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The purpose of this study is to offer basic data on the tourism resort development and environment conservation management in Mai-san provincial park. The results were summarized as follows ; 1. According to the shape of Mai-san, it has been called Munpill-bong, Kaegoal-san, Totdea-bong, Yongkag-bong, and Yongchul-san. According to season, Totdae-bong in spring, Yongkag-bong in summer, Mai-san in fall, and Munpill-bong in winter. During the Silla dynasty period it was called as Soeda-san, the Korea dynasty period as Yongkag-bong, the Chosun dynasty period as Sokkum-san. According to shape, season, period, Mai-san has names. 2. Mai-san has a lot of natural and cultural tourism resources to lure tourists. male-Mai bong, female-Mai bong can be the emblem of these resources. And there are Nado-bong, Bongdo-bong, Taejagul, and Wha-am gul as natural environmental resources and Kumdang-sa, Eunsu-sa, Tab-sa, and so on as cultural environmental resources. 3. Existing vegetation in Mai-san provicial park is composed of four natural communities; Pinus densiflora community, P.densiflora-Quercus acutissima commonly, Q. acutissima communtity, Quercus acutissima-Pinus densiflora community and six artificial planting communties; Pinus rigida community, P. rigida-Larix leptolepis community etc.. 4. The characteristics of the vista landscape of Mai-san are divided as the visible-invisible areas along the roads, is to show one of the most beautiful lanscapes stimulating interest and curiosity for the main landscape of Mai-san in the process of experiencing the various aspects of the landscape change. 5. It is notoced that 80.87% of the tourists visiting Chinan-gun visited Mai-san provincial part. Tourism has increased considerably in the last few years. The number of tourists has since 1995 is more than 300,000.
하동 정안봉산성의 정안과 관계 규명을 위한 시굴조사에서 정안의 생몰시기보다 선행하는 신라시대 초축의 석성이 발견되었다. 필자는 문헌상에 나타나는 하동군 치소 이동과정과 시굴조사 결과를 분석하여 정안봉산성의 축조배경은 물론 정안과의 관계를 파악하여 보았다. 먼저 문헌자료에 나타난 하동군의 조선시대 치소 이동은 조선 태종 17년(1417년)에 양경산 아래에 석축성을 쌓아 읍성으로 삼았으며 세종 7년(1425년) 섬강변의 두곡으로 이설한다. 인조 10년(1632년) 괴질이 만연하여 두곡에서 현종 2년(1661년) 횡포로 이설하고 숙종 5년 (1679년) 다시 두곡으로 환원한다. 숙종 29년(1703년) 진답면 우령으로 이설하였다가 이듬해인 숙종 30년(1704) 두곡으로 환원하고 부로 승격된다. 영조 6년(1730년)에는 나동으로 이설하였다가 영조 21년(1745년) 항촌으로 다시 이설한다. 고종 32년(1895년) 현에서 군으로 개편된다. 이를 정리하면 양경산하→ 두곡→ 횡포→ 두곡→ 우령→ 두곡→ 나동→ 항촌으로 된다. 다음 신라와 고려시대 치소에 대해서는 유적과 유물을 통한 고고학적 방법으로 접근을 시도하여 보았다. 하동군의 경우 삼국시대에 가야, 백제, 신라 등 그 영역 구분이 어려우나 신라통일 이전에 가야 또는 백제가 관방성 축조 가능성은 배제 할 수 없다. 삼국사기에 나타나는 하동군이나 다사군 또는 한다사군편제가 시작되는 신문왕과 경덕왕 대에는 관방성을 겸한 치소성 축조를 충분히 예상할 수 있다. 인접한 악양면 고소성의 경우 시굴조사에서 축조수법과 출토유물의 특징이 소다사 또는 악양현 치소와 관련된것으로 파악되었다. 따라서 한다사군 또는 하동군의 치소와 관련된 성곽도 군내 어느 곳에 축조되어야 마땅하다고 생각된다. 하동군내 성지조사 결과에 따르면 삼국시대부터 고려시대 사이에 축조된 것으로 파악되는 고대 산성이 고소성, 귀성, 정안봉산성, 원동산성, 소란산성, 두우산성, 금오산성, 이명산성 등 8개소이다. 고대산성가운데는 치소성과 관방성이 포함되고, 축조시기 또한 신라, 고려 등 다른 특징의 것이 혼재해 있다고 생각된다. 그 중 정안봉산성은 신라 하동군의 군사상 거점지로서 관방을 겸한 치소성으로 축조하였다고 할 수 있다. 그것은 지리적으로 남해안과 이격된 내륙지역이면서 당시 하동군의 중심부에 해당하고 해발 448m 고지에 바른층쌓기 축조수법을 가진 석축성이라는 것이 특징으로서 신라시대로 편년하는 우리나라 남부지역 신라성과 매우 유사하기 때문이다. 다만 고려시대까지 치소로서 이용된 것인지는 자세하지 않다. 다른 지역의 경우 나말여초에 축조된 치소성 대부분이 산정에서 평지로 이동된 단계이므로 하동군은 예외라고 설명하기 어렵다. 따라서 정안이 생존한 고려시대 치소성은 우선 위치상으로 평지성이나 평산성, 아니면 무성곽의 평지에 있어야하고 석성보다는 토성이라는 점을 참고삼아야 할 것이다. 결국 정안봉산성과 정안과의 관련은 고려시대 하동군 치소와 관계없이 정안이 낙향하여 정안봉산성내에 한때 머물렀을 가능성은 긍정적으로 검토해 볼 수 있다. 그것은 정안봉산성 시굴조사에서 고려시대에도 수개축이 이루어진 사실이 확인되고 있어서 고려해 본다는 의미이다. A preliminary excavation, carried out in order to investigate the connection between Jeongan and Jeongan-bong mountain fortress, discovered a stone fortress of the Silla dynasty that preceded Jeongan's lifetime. This essay goes through the construction background of the fortress as well as its connection to Jeongan by analyzing the movement tracts of Hadong County's local administration in the historical records and the result of the preliminary excavation. In addition, this essay examines local administrations in the Silla and the Gorye dynasties with archeological methods using relics and artifacts at the time. In the case of Hadong County, it is difficult to distinguish which country built the fortress. However, there is a possibility that the fortification was a work of either the Gaya or the Baekje dynasty. According to the The Chronicles of the Three States, the organization of the Handasa County(an old name for Hadong County) started in the period of King Sinmun and King Kyungdeok of the Silla. In addition, a preliminary excavation in Goso fortress in Akyan near Hadong County confirmed that the characteristics of the construction method and excavated artifacts were related to the local administration in Akyang. Therefore, there is a high possibility that the existence of the local administration and its fortress somewhere around Hadong County. According to the surface investigation into fortresses within Hadong County, it is assumed that eight ancient mountain fortresses were built within this area in the period between the Three Kingdoms and the Gorye. These fortresses had mixture characteristics of various periods and functioned as a local administrative fortress and a fortification. Therefore, Jeongan-bong mountain fortress was built for the purpose of a military base functioning as a local administration as well as a fortification. However, there were two the characteristics of a local administrative fortress built in between the end of the Unified Silla and the early Gorye dynasty. First, it was a period when most local administrative fortresses had been moved from the mountain to the plain or plateau. Second, they were earthen fortresses rather than stone fortresses. Therefore, it is difficult to confirm the connection between Jeongan-bong mountain fortress and a local administrative fortress of Hadong County in the Gorye dynasty. Rather, judging from the evidences of reconstructions during the Gorye dynasty, it is good possibility that Jeongan had once used to live in the Jeongan-bong mountain fortress after his retirement. Of eight mountain fortresses, Jeongan-bong mountain fortress was built for the purpose of a military base functioning as a local administration as well as a fortification. The construction date of this fortress went back to the Silla dynasty because its construction method called range works contained similarities suggest possibilities to estimate its foundation, dating back to the Silla dynasty.
