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The recent global warming may be estimated to give lots of impacts to the human society and biosphere of influencing climate change included by the natural climate variations through the human activity which can directly and/or indirectly play a major role of total atmospheric composition overall. Therefore it currently appears evidences such as hot wave, typhoon, and biosphere disturbance, etc. over the several regions to be influenced by global warming due to increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere through inducing forest destruction, fossil fuel combustion, greenhouse gases emission, etc. since industrial revolution era. Through the working group report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) for climate change was analyzed by the individual country's current status and figure out the important issues and problems related to the future trend of climate change science with advanced countries preparedness and research, In this study, the first working group report of IPCC focuses on those aspects of the current understanding of the physical science of climate change that are judged to be most relevant to policymakers. As this report was assessed and analyzed by including the progress of climate change science, the role of climate models and evolution in the treatment of uncertainties. This consists of the changes in atmospheric constituents(both aerosols and gases) that affect the radiative energy balance in the atmosphere and determine the Earth's climate, considering the interaction between biogeochemical cycles that affect atmospheric constituents and climate change, including aerosol/cloud interactions, the extensive range of observations snow available for the atmosphere and surface, for snow, ice, and frozen ground and for the oceans, respectively and changes in sea level, the paleoclimate perspective and assessment of evidence for past climate change and the extension, the ways in which physical processes are simulated in climate models and the evaluation of models against observed climate, the development plans and methods of improving expert and building manpower urgently and R&D fund expansion in detail for climate change science in Korea will be proposed.
Human P-gp is a protein responsible for the multidrug resistance (MDR) and causes failure of cancer chemotherapy. Till date no X-ray crystal structure is reported for this membrane protein, which hampers active research in the field. We performed homology modeling to develop three dimensional (3D) model of P-gp, and docking studies of the verapamil and curcumin have been performed to gain insight into the interaction mechanism between inhibitors and P-gp. It was identified that the inhibitors docked into the upper part of P-gp and interacted through the hydrophobic interactions.
n this study, in order to investigate how consecutive treatments of glass surface with HF acid and water vapor/Ar plasma affect the quality of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane self-assembled monolayer (APS-SAM), poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films were vapor phase-polymerized immediately after spin coating of FeCl3 and poly- urethane diol-mixed oxidant solution on the monolayer surfaces prepared at various treatment conditions. For the film characterization, various poweful tools were used, e.g., FE-SEM, an optical microscope, four point probe, and a contact angle analyzer. The characterization revealed that HF treatment is not desirable for the synthesis of a high quality PEDOT thin film via vapor phase polymerization method. Rather, sole treatment with plasma noticeably improved the quality of APS -SAM on glass surface. As a result, a highly dense and smooth PEDOT thin film was grown on uniform oxidant film- coated APS monolayer surface.
The crystal structure of the potential active 4,6-dimethyl-9-phenyl-8,12-dioxa-4,6-diazatetracyclo [8.8.0.02,7.013,18] octadeca-2(7),13,15,17-tetraene-3,5,11-trione 2-ethoxyphenyl (2E)-but-2-enoate (C22H18N2O5) has been determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. In the title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P121/c1 with unit cell dimension a=15.2039(8), b=12.3888(6) and c= 9.8162(5) [alpha & gamma=90o beta=98.113(2)]. In the structure fused pyrone and pyran rings each adopt a sofa/envelop conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by intramolecular CH... O hydrogen bond interaction.