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By analyzing five in-depth case studies of suppliers in newly emerging Vietnam's motorcycle industry, this paper explores the differences in patterns and processes of capability improvement of suppliers who participate in different kinds of supplier-assembler network with different structures. The paper finds the correlation between the kinds of suppliers' capabilities improved and the structure of networks they participate in. While suppliers in arm-length networks can improve more upstream capabilities (structure design, process desist), suppliers in embedded networks can improve more downstream capabilities (process design, process setup, process maintenance and delivery control). Two capability improvement patterns of firms in newly emerging economy are indicated. The first pattern is asymmetrical improvement, either upstream or downstream capabilities, by participating in either arm-length or embedded networks. This pattern obstructs the suppliers to meet the requirements of new buyers rho come from different kinds of network. The second pattern is symmetrical improvement by joining both arm-length and embedded networks.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>The aim of this work was to develop a high efficient photobioreactor for increasing biomass and lipid production in microalgae by assessment of the hydrodynamic properties and k<SUB>L</SUB>a which are important parameters for improving the algal cultivation efficiency. We designed three different photobioreactors (H-Shape, X-Shape and serial-column). Among them, X-Shape showed the highest hydrodynamic properties and k<SUB>L</SUB>a for algal cultivation. Thus, we evaluated the biomass and the lipid production in a 20L scale-up X-Shape photobioreactor. The biomass and lipid production from X-Shape photobioreactor are 1.359±0.007gL<SUP>−1</SUP> and 117.624±3.522mgL<SUP>−1</SUP>, respectively; which are 30.05% and 23.49% higher than those from the control photobioreactor. Finally, we observed the lipid from X-Shape had high MUFAs, CN and low IV, which is suitable for high quality of biodiesel, suggesting that it can be practicably utilized for mass production of algal biofuel.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> X-Shape airlift PBR was suitable for high production of algal biomass and lipid. </LI> <LI> Biomass and lipid production in X-Shape raised 30.05% and 23.49%, respectively. </LI> <LI> X-Shape induced high MUFAs which are suitable for high quality of algal biofuel. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the major and trace element, mineral, and Sr, Nd, Pb and Mg isotopic compositions of late Cenozoic intraplate basaltic rocks from central and southern Vietnam. The Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of these basalts define a tight linear array between Indian mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB)-like mantle and enriched mantle type 2 (EM2) components. These basaltic rocks contain low concentrations of CaO (6.4–9.7wt%) and have high Fe/Mn ratios (>60) and FeO/CaO–3MgO/SiO<SUB>2</SUB> values (>0.54), similar to partial melts derived from pyroxenite/eclogite sources. This similarity is also supported by the composition of olivine within these samples, which contains low concentration of Ca and high concentrations of Ni, and shows high Fe/Mn ratios. The basaltic rocks have elevated Dy/Yb ratios that fall within the range of melts derived from garnet lherzolite material, although their Yb contents are much higher than those of modeled melts derived from only garnet lherzolite material and instead plot near the modeled composition of eclogite-derived melts. The Vietnamese basaltic rocks have lighter δ<SUP>26</SUP>Mg values (−0.38±0.06‰) than is expected for the normal mantle (−0.25±0.07‰), and these values decrease with decreasing Hf/Hf* and Ti/Ti* ratios, indicating that these basalts were derived from a source containing carbonate material. On primitive mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, the central Vietnamese basalts are characterized by positive Sr, Eu, and Ba anomalies. These basalts also plot within the pelagic sediment field in PbPb isotopic space. This suggests that the mantle source of the basalts contained both garnet peridotite and recycled oceanic crust. A systematic analysis of variations in geochemical composition in basalts from southern to central Vietnam indicates that the recycled oceanic crust (possibly the paleo-Pacific slab) source material contains varying proportions of gabbro, basalt, and sediment. The basalts from south-central Vietnam (12°N–14°N) may be dominated by the lowest portion of the residual slab that contains rutile-bearing plagioclase-rich gabbroic eclogite, whereas the uppermost portion of the recycled slab, including sediment and basaltic material with small amounts of gabbro, may be a major constituent of the source for the basalts within the central region of Vietnam (14°N–16°N). Finally, the southern region (10°N–12°N) contains basalts sourced mainly from recycled upper oceanic crust that is basalt-rich and contains little or no sediment.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> The Vietnam basalts have Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions defining a DMM-EM2 array. </LI> <LI> The mantle source is composed of garnet peridotite and recycled oceanic crust. </LI> <LI> Southern to central Vietnam can be divided into three geochemical mantle domains. </LI> <LI> Their light Mg isotopic compositions are likely inherited from recycled carbonates. </LI> <LI> The volcanism may be produced by Hainan plume, entraining the Paleo-Pacific slab. </LI> </UL> </P>
In reliability engineering, the bathtub-shaped hazard rates play an important role in survival analysis and many other applications as well. For the bathtub-shaped, initially the hazard rate decreases from a relatively high value due to manufacturing defects or infant mortality to a relatively stable middle useful life value and then slowly increases with the onset of old age or wear out. In this paper, we present a new two-parameter lifetime distribution function, called the Loglog distribution, with Vtub-shaped hazard rate function. We illustrate the usefulness of the new Vtub-shaped hazard rate function by evaluating the reliability of several helicopter parts based on the data obtained in the maintenance malfunction information reporting system database collected from October 1995 to September 1999. We develop the S-Plus add-in software tool, called Reliability and Safety Assessment (RSA), to calculate reliability measures include mean time to failure, mean residual function, and confidence Intervals of the two helicopter critical parts. We use the mean squared error to compare relative goodness of fit test of the distribution models include normal, lognormal, and Weibull within the two data sets. This research indicates that the result of the new Vtub-shaped hazard rate function is worth the extra function-complexity for a better relative fit. More application in broader validation of this conclusion is needed using other data sets for reliability modeling in a general industrial setting.
We present the preparation and characteristics of liquid-phase sensors based on nano-porous silicon multilayer structures for determination of organic content in gasoline. The principle of the sensor is a determination of the cavity-resonant wavelength shift caused by refractive index change of the nano-porous silicon multilayer cavity due to the interaction with liquids. We use the transfer matrix method (TMM) for the design and prediction of characteristics of microcavity sensors based on nano-porous silicon multilayer structures. The preparation process of the nano-porous silicon microcavity is based on electrochemical etching of single-crystal silicon substrates, which can exactly control the porosity and thickness of the porous silicon layers. The basic characteristics of sensors obtained by experimental measurements of the different liquids with known refractive indices are in good agreement with simulation calculations. The reversibility of liquid-phase sensors is confirmed by fast complete evaporation of organic solvents using a low vacuum pump. The nano-porous silicon microcavity sensors can be used to determine different kinds of organic fuel mixtures such as bio-fuel (E5), A92 added ethanol and methanol of different concentrations up to 15%.