The Doctrine of Salvation (Soteriology) is very important doctrine amongst all doctrines in Christian Theology. The doctrine of salvation of the Presbyterian Church which come from John Calvin's thought system is a model doctrine of salvation. This article will analyze and appraise Soteriologies of every sect in the Korean Presbyterian Church by comparing with the standard Calvin's Soteriology. In particular, logics of justification & sanctification of each School through comparing their books and articles will be considered. Finally, this article will evaluate views on the doctrine of Justification & Sanctification of School of Hyung-Nong Park, School of Yune Sun Park, School of Jong- Sung Rhee, and School of Chai-Choon Kim. In John Calvin s view on 'the relationship between Justification and Regeneration', John Calvin talks of the relationship between Justification and Regeneration (Sanctification) in Book III of his Institutes of the Christian Religion. Though he does not claim that the two are the same, but also claims that they cannot be separated. Thus, since Calvin saw Justification and Regeneration to be the same but inseparable, we must criticize Osiander who saw Justification and Regeneration as identical. At the time, Osiander said “they that use together the gift of Regeneration and the free forgiveness are one and the same”. Yet, Calvin tells us that Justification and Regeneration cannot be separated but must be distinguished. Calvin telle us ''though the favor or Justification is inseparable with Regeneration but they can be distinguished. Since the fact of the traces of sin within the Righteous are well known through experience, the Justification of the Righteous must be completely distinguished from a reformation into a new life (Romans 6:4). God starts from within his elect this latter point and within them progresses gradually or slowly through a whole lifetime which leaves them in a position to be condemned in trial.” Calvin claimed that Justification was not the ‘Gift of Righteousness' but an ‘Imputation of Righteousness',and that we only receive the priceless righteousness only through faith(grace) by God's mercy',and also that Justification is “God's proclaiming us as righteous in his grace”. In other words, Calvin tells us that “the actual holiness of life is not to be separated from priceless imputation of righteousness” and that “Christ became for us righteousness, wisdom, holiness and redemption (1Cor 1:30),and at the same time does not sanctify(regenerate) ex calls anyone righteous. These privileges are eternal and are bound by an inseparable band. So he saves those that are enlightened by the wisdom of the Holy Spirit, and those he makes righteous, and also sanctifies.” He also says, “just as Christ cannot be divided into parts, the two things which we experience in him, that is righteousness and sanctification(regeneration) are bound and cannot be separated.” Calvin calls 'the relationship between Justification and Regeneration in one words “we cannot be called righteous without our deeds, but also cannot be called righteous by them. This is bemuse in our participation of Christ which makes us righteous, sanctification is inclusive just as righteousness is.” Furthermore,Galvin in his claim of the union of the Saints to Christ, “therefore the union of the head to the parts of the body, ‘Christ's living within us has the most important meaning to us. Thus Christ becomes our Lord, He makes us participants of Him within the gifts which he bestows on us. We are not contemplating Him far outside of us so as to allow for the imputation of his righteousness. It is because we are clothed with him and are attached to him. On Soteriology of John Calvin's Institutes : Sanctification is the Will and Work of God the Holy Spirit. Calvin s Doctrine of Sanctification is centered upon sovereignty of God the Holy Spirit and man cannot pursue virtue without control of God the Holy Spirit and His guidance. The people of God is transfigured by God the Holy Spirit and they have to devote themselves entirely to God in order to be sanctified. Calvinistic thought is that sanctification requires a continual reliance on God to purge man's depraved heart from sin. Sanctification may be achieved by following the Word and Work of God the Holy Spirit. It is very imp extant for Christians to understand how we be sanctified through God the Holy Spirit. The method used to be include worship and praise, studying the Holy Scripture and the practice of love. It is God's will that any person may pursue sanctification via the church since through worship and praise Christians are cleansed of sins. The man of God is influenced by the Holy Spirit through studying the Holy Scripture. Because the Holy Scriptures are able to make man wise for salvation through faith in Jesus Christ. The practice of love through our sincere prayer is also very important to rid ourselves of unholy desires. Through sincere prayer, Christians are able to preserve their chastity and overcome the dirty desires in order to devote themselves completely to God. The man who has consistently received the control & guidance of the Holy Spirit in Christ, climax of sanctification can finally be reached. There are many controversial points concerning stagnancy of growth of the church which are affected by external and internal influences. External factor of decreasing population is a rapid growth of mundane culture and prosperous economy, but internal factor is the depredation on Christian quality of faith. God permits many different methods to expand the Kingdom of God on earth, however He would like to sanctify them rather than a quantity of His people. Korean Christian has to do the best to realize the life of Gospel in order to reform the depressed Korean Church. It should be also essential to guide the man correctly. If we all the time submit ourselves in accordance with the volition of the Holy Spirit, spiritual change of us will be ultimately realized Sanctification as well as Justification. Anthony A. Hoekema is an American Reformed theologian from Dutch who would not tolerate the easy way to explain Justification & Sanctification and keeps to what is God-centered. In explaining soteriology, Anthony Hoekema is a better theologian than other theologians. According to him, Justification and Sanctification are both in Mystical union with Christ. So, What is meaning Union with Christ of Anthony Hoekema? Interesting, firstly Anthony Hoekema starts the Order of Salvation from Union with Christ in Christ. he defines Union with Christ has its basis in Christ's redemptive Work.