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<P>The plant bugs Apolygus spinolae (Meyer-Dur) and Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur) (Heteroptera: Miridae) are well-known as economically important pests of various agricultural crops in quite a few parts of the Palearctic Region. These two species are difficult to distinguish from one another due to their similar appearances. Earlier studies revealed that the two species can be easily separated by species-specific sex pheromone composition. Segments of two mitochondria) genes, large ribosomal RNA subunit (16S) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), were compared between A. spinolae and A. lucorum female adults that had been identified by analyzing the pheromone composition. Based on the DNA sequence differences between the two species, molecular diagnostic markers using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were developed. This rapid and accurate method was successfully applied to verify the species identification of male adults caught by pheromone traps and of nymphs collected from various host plants. These molecular markers and diagnostic methods could provide a useful tool for the identification of these sibling species and further contribute to the development of rational pest management strategies. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.</P>
<P>Nest traps are one of the most common methods to study Osmia bees. To elucidate the optimal environmental conditions of nesting sites, we investigated the effects of location, direction, altitude, and sites of nest traps on the rate of trap-nesting Osmia spp. During the collection period, the average rate of trap-nesting Osmia spp. collected within 90 days after the installation of traps was 17.0 +/- 20.0%. This percentage was 2.7-fold higher than that of trap-nesting bees in 30 days after the installation of traps. The Jeongseon location exhibited the highest rates of trap-nesting Osmia spp. collected in 30 and 90 days, representing 11.1 +/- 17.6% and 23.2 +/- 22.5%, respectively. The direction of the nest traps did not affect the rate of trap-nesting Osmia spp. The altitude ranges of the traps were 0-199 m, 200-399 m, 400-599 m, 600-799 m and over 800 m. Interestingly, the altitude range of 600-799 m showed the highest rate of trap-nesting bees, which was 40.4 +/- 3.9%. Higher altitudes seemed to correspond to higher rates of trap-nesting bees. With regards to the sites where the nests were placed, the rate of trap-nesting bees in a mud wall of an old house was 45.1 +/- 25.2%, which was 3-fold higher than that of a nest in an apple orchard. The flowering plants collected at different locations during the trap-nesting activity of Osmia bees belonged to 18 families and 34 species. In conclusion, the rates of trap nests colonized by Osmia spp. were affected by altitude, site, and plant diversity. (C) 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
<P>The small brown planthopper, Loadelphax striatellus is one of the serious pest insects of rice plants because it can transmit the rice strip virus which often causes significant reduction of yield in the field. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides which disrupt the normal development of target insects by inducing symptoms such as premature molting or supernumerary larval stages as the results of hormonal disruption. One of the most important insect hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) becomes the target of two types of IGRs: JH agonists (JHAs) and antagonists (JHANs). Pyriproxyfen is one of the popular IGR insecticides which acts as JHA to control many kinds of insects while kanakugiol is a plant-originated chemical which recently revealed its function as JHAN. In order to study the responses of L sulatellus to JHA and JHAN treatments, pyriproxyfen and kanakugiol were sprayed on 4th instar nymphs, and each total RNA sample was extracted for RNA-Seq by using Illumina sequencing platform. For differential gene expression study, the in silico cDNA library was constructed by Tirinity de novo assembler. The expression levels of each gene were quantified by Bowtie2 and eXpress programs, and then subjected to gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis to study the changes of gene expression profile. Total of 33 GO terms showed differential expression upon JHA or JHAN treatment, and the genes related to insect hormone biosynthesis were identified. These results will provide important information for future studies of molecular biology and physiology of L stiatellus. (C) 2017 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
<P>Three eucnemid genera and species are recognized for the first time from Korea: Eutyptycluts vicinus Fleutiaux, 1923, Fornax consobrinus Hisamatsu, 1963, and Feaia nipparensis (Hisamatsu, 1957) new combination (= Heterotaxis nipparensis Hisamatsu, 1957).A key to species, diagnoses, redescriptions, and photographs of diagnostic characters are provided for known Korean species. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.</P>
The flower bugs or minute pirate bugs, Anthocoridae sensu lato, are represented by 12 genera and 24 species in the Korean Peninsula. The present catalog includes three newly recorded species to the fauna: Anthocoris confusus Reuter, Bilia japonica Carayon et Miyamoto, and Montandoniola pictipennis (Esaki). Distributional data and bibliographical references of each taxon are included. Biological notes (habitats, prey types, etc.) and diagnoses based on the local materials of the Korean Peninsula are also presented for the field of applied entomology.
