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Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is associated with a severe liver disease and increased frequency in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Overexpression of HCV core protein is known to transform fibroblast cells. Phospholipase D (PLD) activity is commonly elevated in response to mitogenic signals, and PLD has been also reported to be overexpressed and hyperactivated in some human cancer. The aim of this study was to understand how PLD can be regulated in HCV core protein-transformed NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. We observed that in unstimulated state, basal PLD activity was higher in NIH3T3 cells overexpressing HCV core protein than in vector-transfected cells. Although expression of PLD and protein kinase C (PKC) in core protein-transformed cells was similar with that of control cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which is known to activate PKC, stimulated significantly PLD activity in core protein-transformed cells, compared with that of the control cells. PLD activity assay using PKC isozyme-specific inhibitor, and PKC translocation experiment showed that PKC-δ was mainly involved in the PMA-induced PLD activation in the core-transformed cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PLD might be implicated in core protein-induced transformation.Key words - PLD, HCV core, PKC 간염바이러스의 core 단백질에 의해 암화된 쥐의 섬유아세포에서 phospholipase D 효소활성의 증가김준모1·정은영2·장경립2·민도식1 (1가톨릭대학교 의과대학 생리학교실, 2부산대학교 자연과학부 미생물학과)
Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of the non-mydriatic digital fundus camera for detection of normal-tension glaucoma in routine health check-ups. Methods: Among 1986 persons who received a routine health check-up in the Kangnam Health Care Center of Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from October to December 2003, 60 patients were referred to the Glaucoma Clinic of SNUH due to a suspicious optic nerve head or a retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect detected by a non-mydriatic digital fundus camera. The glaucoma work-up was performed, including Goldmann applanation tonometry, red free RNFL photography, Humphrey visual field (HVF), Stratus OCT and HRT II. Results: Among 60 patients with a suspicious optic nerve head or suspected RNFL defect, 23 patients showed a retinal nerve fiber layer defect on red free RNFL photography. Those 23 patients had already demonstrated possible RNFL defects on photographs taken by a non-mydriatic digital fundus camera at their routine health check-up. In comparison with the normal, high PSD value of HVF (p=0.002), the narrow neuroretinal rim area shown by OCT (p=0.05) and HRT (p=0.02) were significantly different statistically. Conclusions: The non-mydriatic digital fundus camera can serve as a useful tool to screen normal-tension glaucoma in routine health check-up systems. However, the final diagnosis of glaucoma should be confirmed by red free RNFL photography and standard automated perimetry.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in mediation of vascular disorders. In the presence of vanadate, H2O2 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLD1, protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), and other unidentified proteins in rat vascular smoth muscle cels constitutively associated with PKC-α in VSMCs. Stimulation of the cells by H2O2 and vanadate showed a concentration-dependent tyrosine phos-phorylation of the proteins in PLD1 imunopre-cipitates and activation of PLD. Pretreatment of the cells with the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of H2O2-induced PLD activation. PKC inhibitor and down-regulation of PKC abolished H2O2-stimulated stress (H2O2) caused increased cel migration. This effect was prevented by the pretreatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PKC inhibitors, and 1-butanol, but not 3-butanol. Taken together, these results sugest that PLD might be involved in oxidative stres-induced migration of VSMCs, pos-sibly via tyrosine phosphorylation and PKC acti-vation.
Background and Objectives:To analyze results of treatment and prognostic factors in patients with T3 supraglottic carc-inoma and to compare results of treatment in patients with T3 transglottic carcinoma with T3 pure supraglottic carcinoma. Materials and Method:postoperative radiation therapy from 1990 to 20. Neck dissection was performed in 27 patients and 24 patients received postoperative radiation therapy. Results:The 3-year overall survival rate was 81.6%. The 3-year overall survival rate of T3 pure supraglottic carcinoma and T3 transglottic carcinoma were 91.7% and 73.2%, respectively (p<0.05). The univariate analysis revealed a prognostic significance for vocal cord fixation and statistical trend to age, dyspnea, clinical and patholo-(p<0.2). T3 transglotic carcinoma was signifi-cantly correlated with vocal cord fixation. Conclusion:Surgery or surgery with postoperative radiation therapy provides acceptable rates of cancer control and survival rate for patients with T3 supraglottic carcinoma. Transglottic involvement and vocal cord fixation shown by the fiberoptic laryngoscopy were significant prognostic factors. T3 transglottic cancer needs more aggressive management. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2002;45:506-10)
Purpose: To evaluate the ability of Stratus OCT and HRT II with Moorfields′‘analysis to detect localized RNFL defects and to evaluate the accordance of Stratus OCT and HRT II results in glaucoma patients. Methods: A total of 60 patients (119 eyes) who had localized RNFL defects of either eye in red-free fundus photographs unserwent evaluation by Stratus OCT and HRT II. For the results of Stratus OCT and HRT II with Moorfields′analysis, normal distribution percentiles less than 5% were considered a significant RNFL defect. For each disc, superotemporal and inferotemporal portions were evaluated. The diagnostic abilities of Stratus OCT and HRT II to detect localized RNFL defects were calculated. The results of HRT II were compared with those of Stratus OCT. Results: The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value to detect localized RNFL defects were 67.9%, 88.9%, 84.3% and 76.5% in Stratus OCT and 67.3%, 64.8%, 62.2% and 69.6% in HRT II, respectively. Compared with Stratus OCT, 67.2% of HRT II results were in accord in the superotemporal portion and 68.9% in the inferotemporal portion. The accordance of detection of RNFL defects between the two instruments in the inferotemoral portion was higher (79.2%) than others. Conclusions: Stratus OCT with a normative database is a useful aid to detect localized RNFL defects in early glaucoma. If observation of topographic changes of the optic disc with HRT II is added, results will be even better.
기존의 객체지향 데이터베이스에 경험적 분류 모델에 기반을 둔 새로운 클래스를 도입한 확장된 객체 지향 데이터베이스의 모델을 설계한다. 이를 구현하기 위해 기존의 객체 데이터 베이스에 경험적 분류 클래스를 도입하였으며, 이 클래스들을 연산하기 위한 경험적 분류 연산 클래스를 설계하였다. 그리고 확장된 객체 지향의 데이터 모델 상에서 데이터베이스에 저장된 데이터의 경험적 분류 모델에 기반을 둔 검색이 가능한 질의어를 설계하였다. This paper has been designed extend object-orientid database model that introducted new class basing the Heurilistic Classfication model. In order to implement this model, we have introducted heurilistic class to traditional object-orinted database. And we designed querry for search data that basis on the heurilistic classficasion model using stored data in extened object-oriend data model.
기존의 객체지향 데이터베이스에 학습 객체에 기반을 둔 새로운 클래스를 도입한 확장된 객체 지향 데이터 베이스의 모델을 설계한다. 이를 구현하기 위해 기존의 객체 데이터 베이스에 학습객체클래스를 도입하였으며, 이 클래스들을 연산하기 위한 학습객체 연산 클래스를 설계하였다. 그리고 확장된 객체 지향의 데이터 모델상에서 데이터베이스에 저장된 학습객체의 경험적 분류 모델에 기반을 둔 검색이 가능한 질의어를 설계하였다. This Paper has been designed extend object-orientid database model that introducted new class basing the I-learning model. In order to implement this model, we have introducted E-learning class to traditional object-orinted database. And we designed querry for search data that basis on the heurilistic classficaslon model using stored data in extened object-oriend data model.