<sup>125</sup> On Soteriology of Hyung Nong Park's School : In Dr Hyung Nong Park's Dogmatic Theology Volume V (Soteriology),he describes the order of Salvation in following terms; “Calling, Regeneration, Conversion, Faith, Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, Perseverance of Saints, Glorification”. In comparison his former student Dr. Chul Won Suh urged the Work of the Holy Spirit as the dimension of redemption only in the historical sense. However, Dr. Bong Geun Cho accepted not only Dr. Ghul Won Suh's theory, but also agreed with Dr. Hyung Nong Park's explanations. Dr. Bong Geun Cho does not think it is a matter associated to the order of time, but as the order of Logic. Dr. Cho argues it is not an absolute order(a sequence) but a comparative order for the explanation. He thinks it is quite possible for every reformed scholar to have different logic or different explanations to one another. In his own work, Order of Salvation, it includes the followings, “Union With Christ →"Calling has two things as Internal Calling and External Calling ― then Internal Galling(Effectual Galling) which is similar with Regeneration→and Regeneration is unconscious work of the Holy Spirit in human being, Conversion is conscious work of the Holy Spirit in human being. Conversion has two sides, Faith and repentance. And Justification by faith. What then is faith? Calvin defined it as “a firm and certain knowledge of God's benevolence toward us, founded upon the truth of the freely given promise in Christ, both revealed to our minds and sealed upon our hearts through the Holy spirit”<sup>126</sup>. Indeed, faith is “the principal work of the Holy Spirit,' a supernatural gift that those who would otherwise remain in unbelief receive by grace<sup>127</sup>. Again and again, Calvin reiterated that faith is the unique gift of the Holy Spirit. Relationship with Regeneration and Conversion, both is the same work of the Holy Spirit, Regeneration is unconscious work of the Holy spirit in human being, but Conversion is conscious work of the Holy Spirit in human being. However, within conversion there are two sides; positive side being faith and negative side being repentance. Also “just as it is written: The righteous will live by faith.” : Justification will soon take place by faith. The operation of the Holy Spirit in faith that follows has ‘Justification' as the first step and adoption as the second step and their relationship is again same as the two side of Coin. If that is the case, we need the following question. How can we explain the developing 'Sanctification, Perseverance, Glorification' next? Sanctification is specifically the work of this indwelling and directing Holy Spirit. Those three things are the supernatural gifts and steps by the Holy Spirit. They grows up consistently more and more in the ‘baptism with the Holy Spirit'. However Sanctification starts from Regeneration. After Regeneration, Sanctification is gradually going on step by step. And Climax of Sanctification finishes in physical death of Christian who born again. And Sanctification does not only stop, but also does not drop from salvation, this is Perseverance of Saints. Perseverance means the engagement of our persons in the most intense and concentrated devotion to those means which God has ordained for the achievement of his saving purpose. And Physical Resurrection of the Saints is Glorification. Body of Christians is Gbrified in the second coming of Jesus Christ. Glorification is associated and bound up with the coming of Christ in glory. On Soteriology of Jong Sung Rhee's School: The first ever scholar of Jong Sung Rhee s School was Dr. Jong Sung Rhee him self. Unfortunately, although he wrote a book on Pneumatology, he did not write any books about Soteriology. The reason for this is because he holds two theological positions. He accepted not only the Barthian position but also the Calvinistic position. Even though he stands on both positions he has tendencies to lean towards the Barthian side. This was the cause that prevented him from writing a sound doctrine on Soteriology. However, his former student Dr Seung Yong Hwang of Honam Theological University overcame this problem and wrote about Soteriology in his Systematic Theology (Soteriology) Volume Two. He quoted theological logic from Saved by Grace, a book on by Anthony A. Hoekema as well as Systematic Theology by Louis Berkhof. Professor Hwang described his Soteriological Logic as follows; Order of Salvation (Union with Christ, Calling, Regeneration and Effectual Calling, Conversion, Faith, Justification, Sanctification, Perseverance of the Saints) by Louis Berkhof. Order of Salvation by Dr. Seung Young Hwang s were as follows; ‘Union with Christ, Calling, Regeneration, Repentance, Faith, Justification, Sanctification, Perseverance of the Saints' In Soteriology, faculties of Systematic Theology in fact held different views of theological positions from each other,but incredibly they were able to graciously accept their different views in order to bring their work together. For example, Myung Yong Kim, Chul Ho Youn, and Johan Hyun including Yoon Bae Choi, who are professors of Systematic Theology in Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary, permitted and a lowed other faculties' with different views as well as had understanding for colleagues with different thoughts. However,only Professor. Yoon Bae Choi who had studied Systematic Theology at tradition of Reformed Church in Netherland, wrote an article on Calvinistic Soteriology. He described in detail his Order of Salvation as follows; “Faith,Justification, Sanctification(Repentance, regeneration),Election or Calling, Resurrection and Glorification”. Professor. Choi defined faith as the supernatural grace given to us by the Holy Spirit and it is very important operation by the Holy Spirit. And he also defined Justification as the gracious forgiveness by God to sinners and forgiveness of sin. He said ‘Sanctification is to repent throughout one's entire life and a Christian must live a holy(sanctified) life in Christ' . Unfortunately, Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary does not have a necessary (compulsory) subject on Soteriology in Master Divinity Course. Faculty Group of Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary, which belongs to Tong-hap Denomination, supports World Council of Churches. On Soteriology of Yune Sun Park' School: Among theologians of the Park Yune Sun's School<sup>129</sup>, a theologian to have excelled in dealing with the doctrines of Justification and Sanctification is Dr Park Young-Don of Korea Theological Seminary, Cheonan. Park Young-Don says, “occasionally it has been said that the Reformation having attached too much weight on Justification has in comparison overlooked Sanctification. Andrew Murray said that the Reformation rediscovered the doctrine of Justification but sincs it did not develop upon Sanctification it was a half a Reformation. However, such criticism comes from a lack of understanding of Calvinistic theology. Calvin had great interest in Sanctification and has dealt with in depth about the topic, enough to be called “theologian of sanctification”. For Calvin, though the Reformation has Justification as its principle and core doctrine, Justification is not the goal of a Christian Me but is the ground and starting point. Calvin s realistic interest was a godly life towards God. A constant striving for godliness penetrates through his teaching and his life. The main character of Calvin s doctrine of Sanctification was formed in situations of debate with the Roman Cathdic Church. Calvin strictly differentiates Justification and Sanctification and allows for the unstable doctrine of Justification to depend on Sanctification. This was appropriate answer to the error done by the Roman Catholic Church which seriously damaged the conviction of salvation. At the same time he emphasized that these two doctrines were very closely united, which effectively swept off the criticism of the Roman Catholics, that the Reformed Church's doctrine of Justification weakened the importance of Sanctification and in turn promoted ethical dissoluteness and incidence. Together with this, Calvin blocked at the source the dangers of the doctrine of Justification being abused as a doctrine that incurs non-legalistic confusion. In this way, Calvin differentiated Justification and Sanctification against legalism, and against non-legalism