instar. The larval lengths ranged from 3.7 +/- 0.6 mm to 13.6 +/- 1.3 mm. The peak of growth was the 4th instar. The larval weights ranged from 4.5 +/- 1.2 mg to 78.3 +/- 16.1 mg. The peak of growth was the 3rd instars. The total larval durations of from the 1st to 5th instars for the females and males were 14.0 +/- 6.0 days and 13.2 +/- 5.8 days, respectively. The spinning durations of the females and males were 22 0.7 days and 2.3 +/- 0.8 days, the prepupation durations were 55.5 +/- 5.9 days and 55.8 +/- 2.9 days, and the pupation durations were 26.4 +/- 2.1 days and 25.3 +/- 2.3 days, respectively. The average longevity of the female adults and male adults was 21.8 +/- 8.7 days and 24.4 +/- 12.4 days, respectively. The total duration of from the egg to an adult bee of the O. cornifrons females and males was 1235 days and 124.1 days, respectively. Mating consisted of the three following phases: the precopulatory (courtship and attempting copulation), copulation and postcopulatory phases. The mating times of the precopulatory, copulation and postcopulatory phases were 159.6 +/- 288.9, 8.4 +/- 7.1, 12.9 +/- 4.5, and 198.8 +/- 69.8 s. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.</P>


        New records of phoretic mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Korea and their ecological implication

        Keum, E.,Takaku, G.,Lee, K.,Jung, C. Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2016 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.19 No.2

        <P>Phoresy is one of the dispersal mechanisms of wingless microarthropods such as mites attached on the winged host. Mites associated with two scarabaeid beetles, Copris ochus and C. tripartitus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were collected from the ex-situ conservation site in Heongseong, Gangwon province in Korea. Among them, four species Copriphis hastatellus Berlese, 1910 (Eviphididae); Holostaspella scatophila Takaku, 1994 (Macrochelidae); Macrocheles japonicus Evans and Hyatt, 1963 (Macrochelidae); and Onchodellus siculus Berlese, 1892 (Pachylaelapidae) were recorded for the first time in Korea. Also, Parasitus consanguineus Oudemans and Voigts (Parasitidae) was previously recorded from the specimen in northern part of Korea in 1904, but since then no record has been made for a century. This is the second observation of this species over 100 years in the Korean peninsula. Description of this species is presented for comparison with the original description. Further discussion explored the relationship between the mites and dung beetles, and possible implication for the conservation of the endangered species. (C) 2016 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>

      • The transition of noteworthy rice diseases and their control in Korea

        Park J. S. Korean Society of Applied Entomology 1965 한국식물보호학회지 Vol.4 No.-

        In Korea the most important plant industry is the rice-growing but she has not yet attained self-sufficiency with regard to rice which is the basic food of Korean. In the past, various measures of increasing rice production have been tried with some success but the increasing rate of did not show the sufficient result. Judging from experiences, disease control may be the most important factor which has influence on increasing of rice production in Korea. During the past 60 years three periods divided by the transition of rice diseases were noted, and especially the recent transition attracted much attention . That is, sheath blight and stripe which were minor diseases in the past have promptly spread all over the country and caused heavy losses to rice plant, and also local outbreak of bacterial leaf blight and dwarf were noticed. Various environmental factors are related to such transition of rice disease. Above all, cultivated varieties susceptible to these diseases, increase of application of nitrogenous fertilizer, earlier transplanting and density of transplanting are considered to be lucre closely related to the development of these diseases and successive development of blast. On the other hand. application of forage fungicides such as organic mercury compounds specific to blast contributed to reduce prevalent area if blast in spite of wide spread of susceptible varieties and increase of application of nitrogenous fertilizer. These facts were confirmed by Korean investigators At the present which various diseases to control coexist in the same region, no one variety resistant to all of these diseases is provided and cultural practices for the control of these diseases often do not produce sufficient yield of rice. it is emphasized that a role of pesticides is very great.

      • Systematic Study of the Genus Macrosiphum Taahashi(Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the Korean Peninsula. I. Subgenus Unisitobion

        Lee, Seung-Hwan,Holman, Jaroslav,Havelka, Jan Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2001 INSECTA KOREANA Vol.18 No.1

        Three species of Macrosiphum(Unisitobion) are recognized from the Korean Peninsula, among which M.(Unisitobion) sorbi matsumura, 1918 and M.(Unisitobion) perilae(Zhang, 1988), comb. nov. are new to the Korean Peninsula. Morphological characteristics are discussed with the microscopic photos. Two species, M.(Unisitobion) sorbi and M.(Unisitobion) perillae are redescribed. The subgeneric position of each species is discussed. The host plants, brief biology, and a key to all known species of the subgenus are also presented.


        Speciation processes within the Korean Peninsula based on the mites from the family Zerconidae (Acari: Mesostigmata)

        Kaczmarek, Slawomir,Marquardt, Tomasz Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2006 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.9 No.3

        The mesostigmatid mites speciation of the family Zerconidae in the Korean Peninsula was analysed in relation to the range of this group in the world. The Korean Peninsula is located on the edge of the Holarctic and is characterised by a uniquely diversified climate shaping the longitudinally changing flora. At present, there are altogether 40 genera included in the family Zerconidae. So far, in the Korean Peninsula there have been recognised 18 species of the Zerconidae belonging to 11 genera. The endemic genera within the area include: Metazercon, Eurozercon, Xenozercon, Koreozercon, Kaikiozercon, Aquilonozercon, and cf. Mesozercon gen. nov. A very high level of endemism (over 60%) proves the intensity of the speciation processes within the Zerconidae family on the Korean Peninsula.