<P>The development of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), is an important pest of potato, was examined at six constant temperatures (10,15, 20, 25, 27 and 30 degrees C) on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Results showed the temperature-related ecological niche of L. huidobrensis might be narrow. The total development period (egg to adult) decreased with increasing temperature from 15-27 degrees C, although no egg hatched at 10 degrees C and no pupae survived at 30 degrees C. The linear model estimated the lower developmental threshold of eggs, larvae, pupae, and total immature stage as 10.17,10.37, 9.08 and 9.64 degrees C, respectively, and the thermal requirement as 34.54, 65.51, 137.62 and 247.04 degree-days (DD), respectively. The development rates were fitted to Lactin's nonlinear model, and the lower, upper, and optimal temperatures for development were estimated as 9.8, 30.0 and 26.0 degrees C, respectively. Female sex ratio of the surviving individuals was 0.62. Thermal requirements and temperature thresholds can be used to forecast the occurrence, number of generations, and population dynamics of L. huidobrensis. (C) 2016 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
<P>The subfamily Periacminae Lvovsky was reviewed for the first time from Korea. In this study, we newly added one genus Ripeacma with description of two new species, R. adamantis sp. n. and R. longior sp. n. One unrecorded species, R. aannmiptera Wang et Li was also described. Diagnosis, descriptions and illustrations of all known Periacminae species including new species are provided with distribution information. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.</P>
<P>Leaf area and removed area with as results of herbivory was automatically measured at every one minute interval. Feeding behavior of Spodoptera litura larva was clearly divided into feeding phase and non-feeding phase within a stadium. When feeding phase was initiated, larvae immediately ate a leaf after ecydsis. The meal was sustained as a bout during 10-20 min and repeatedly represented 20-30 times during feeding phase. Averaged interval between meals was about 1 h. Non-feeding phase was from last meal to next ecydsis. These patterns repeated over the whole stadium, and feeding time and frequency did not differ among stadia. Only feeding amount increased exponentially according to instar. We further obtained the precise developmental period of each instar by estimating time from first meal after ecydsis to next ecdysis. Averaged developmental periods of 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar were 2314, 2752, 2363 and 2737 min, respectively. This proposed protocol of continuous andautomatic measuring of leaf area could be helpful to analyze of feeding behavior of lepidopteran larvae. (C) 2017 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
<P>Phoresy is one of the dispersal mechanisms of wingless microarthropods such as mites attached on the winged host. Mites associated with two scarabaeid beetles, Copris ochus and C. tripartitus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were collected from the ex-situ conservation site in Heongseong, Gangwon province in Korea. Among them, four species Copriphis hastatellus Berlese, 1910 (Eviphididae); Holostaspella scatophila Takaku, 1994 (Macrochelidae); Macrocheles japonicus Evans and Hyatt, 1963 (Macrochelidae); and Onchodellus siculus Berlese, 1892 (Pachylaelapidae) were recorded for the first time in Korea. Also, Parasitus consanguineus Oudemans and Voigts (Parasitidae) was previously recorded from the specimen in northern part of Korea in 1904, but since then no record has been made for a century. This is the second observation of this species over 100 years in the Korean peninsula. Description of this species is presented for comparison with the original description. Further discussion explored the relationship between the mites and dung beetles, and possible implication for the conservation of the endangered species. (C) 2016 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
Kim,,J.H.,Lee,,S.Y.,Choi,,J.Y.,Lee,,S.H.,Fang,,Y.,Ha,,K.B.,Park,,D.H.,Park,,M.G.,Woo,,R.M.,Kim,,W.J.,Kim,,J.K.,Je,,Y.H. Korean Society of Applied Entomology 2017 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.20 No.1
<P>Pest resistance of 8 transgenic Bt rice events with a synthetic cry1Ac gene linked to rice rbcS-tp sequence were assessed under laboratory conditions. Bioassays were conducted with neonates and third instar larvae of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, which is a significant pest of rice in Asia. C medinalis larvae were shown to be susceptible to all eight events, even though there were differences between the causes of death. The results differed between developmental stages of the larvae, despite the fact that all 8 events led to high mortalities. Neonates displayed feeding avoidance and death by starvation on six Bt rice events. In the case of third instar larvae however, only two events resulted in feeding avoidance. Nevertheless, all Bt rice events were shown to be highly effective against C. medinalis larvae in laboratory conditions. These results may be a significant foundation for the evaluation of improved transgenic Bt rice. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.</P>