he emphasized their connection, and as a result effectively overcame both extremes, and such strategic arguments farm the recent works an Calvin s Soteriology. Galvin starts his study of Sanctification from a strict Christological viewpoint. According to Galvin, the whole process of Sanctification has its roots in unity with Christ. The pattern of Sanctification is in the imitation of Christ's death and resurrection by dying to sin and resurrection by righteousness. The driving force of the Sanctification flows from Christ5 s death and resurrection. The ultimate goal of Sanctification is also to have the likeness of Christ's image. Ultimately, Jesus Christ who died and resurrected for us is the origin and the pattern of Sanctification, the Christ who lives in us is the driving force of our Sanctification, and the Christ who is in glory is the goal of our sanctification. That is to say that the beginning and the end, the Alpha and the Omega of sanctification is Jesus Christ. According to Calvin, Sanctification is made up of two sides. That is, Sanctification is gradually proceeded by the daily process of the death of the old-self (mortificatio) and revival into the new- person. The two sides of Sanctification is less in stages but occurs simultaneously, and is intimately connected like the two sides of a coin. ‘Self denial and ‘Taking up ones cross' is the two sides of death (mortificatio). Calvin emphasized self denial as the core of a Christian life. Without self-denial, we cannot expect revival into a new person, viz. progress in Sanctification. God only rules where there is self-denial, but where there is no self-denial all kinds of sin rule. Self-denial is in gear with the great thesis of Calvinistic theology, ‘Soli Deo Gloria' . Without the death of the self which is thirsty on vain glory, shouting the slogan ‘Soli Deo Gloria is just empty words. Without self-denial, even the holy slogan 'Soli Deo Gloria can only be misused to skilfully disguise the corrupt desires of the self. Therefore, complete death of the self, it's destruction is the only solution. The life of the believer in this world is closer to participation of Christ's passion than the participation of his glory. The whole process of sanctification can be seen as a kind of path of endless death wherein we follow the same path of the way of the Cross which our Lord walked. All the life of this world is a continuous battle against death where there are trials and tribulations, it is a life of the Gross. Even if we proceed in our sanctification, we cannot mature above the cross. When we forget this fact we fall into all kinds of pride and fancies of perfectionism. Therefore, there is in the life of a believer moans and groans and cries that come from not being completely free still from the tribulations of sin. Such cries deepens our longing and hope for a eschatological salvation from within a believer. Calvin s doctrine of sanctification which has highlighted the still in sanctification works for an appropriate restraint and correction to the modern church which has inclined towards excessive triumphalism in attaching too much weight to the 'already' element. This is a time, more than ever, for us to listen mere carefully to Calvin's voice that emphasizes the point that we should be denying ourselves and take up our cross to follow our Lord. It is a teaching that is most abhorred and unpopular to this age of self-love in which we live. In our Reformed Church, the thing that is missing the most is denying oneself and following the Lord in taking up one's Cross. No matter how well we follow Calvin s theology theoretically, if we have no self- denial we cannot be said to truly follow Calvin. When there is no self-denial, even Calvin' s theology can only be used as a tool to secretly further one's own glory. Where there is no self-denial, a terrible idolistic sin called self-worship can rampage. Without the death of the self which is thirsty for if s own honor and glory, even the godly slogan 'Soli Deo Gloria is used for the corrupt desires of the self. Therefore, the only way of sanctification is death. Calvin s doctrine of sanctification does not make any compromises in emphasizing this fact. Only the dead can live. Only he who has completely emptied himself can be full of the Holy Spirit. Only such people can save the Church and give to God all the glory.” Furthermore, Dr. ‘Upright Rock' Park Yane-Sun's Soteriology (Justification and Sanctification) is summarized in 『Refotmed Dogmatics』 which is a book that has condensed his bible commentaries. According to Dr Park “Justification is a legal term where a criminal is called innocent through a legal proclamation by a court”, and in such a case “the criminal called innocent does not have to have any righteousness for the claim to be valid, and when one believes Jesus Christ, God legally proclaims him one who participates in Christ's righteousness' Park also explains that “Since Christ's righteousness is the fruit born from Christ's death and resurrection, therefore it is the righteousness of God.” Park also writes in his commentary that true statement “the proclamation of Justification which is bestowed upon believers is given only through faith, and is irrelevant to the persons moral qualifications” is clearly seen in the words of Romans 4:4 “New when a man works, his wages are not credited to him as a gift, but as an obligation. However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who justifies the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness.” Park continues to say “God does not do this to the believer because he foresees righteous deeds he will do by his own efforts. It is done by God's sovereignty, God does it because he has decided that he will personally make the believer righteous in Christ.” On Soteriology of Chai Choon Kim's School : The Soteriological viewpoint of Chai-Choon Kim's School differs basically from that of the Hyung Nong Park's School. The School of Chai-Choon Kim neither claims Salvation as being exclusively by Jesus Christ nor the inerrancy of the Holy Scripture, because they do not believe that the Holy Scripture is the Word of God. Originally, The School of Chai Choon Kim did neither accept Soteriology of John Galvin nor the inerrancy of the Holy Scripture, because they started from methodology of Karl Barth's theology. Therefore, they have enjoyed hermeneutic methodology of Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich, Jurgen Moltmann, and such theologians. Theologies of Modern Liberal Theologians are very broad. Most Faculty Members of Hanshin University have not only think of the Holy Scripture as a book of religious experience, but they also believe that higher criticism on the Holy Scripture to be right. Dr Bong Rang Park, Chang Shik Lee, and Jae Yong Joo tends to Pluralism of religion and postmodernism. It follows that their Soteriology differs from their Biblical Soteriology. They had already given up Christian Soteriology since 1948. Consequently, they all came to accept salvational doctrines of the World religions. Their doctrines are not original Christian doctrines but are Synthetic doctrines. These doctrines sympathizes with and leads Christianity to World Religions, which will eventually mean no more need for Salvation by Jesus Christ. Actually, Chai-Choon Kim's view on Doctrine of Justification and Sanctification can be said to be near non-existent. Dr. Chai-Choon Kim was the first to take on Barth's theology in the history of Korean Presbyterian Church and in