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The microstuructural properties and electrical characteristics of sputtering films deposited with Mo targets prepared by commercial hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were compared and analyzed. The analysis results revealed that the Mo films obtained from the SPS Mo targets had a quite similar resistivity and microstructure as the commercial HIP ones. Further, characteristics of the Mo films according to the sputtering conditions were investigated by XRD, SIMS and TEM techniques. Such films are expected to be used as electrode materials for display/solar cell devices. (Received October 29, 2012)
The governing equation for solid skeleton deforma-tion in a variably saturated true anisotropic porous geologicmedium is derived from the macroscopic momentum balanceequation for variably saturated solid skeleton. The governingequation for groundwater flow in a deforming variably saturatedtrue anisotropic porous geologic medium is then derived from themacroscopic mass balance equations for water and solid constit-uent. Finally, these two governing equations constitute a set offully coupled poroelastic governing equations for groundwaterflow and solid skeleton deformation in variably saturated trueanisotropic porous geologic media with appropriate constitutivemathematical equations,for the changes in the unsaturated hydraulic properties (i.e.,degree of water saturation and relative hydraulic conductivity) by unsaturated water flow and the changes in the saturated hydraulicproperties (i.e., porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity ten-sor) by solid skeleton deformation.
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 is a potent osteogenic factor. Although both Smad1/5 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated by BMP2, the hierarchical relationship between them is unclear. In this study, we examined if BMP2-stimu1ated MAPK activation is regulated by Smad1/5 or vice versa. When C2C12 cells were treated with BMP2, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinasu (ERK), p38 MAPK and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was evident within 5 min. The knockdown of both Smad1 and Smad5 by small interfering RNA did not affect the activation of these MAPKs. In addition, neither the overexpression of Smad1 nor Smad5 induced ERK activation. When ERK activation was induced by constitutively active MEK1 expression, the protein level and activation of Smad1 increased. Furthermore, the inhibition of constitutively active BMP receptor type IB-induced ERK activation significantly suppressed Smad1 activation. These results indicate that Smad1/5 activation is not necessary for BMP2-induced MAPK activation and also that ERK positively regulates Smad1 activation.
본 연구는 울산항의 정박지 규모의 적정성을 평가하기 위한 방법을 제시하고, 이를 통해 현재 뿐만 아니라 항만개발에 따른 미래의 정박지 규모의 적정성을 분석하는데 그 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 울산항의 정박지 적정성 평가를 위한 정박지 가동률 개념을 제시하였다. 그리고 이 가동률 개념을 울산항의 2014년 정박지에 적용하여 가동률을 계산한 결과 모든 정박지에서 가동률이 100 %를 넘지 않는 것으로 도출되어, 추가 정박지 지정이 필요하지 않은 것으로 분석되었다. 또한 울산항의 2020년 가동률을 추정한 결과 E1정박지가 168.3 %로 가장 높았으며, E3정박지가 131.1 %, E2정박지가 118.5 %, 그리고 M정박지가 108.7 %인 것으로 계산되어, 2020년에는 정박지가 부족할 것으로 판단된다. 따라서 울산항의 항만개발에 따른 정박지 가동률을 100 % 수준으로 낮추기 위해서는 E1정박지는 11척, E2정박지는 1척, E3정박지는 2척, M정박지는 1척이 추가적으로 정박할 수 있는 수역이 필요할 것으로 분석되었다. This study suggests methods to evaluate the availability of anchorage in Ulsan port and determine the proper capacity of future anchorage in accordance with port development. Accordingly, the concept of an Anchorage Operating Rate (AOR) is introduced to evaluate the capacity of anchorage that was available in Ulsan port in 2014. Calculations revealed that the operating rate of all anchorages in Ulsan port did not exceed 100 %. However, in 2020 it is estimated that the AOR at E1 anchorage will be the highest with a rate of 168.3 %, followed by E3 with 131.1 %, E2 with 118.5 % and M with 108.7%. These findings indicate a shortage of anchorage by 2020. In order to decrease the AOR to a level that will not exceed 100 %, in accordance with port development in Ulsan, areas to accommodate an additional 11 ships at E1 anchorage, 1 ship at E2 anchorage, 2 ships at E3 anchorage and 1 ship at M anchorage will be necessary.
Mo,,Eun-Kyoung,Kang,,Hyo-Jin,Lee,,Chang-Tian,Xu,,Bao-Jun,Kim,,Jae-Hoon,Wang,,Qi-Jun,Kim,,Jae-Cheon,Sung,,Chang-Keun The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2003 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.13 No.5
Three strains of yeasts, Pichia farinosa SKM-1, Pichia anomala SKM-T, and Galactomyces geotrichum SJM-59, produced volatile flavor compounds during fermentation. To investigate these volatile flavor compounds, the liquid culture broth of the three yeast strains were extracted with methylene chloride, and then GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted. Flavor analyses revealed that 5, 12, and 15 kinds of volatile compounds were isolated, and 4, 8, and 11 volatile flavor compounds were identified, respectively. Phenylethyl alcohol was identified with the common volatile flavor compound of Pichia farinosa SKM-1, Pichia anomala SKM-T, and Galactomyces geotrichum SJM-59. 1H-indole-3-ethanol, a precursor of plant growth hormone, was identified from Pichia anomala SKM-T.
<P>Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 <I>Japonica</I> and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (<I>R</I><SUP>2</SUP> > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 <I>Japonica</I> varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean <I>Japonica</I> varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors.</P>