        Spatial Conditioning in the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga crassipaipis: Disruption of Learning by Cold Shock and Protection by Rapid Cold Hardening

        Kim, Young-Soo,Denlinger, D.L.,Smith, B. Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2005 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.8 No.4

        We have developed a new paradigm for examining classical conditioning in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, and specifically apply it as a sensitive measurement for sublethal effects of cold shock. When water was applied as a conditioned stimulus to the right tarsus and reinforced with a brief opportunity to feed on a sucrose-water solution, flies quickly loam to discriminate stimulation of the right from the left tarsus. Further analyses revealed that the discrimination has a strong spatial component. Flies also retain this spatial discrimination over four days as indicated by the fact that the number of correct responses increases with continued training over that time. Cold shock ($-10^{\circ}C$ for 3 min) applied 30 and 60 min after first training interfered with learning. But, cold shock applied 120 min before or 90 min after conditioning did not significantly affect learning. The spatial memory we have identified therefore has a sensitive period during which it can be disrupted with cold shock. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the disruptive effect of cold shock on learning formation can be prevented by rapid cold hardening, a brief pre-exposure to a less severe low temperature.

      • Review of Korean Dacetini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)

        Lyu, Dong-Pyeo,Choi, Byeong-Moon,Cho, Soo-Won Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2001 INSECTA KOREANA Vol.18 No.3

        Most current systematic changes in the tribe Dacetini are applied to the Korean dacetine ants. The tribe Dacetini of Korea include Strumigenys lewisi, Pyramica incerta, p. japonica, P mutica, and P. hexamerus. Taxonomic positions are revised, new informations are added, and a full reference list is provided.


        Variation in Sex Pheromone Composition of a Few Selected Lepidopteran Species

        Boo, Kyung-Saeng Korean Society of Applied Entomology 1998 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.1 No.1

        Composition of insect sex pheromone is not always constant for any particular species. It may be different depending on the geographical area in the distribution of a species, as can be seen in the case of the European corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis (Pyralidae). During the course of examining sex pheromone compositions of several lepidopteran species damaging agricultural and horticultural crops in South Korea, some subtle or apparent differences were noticed in sex pheromone compositions of Korean population belonging to those same species distributed in her neighboring countries. The oriental tobacco budworm moth, Helicoverpa assulta(Noctuidae), in Korea prefers the blend of 100 : 5 between(Z)-9-hexadecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, while Thailand population responds best to 100 : 13 and Chinese population to wider blends from 100 : 2 to 100 : 20. Among lepidopteran insect pests on apples and apple tree leaves, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta(Tortricidae), showed almost no difference from one region to another. Korean population responded best to the blend of 100 : 5, with other populations to 100 : 6~100 : 9 between (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol acetate and (E)-8-dodecen-1-ol acetate. Onthe other hand, the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii(C. niponensis) (Carposinidae), males were attracted best to a single component, (Z)-7-eicosen-11-one in the case of Korean population, in contrast to Japanese population which was shown to be preferentially attracted to the mixture of the (Z)-7-eicosen-11-one and (Z)-7-nonadecen-11-one at the ratio of 100 : 5. The yellow peach moth, Dichocrocis pundtiferalis(Pyralidae), seems to consist of two different populations in the northeastern Asia region, with one group resonding to the blend of 100 : 8~100 : 11 between (E)-10-hexadecenal and (Z)-10-hexadecenal and the other to tat of 100 : 43. The first group was found in Japan ad China and the second in Korea and also China. Korean population of the apple leaf miner, Phyllonorycter ringoniella(Gracillariidae), was best attracted to the blend of 100 : 150 between (Z)-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (E, Z)-4, 10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, while Japanese and Chinese popilations to the blends of 100 : 10~30 and 100 : 43~67, respectively. Furthermore, Korean Adoxophyes(Tortricidae) seemed to be a totally different species from Japanese Adoxophyes sp., or Adoxophyes orana fasciata, when viewed in terms of their pheromone composition.


        Monitoring and evaluation of differential insecticide resistance profiles in the immigrant vs. indigenous populations of the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallen) in Korea

        Jeong, I.H.,Lee, S.W.,Choi, B.R.,Lee, S.H.,Kwon, D.H. Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2016 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.19 No.1

        <P>The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallen, is an important pest that causes severe yield losses by transmitting plant viruses to rice. For the efficient control of SBPH in Korea, the respective resistance levels in the immigrant and indigenous populations need to be discerned. The resistance levels to 10 insecticides (three carbamates, an organophosphate, four neonicotinoids, and a phenylpyrazole) were evaluated in 21 field populations collected from either SBPH-immigrating or indigenous regions during two different seasons (spring vs. summer). Imidacloprid resistance was most widely observed in many regional populations, followed by thiamethoxam resistance. Interestingly, the resistance level to imidacloprid was significantly higher in both immigrant and late-summer-collected populations than in indigenous and early spring-collected populations, respectively [33- (p = 0.018) and 2.6-fold (p = 0.026)]. Moreover, the late summer immigrant population exhibited higher imidacloprid resistance (2.4-fold) than the early spring-collected population from the same region, suggesting that the migratory SBPH that immigrated into Korea already exhibited imidacloprid resistance traits and were further selected after inhabitation. All field populations showed little resistance to fipronil (0.1- to 0.7-fold), suggesting that it is the most effective among the tested insecticides to control field populations of SBPH. The coefficient of variation of the resistance ratio (RR) among different regional populations and the correlation co-efficient of RR among different insecticides have been suggested as supplementary parameters when determining appropriate insecticides as respective indicators for the dispersion status of resistance among SBPH populations and the possibility of cross resistance among tested insecticides. (C) 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society, Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>

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