his study of the bible, he established Barth's outlook on revelation and effective criticizing method among his students. This led to his students taking on the position of secular level of studying which unfortunately meant they turned their back on the pure gospel of Christianity to take on the side of polytheisme instead. Therefore, not only the importance of Soteriology but also the doctrine of sanctification research declined to be the most weakest religious body. Thus/so-called systematic theology Dr. Bong-Rang Park, non-religious scholar Dr. Kyung-Jae Kim and systematic theology Dr. Young―Suk Oh do not insist on the faith of only Jesus where “Only through believing in Jesus Christ one can be saved”. Therefore, pure Gospel of Christianity can rarely be found from Dr. Ghai-Choon Kim and associates from his school. The originator of his founding school, Dr. Ghai-Choon Kim, did not leave any thesis or written works of any kind relating to soteriology, nor did his students. For example, Dr. Bong-Rang Park, who graduated and taught systematic theology at Han-Shin University for many years, did not leave any clear and distinctive work on Soteriology. Also, Han-Shin University s Korean Theology Research Center lead by Dr. Byung-Moo Ahn was only too busy striving to embrace and translate the following (Karl Barth, J rgen Moltmann, Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich Modern Radical Theologians and higher criticism of the Holy Scripture of Religions- geschichtliche Schule or universalism), but they did not learn Soteriology properly. Even today, most theologians of Ghai-Choon Kim's School and his associates stand on the relativistic side of non-religious scholars. Especially, not only Dr. Kyung-Jae Kim who is developing the theory of Religious Universalism, but also Dr. Young-Suk Oh and Dr. Kyuun-Jin Kim are in the case of those who are enjoying the comfort of the Minjung Theology Category. However, peculiarly Dr. Kyuun-Jin Kim, who has taught systematic theology at Theological College of Yonsei University far a long time, has written in chapter 9 of his book ‘Christian Systematic Theology' in relative detail of “Faith, Justification, Sanctification and the Grace of God” over a surprising 230 pages. Also, there is an epoch making fact in that Dr. Kyuun-Jin Kim deals with “the relationship between Justification and Sanctification” just like traditional Reformed Theologians, Nevertheless, Dr, Kyuun Jin Kim is approaching the thoughts of Barth than Calvin. On the other hand, Kyuun Jin Kim's soteriological understanding is almost identical to Dr. Ho―ik Hur's “Holistic Understanding of Soteriology”.
This study was conducted to investigate the insect fauna of Mt. Gittae-bong located in Samcheok city, Gangwon-do between May and October 2009. As a result, a total of 1,317 insects of 8 orders, 53 families and 449 species were identified and enumerated.
This paper is to focus on the filmic reflexivity that the modernizing movements in European Cinema in the 1960s showed as a new trend of film theory. While classical film theory looked at film in terms of construction and composition (like formalists) or paid attention to the transparency of the filmic medium (like realists), mirror shot in modern cinema brings out filmic reflexivity. With regard to the reflexive and reflective potential of cinema, the close-up or the human face plays a significant role. It breaks the transparency of the filmic medium and destructs illusionism of the film by adopting a mirror image. These filmic images often interrupt the narrative flow. Therefore, close-up ultimately connects the theme of the split personality or the exchanged identity and the spectator's own uncomfortable recognition. The uncertainty of subject or the topic of split subject related to an object or ‘the other' is well known through many art works. This topic is also often revealed in film history. A typical example is the Doppelganger motif that has fascinated cinema since its birth. Close-up and mirror shot can also be used as filmic images to reveal split subject and identity confusion. In Joon-Ho Bong's Mother the Doppelganger motif, the close-up and the mirror shot as self-reflexive images play a significant role. Mother is a work which once again reveals “why Joon-Ho Bong” so great. Not only does Mother construct an interesting story with elements of genre film like other Bong's movies, but it deals with the topic of split subject and exchanged identity. In Mother, mother's face is reflected on the divided window of the visiting room of the prison that her son Do-Joon is hold in custody. This mother's face in close-up can be understood as mirror shot. In this moment, the image of mother gazing Do-Joon as an object changes her from an observer to an observed object. The mother's face image in this mirror shot keeps the spectator at a distance and defamiliarizes it, thus creating the moment of reflexivity. In other words, the divided window of the visiting room as mirror “implies not just confronting oneself, but also turning this gaze outward, i.e. transforming it into the gaze of the Other” (Elsaesser and Hagener 9). This is to research the reflexive image in Mother with focus on the close-up and the human face, exploring how this reflexive image is related to the narrative.
본 연구는 백두대간 괘병산 및 갈미봉의 관속식물상과 식생을 조사·분석하기 위하여 수행되었다. 괘병산 및 갈미봉 일대에 자생하는 관속식물은 93과 279속 408종 4아종 56변종 9품종 등 총 477분류군으로 조사되었으며 양치식물계수는 1.00이었다. 조사된 477분류군 중 한국특산식물은 총 8과 11속 11종으로 총 11분류군이 나타났고, 환경부지정 희귀 및 멸종위기 식물은 2과 2속 2종으로 총 2분류군 및 국립수목원 지정 희귀식물은 13과 14속 15종 1변종으로 총 16분류군이 나타났다. 귀화식물은 6과 17속 17종으로 총 17분류군이 조사되었으며 귀화율은 약 3.6%이고, 도시화지수는 약 5.3%로 나타났다. 본 조사지역의 생활형을 종합한 Biological Type은 H-D4-R5-e의 형태로 나타났으며, 자원식물의 유용도는 7가지의 용도 중 약용자원이 77.5%로 가장 높게 나타났고, 식용자원이 50.7%를 나타냈다. 괘병산과 갈미봉 일대의 산림식생에 대하여 식물사회학적 조사방법으로 분석한 결과 1군목 1군단 4군락으로 나타났다. 신갈나무-철쭉군목(Rhododendro-Quercetalia mongoliaceae Kim 1990), 신갈나무-생강나무군단(Lindero-Quercion mongolicae Kim 1990), A. 신갈나무 전형하위 군락(Quercus mongolica Typical Community), B. 소나무-신갈나무 군락(Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica Community), C. 일본잎갈나무 군락 (Larix kaempferi Community), D. 조릿대-신갈나무 군락(Sasa borealis-Quercus mongolica Community). Floristic composition and phytosociological studies in Mt. Gwaebyung and Galmi-Bong were investigated to classify forest vegetation and distribution of vascular plants. We investigated two study sites from April to September, 2011. Total 477 taxa with 93 families, 279 genera, 408 species, 4 subspecies, 56 varieties and 9 forms were distributed in Mt. Gwaebyung and Galmi-Bong. Korean endemic species were composed of 8 families with 11 genera and 11 species. The plant species which is designated as protected species by the Ministry of Environment, Korea was 2 families, 2 genera and 2 species. Also plant species which is designated by the Korea National Arboretum was 16 taxa with 13 families, 14 genera, 15 species and 1 variety, A naturalized plants were 17 taxa. The Naturalization index and Urbanization index were 3.6% and 5.3% respectively, Pteridophyta-calculation (Pte-Q) was 1.00, Life form spectra was H-D4-R5-e type and the highest percentage of useful plant resources were medicinal plant (77.5%). The forest vegetation in Mt. Gwaebyung and Galmi-bong was classified into 1 order, 1 alliance and 4 communities; Rhododendro - Quercetalia mongoliaceae, Lindero-Quercion mongolicae, Quercus mongolica Typical Community, Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica Community, Larix kaempferi Community and Sasa borealis-Quercus mongolica Community.
Are the Korean Presbyterian churches actually continuing and developing Calvin s theology? Galvin s Theology is the Creed in which every protestant denomination normally accepts as well as being accepted by the Orthodox Conservative Presbyterian Church. These days, all heretics reject Christian Theology of John Calvin (the Attributes & Works of God),and also they do not believe the theory of Creation and Providence. So we cannot find out the real Truth behind their Doctrine of God (the theory of Creation and Providence). Unfortunately, they urges Pantheism, Deism, and Evolutionism rather than Orthodox Doctrine. According to Timothy George<sup>89</sup>, neither Reformer Luther nor Zwingli devoted much attention to the theory of Creation and Providence. Both accepted the Orthodox formulations of the oneness and threeness of God developed by the early church councils, but neither felt compelled to elaborate on this teaching. At the beginning of his career Calvin too followed this pattern. The first edition of the Institutes contained only a meager statement on the theory of Creation and Providence. Chai-Choon Kim of Radical Presbyterian Church of Korea was largely influenced by Karl Barth, Bultmann School and Jurgen Moltmann. Although Minjung Theology of Korea itself boast of originality, on dose inspection, Minjung Theology of Korea is almost identical to Liberation theology derived from South America & Moltmann. And most of liberal theologians who belongs to English Academic School denies the theory of Creation and Providence. Such trend like these prevents and challenges the Apostle's Orthodox Greed, and I am now trying to compare the writings on the theory of Creation and Providence between John Calvin and Korean theological Scholars. The theory of Creation and Providence were not to be understood as divisions. There was one God who knows Himself and who has revealed Himself as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Trinity was the foundation of salvation for only could one who was truly God redeem those who were utterly lost. In the liturgy of baptism and in the doxology faith in the Trinity was confessed not in order to fully define the being of God but only not to be silent before the mystery of His presence. Dr. Hyung-Neng Park of Conservative Presbyterian Church of Korea was greatly influenced ty Louis Berkhof. Berkhof was not known for being original or speculative but for being very good at organizing and explaining basic theological ideas following in the tradition of John Calvin, Abraham Kuyper and Herman Bavinck. Theologian Wayne Grudem has called Berkhof's Systematic Theology “a great treasure-house of information and analysis, probably the most useful one-volume systematic theology available from any theological perspective.” Berkhof's writings continue to serve as systematic presentations of Reformed theology. They are organized for use in seminaries and religious education as well as individual reference, though his systematics works are demanding reads. The first edition of the Institutes contained only a meager statement on the theory of Creation and Providence. So, Timothy George<sup>90</sup> says as follows. “Having derived from Scripture the Triune nature of God, Calvin next described the activity of God in relation to the world in creation and providence. These doctrines, fall under the general rubric of the “Knowledge of God the Creator” in contrast to the “Knowledge of God the Redeemer,” which Calvin discussed in Books II-IV of the Institutes.” Dr. Chai-Ghoon Kim of Korean Radical Presbyterian Church was largely influenced by Karl Barth, Bultmann School and Jurgen Moltmann. Although Minjung Theology of Korea boast of originality, on dose inspection, Minjung Theology of Korea is almost identical to Liberation theology derived from Moltmann. Also, Most of liberal theologians who belongs to English Academic School denies the theory of Creation and Providence. Such trend like these prevents and challenges the jostle s Orthodox Creed, and I am now trying to compare the writings on the theory of Creation and Providence between John Calvin and Korean theological Scholars. Professor Hyung-Nong Park, origin scholar of Hyung-Nong Park's school was hugely influenced by American scholar, Professor Gresham Machen. Of course, H. N. Park himself in the prefab of his book testified he was influenced by the following scholars; Charles Hedge<sup>91</sup>, A. A. Hedge<sup>92</sup>, B. B. Warfield, Dabney, Shedd, H. Smith, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, G. Vos, and A. H. Strong. However, when describing the attributes of God, H. N. Park in fact mostly employed the farm of the American scholar, Louis Berkhof.<sup>93</sup> Hence evidently we can identify Louis Berkhof was H. N. Park's biggest influence. In H. N. Fork's book, “Dogmatic theology Volume Two (Doctrine of God)”, the attributes of God is divided into two groups: ““uncommunicable attributes.” and communicable attributes”. Uncommunicable attributes is divided into four parts:“absoluteness(Self-existence),immutability, infinity and uniquenessfonenessy”<sup>94</sup> and communicable attributes of divided into five groups: “spiritual discussed in terms of the attributes, intellectual, moral attributes, the attribute of the sovereign, wealthy attribute.”<sup>95</sup> In inspect to the “Work of God”, within the ‘Eternal Works', the “Divine Decrees” and ‘Predestination' are described whereas the ‘Creation' and the ‘Predestination' are covered within the “Temporal Works”. Providence when dealing with the Work, “Universal or General(Ordinary) Providence,” as well as “Special Providence” and “Extraordinary Providence(Miracles)” (transitive) are closely covered. However, all of the above explanations that he used were originally taken from Herman Bavinck's Reformed Dogmatics rather than Louis Berkhof's Systematic Theology, As a former student of Hyung-Nong Park, Professor Bong-Geun Cho of Kwang Shin University has written four books : Reformed Theology, Core of Essential Theology, Biblical Dogmatic Theology and An Outline of Modern Reformed Dogmatics concerning Textbook of Theology. Almost all of which reconfirms Hyung-Nong Park's theology. On the other hand, Dr. Chul-Won Suh in his “Lecture Notes”, he dealt with the summary, the name of God, the nature of God, the attributes of God, the Trinity and the work of God (intend, scheduled, creation, providence). Especially in the “Doctrine of God”, he dealt with “absolute attribute” (Self-existence, simplicity, infinity, immutability) and analogic 1 attributes”(life, intellect, commitment, love, of, sovereignty). In the “Work of God” he discussed “dealing with intend (expected)” and “Election and Reprobation.” He then discussed the “Election before the downfall(supralapsarianism) and Election after the downfall(infralapsarianism) After that he followed the discussion with the 'theory of creation then refuted against “the opposite theory(dualism, theory of emanation, and evolutionism). He divided “spiritual world” from the “material world” and explained and compared the two. He pointed out the mistakes in “Deism and Pantheism” when dealing with ‘Providence.' “Special providence(Preservation, Concurrence, Government)” and '"Extraordinary Providence” were discussed with most of the credit going to Cornelius Van Til and reused general scheme from reformed theologians. Professor Moon―Ho Ha of Calvin University of Korea in Seoul, in his book, “Dogmatic Theology, Volume 2: Doctrine of God” he discussed “does God exist?” and “can God be known?”. In part 2 of “the existence of God” he dealt with the “attributes of God” as well as the :incommunicable attributes (self―existence, immutability, infinity, uniqueness)” and “communicable attribute (spirituality, intellectual attribute, and sovereign moral attributes, attributes, wealthy enemy attribute)” In part 3, within “the Work of God" he explained and discussed almost identically to the statement and works of Prof. Hyimg―Nong Park, Prof. Chul-Won Suh and Prof. Bong-Geun Cho. In particular, Moon-Ho Ha dealt with nature” (universality, confidentiality, Sovereignty, tolerance) similar to the three professors mentioned previously. The theory of Creation and Providence were not to be understood as divisions. There was one God who knows Himself and who has revealed Himself as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Trinity was the foundation of salvation for only could one who was truly God redeem those who were utterly lost. In the liturgy of baptism and in the doxology faith in the Trinity was confessed not in order to fully define the being of God but only not to be silent before the mystery of His presence. Dr. Hyung- Nong Park of Korean Conservative Presbyterian Church was greatly influenced 1,Louis Berkhof. Theology of Hyung―Nong Park was influenced by Louis Berkhof, however on close inspection it was originally derived from Herman Bavinck. So, theology of Herman Bavinck's summary<sup>96</sup> is as follows: "The Knowledge of God is the central, Core Dogma, the exclusive content of theology. From the start of its labors dogmatic theology is shrouded in mystery ; it stands before God the incomprehensible One. This knowledge leads to adoration and worship; to know God is to live. Knowing God is possible for us because God is personal, exalted above the earth and yet in fellowship with human beings on earth.”<sup>97</sup> Profess or Hyung- Nong Park, origin scholar of Hyung-Nong Park's school was hugely influenced by American scholar Professor Gresham Machen. Of course, H. N. Park himself in the preface of his book testified he was influenced by the following scholars; Charles Hodge<sup>98</sup>, A. A. Hodge<sup>99</sup>, B. B. Warfield, Dabney, Shedd, Smith, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck and G. Vos, A. H. Strong. However, when describing the attributes of God, H. N. Park in fact mostly employed the form of the American scholar, Louis Berkhof.<sup>100</sup> Hence evidently we can identify Louis Berkhof was H. N. Park's biggest influence. In H. N. Park's book, “Dogmatic theology Volume Two(Doctrine of God)”, the attributes of God is divided into 2 aspects: “uncommunicable attribute.” & communicable attribute”. Uncommunicable attribute is divided into 4 parts, “absoluteness(Self―existence), immutability, infinity and uniqueness(oneness)” <sup>101</sup> and communicable attribute of divided into five parts “spiritual discussed in terms of the attributes, intellectual, moral attributes, the attribute of the sovereign, wealthy attribute.”<sup>102</sup> In respect to the ‘"Work of God”, within the 'Eternal Work',‘Decrees' and 'Predestination are described whereas the ‘Creation' and the ‘Providence' are covered within the “Temporal Work”. Providence when dealing with the Work, “General(Ordinary) Providence,” as well as “Special Providence” and “Extraordinary Providence( Miracles)” (transitive) are closely covered. However, all of the above explanations that he used were originally taken from Herman Bavinck's Reformed Dogma tics rather than Louis Berkhof's Systematic Theology. Here, Professor Bong-Geun Cho will looks at the view of Jong-Sung Rhee and kyun-Jin Kim's belonging to the Radical Denominations of Korean Presbyterian Church. First, Jong-Sung Rhee and his book, ‘"Doctrine of God” moves away from the long traditional view of the Orthodox Church and expresses new creationism as follows: “the creation of the world record at the beginning of the Bible, also teaches the beginning of all things, because many people think that scientific, historical textbooks to teach the world and the origin of the universe and everything in it, the creation of the world record, but it think is or is not the answer for the evolution Moses recorded Genesis objects objectively, scientifically, as modems think eventually climb to find its origins in theory, find that the God was the first cause because to weaken the human record of Genesis Moses himself inspired by the Holy Spirit of God, the revelation that the Genesis record does not he, as well as science did not know to understand or explain scientifically was not interested.”, he claims Genesis was written by human Moses himself, denying it was inspired by fee Holy Spirit. Surprisingly on the other hand, the thoughts of kyun-Jin Kim and Young-Suck Oh's are completely different. First, even though University of Yonsei's kyun-Jin Kim used Barth' s view mostly, he sided with the conservative Korean Church' s situation and influence to reinterpret positively about creationism. By saying, “evidence for the creation and recognition of God is the recognition of faith to get through an encounter with Jesus Christ, through His revelation in the God revealed in Jesus Christ, that He is not God, who alone in humans, human with the God who is.” He explained Christologically. However,former Professor Young- Suck Oh of Hanshin University explained creationism with New Sociology in Liberation Theology. ‘Creation' is nothing but God's secret will externally expressed. Originally, incident where God himself projected externally what he already possessed was creation only Himself. In other words, creation itself is an revelation event. If we were to put ‘In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth”. “(Genesis 1:1) in another words, he who is infinite and perfect allowed and is going to achieve the limited and imperfect world of time and space. He has entered this limited situation. We can illustrate this by “Eternal World (World of God Himself) →Work of Creation→ Temporal World(world of creatures).” If this is true, creation ministry serve as a bridge between eternal world and the time world. Meditating on previously mentioned, Divine Decrees and Predestination was a secret only God should have known but Will of His Decrees secret was slowly revealed through Work of Creation. According to Herman Bavinck, he saw is as “intends concept implications within the time of its realization”(Eph. 1:4). When the infinite and imperfect God intentionally expressed his plan and providence in the temporal world, the almighty God revealed his revelation by entering the world of finiteness. This was the only closest strategy he could use to close “a huge gap between infinite and finite.” This case is the incarnation. Therefore, the incarnation(John 1:14) is case of ‘Immanuel', belonging to the fundamental mysteries of Christianity. So, the New Testament, the creation ministry is the ministry of Jesus Christ(Colossians 1: 16). Logically it is totally impossible transfer from finite to infinite but the paradoxically Almighty God performs the impossible(Matthew 19:24-26). The narrow minded humans could only create the theory of evolution to distrust God s Omnipotence. This is because theory of evolution is a theory that rejects all the biblical evidence that “God created all kinds of creatures himself (Genesis 1:3―31). In fact, there is no literature which recorded stay of 'monkey evolving into a man.” This is merely a groundless imagination. Consequently, followers of* evolution theory greatly modified their weak theory and made New-Darwinism, then eventually changed it to “macro evolution”. The process theologians of modern liberalism also cleverly used the word ‘creation' along ‘process' in order to defend the evolution theory and corrected part of “mystery of creation” so as to explain God's creation ministry, comprehensive and rational to humans. However, the logic of the process theologians does not only unbiblical but completely deny the verb(bara =Gen.1:1,21,27) meaning creation of absoluteness, in the original Hebrew Holy Scripture with evil intent. If so, what does God created ‘existence' from nothing imply to us? Dr Hyung Nong Park was influenced by Professor Charles Hodge of Old Princeton theological Seminary, Hodge strongly refuted evolutionism as follows; "Hodge s critique of Darwinism is part of his Anthropology section in volume 2 of Systematic Theology, This section begins with an explanation of the “Scriptural Doctrine” regarding the origin of mankind. He points out two things from the scriptural account in Genesis; first that man s body was formed by the immediate intervention of God and secondly, that his soul was derived from God. It as one of the subsections under “Anti―Scriptural Theories” that Hodge considers Darwinism.<sup>103</sup> Hodge acknowledges Darwin s status as a prominent naturalist and for his knowledge and skill in observation and description, as well as his “frankness and fairness.” He states that his theory, however, suffers from the basic defect of attributing “all the infinite diversities and marvelous organisms of plants and animals are due to the operation of unintelligent physical causes.”
살의 충동에 사로잡힌 ‘봉수'라는 주인공이 살인 행위에 이르게 되는 과정을 그리고 있는 ?까치소리?의 주제에 대해 작가 김동리는 화엄사상이라는 불교적인과론의 표현을 의도했다고 주장하고 있다. 그러나 상식적인 독해에 의거할 때 작가의 그런 의도는 실패한 것으로 판명된다. 작가 김동리의 의도와 작품 내용의 불일치 문제는 ?까치소리?에서 작가의 ‘오인'이나 ‘착각'이 작동하고 있다는 사실을 환기시켜주고 있으며 이러한 성격의 오인은 김동리의 내면을 지배하고 있는 무의식과 모종의 욕망을 드러내 주고 있다. ‘이중 액자식 구성'이라는 ?까치소리?의 복잡한 이야기 형식 또한 작가의 억압된 무의식이 작용한 결과이다. ?까치소리?에서 작가의 유년기 체험과 정신적 외상은 ‘모성적 초자아'의 대두와 ‘죽음 충동'으로 나타나고 있다. 아버지의 권위를 대리하고 있는 모성적 초자아는 주인공 봉수의 정상적인 삶을 방해하면서 외설적인 쾌락을 부추기는 존재이다. ?까치소리?의 마지막 장면에서 주인공 ‘봉수'는 쾌락원칙의 경계를 넘어 충동적인 향락의 주체 자리에 서게 된다. 이 충동적 향락의 주체인 ‘봉수'의 폭력적 ‘파괴 충동'은 궁극적인 차원에서 죽음을 통해 무기체의 상태로 되돌아감으로써 영원한 안정과 평화를 얻고자하는 작가의 무의식의 표현으로 볼 수 있다. This is an essay that attempts to unveil the multilayered meanings and new possibilities of interpretation of Kim Dong-ri's literature, focusing on the “The Cry of Magpies”(Contemporary Literature, 1966.10). “The Cry of Magpies” carries with it a special meaning and a problematic status in the context of Kim's literary world. It relates how the death drive of the main character, Bong-su, eventually leads to an act of murder. Kim argues that the story's theme is the expression of Hwaom Idealism, a Buddhist idea related to causationism. However, based on reading in the common sense, it seems that the intentions of the author fail to be achieved. The inconsistency between the author's intentions and the content of “The Cry of Magpies” brings to attention the fact that a misconception or illusion may be at work in the author's thinking. the author's stubbornness, which derives from this type of misconception, could be seen as an expression of the subconscious and a sort of desire that dominates Kim's inner world. In terms of structure, “The Cry of Magpies” has a double-double narrative or frame story; that is, it not only consists of an external story and an internal story, but the internal story also has another frame story within. The use of this complex story structure may be seen as an irruption of the author's suppressed subconscious. The significance of “The Cry of Magpies” comes from the fact that it is an expression of the author's childhood experiences and psychological trauma. In the story, the psychological trauma of the author manifests itself through a maternal superego and a death drive. The maternal superego, which substitutes for a father's authority, is a distracting factor that gets in the way of a normal life for Bong-su; it is also a source of obscene pleasure. In the very last scene, Bong-su is reborn as a subject of impulse that goes beyond the pleasure principle, through the act of murder. The nature of the destructive violence shown by this impulsive character could be seen as an inverted expression of the author's desire to acquire eternal stability and peace by returning to a state of nothingness in death.
The family Epermeniidae (Lepidoptera) is a small family with more than 100 described species in the world (Gaedike, 1996). It is divided into two subfamilies, Epermeniinae and Ochromolopinae (Dugdale et al., 1999). Although this family comprises species with variously shaped wings from broad to narrow lanceolate, it is characterized by stiff bristles on the whole surface of the hind tibia. Another character, one or more scale teeth on the dorsum of the forewing seems to be another apomorphy for the family. However, some species lack these teeth by secondary loss (Kuroko, 2006). The family has been poorly known from Korea to date. The first record of Epermeniidae in Korea was Epemenia strictella (Wocke), by Park (1983), on the basis of specimen collected in the Suwon, Province Gyeonggi. Since this report, no research has been conducted on this family in Korea. This study is based on the recent survey on the Microlepidoptera by Korea National Arboretum(KNA) to clarify the fauna of microlepidoptera of Korea. In this study, we report two species of the family Epermeniidae, Phaulernis chasanica and Ochromolopis sp., for the first time from Korea along with illustraton of adults.
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IK4 inbred line is one of the few maize inbreds developed by authors based on the number of tillers per plant. The objectives of the study were to characterize the IK4 inbred itself and to determine the characteristics of the line when it was crossed with other tillering inbred lines. The IK4 inbred showed tillers taller than the main stem at maturity. Tillering habits of IK4 were showed also in some of the F₁ hybrids. Tillers taller than main stem at maturity assumed to be very effective for increasing kernel yield as well as silage production of tillering maize hybrids.