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In this study, analytical and experimental modal analyses of a scaled bridge model are carried out to extract the dynamic characteristics such as natural frequency, mode shapes and damping ratios. For this purpose, a scaled bridge model is constructed in laboratory conditions. Three dimensional finite element model of the bridge is constituted and dynamic characteristics are determined, analytically. To identify the dynamic characteristics experimentally; Experimental Modal Analyses (ambient and forced vibration tests) are conducted to the bridge model. In the ambient vibration tests, natural excitations are provided and the response of the bridge model is measured. Sensitivity accelerometers are placed to collect signals from the measurements. The signals collected from the tests are processed by Operational Modal Analysis; and the dynamic characteristics of the bridge model are estimated using Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition and Stochastic Subspace Identification methods. In the forced vibration tests, excitation of the bridge model is induced by an impact hammer and the frequency response functions are obtained. From the finite element analyses, a total of 8 natural frequencies are attained between 28.33 and 313.5 Hz. Considering the first eight mode shapes, these modes can be classified into longitudinal, transverse and vertical modes. It is seen that the dynamic characteristics obtained from the ambient and forced vibration tests are close to each other. It can be stated that the both of Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition and Stochastic Subspace Identification methods are very useful to identify the dynamic characteristics of the bridge model. The first eight natural frequencies are obtained from experimental measurements between 25.00-299.5 Hz. In addition, the dynamic characteristics obtained from the finite element analyses have a good correlation with experimental frequencies and mode shapes. The MAC values obtained between 90-100% and 80-100% using experimental results and experimental-analytical results, respectively.
Model updating is of significant importance in the actual analyses of real structures. The differences between experimental and numerical dynamic characteristics can be minimized by means of this procedure. This procedure can be carried out using two approaches, namely, the manual model updating and the global or local automated model updating. The local model updating is a convenient tool for all kind of structures capable of minimizing the differences mentioned previously nearly to zero and also of identifying the damage locations and monitoring structural integrity. In this way, current realistic behavior of structures can be represented by updated finite element models. This paper describes a Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame model, its ambient vibration testing, finite element modeling and sensitivity-based automated model updating. The RC frame is of ½ geometric scale with two floors and two bays in the longitudinal direction. It was built and then subjected to ambient vibration tests to determine experimentally their dynamic characteristics. Additionally, the finite element computer program ANSYS was used to determine its initial numerical dynamic characteristics. The experimental and numerical results were compared resulting in maximum differences of 38.38% between them. To minimize these differences, the finite element model was updated using the global and local automated approach using a sensitivity-based analyses with some uncertain parameters. The differences were finally reduced to 4.4% and 0.21% by the global and the local automated model updatings, respectively. It is concluded that sensitivity-based automated updating is a very effective procedure to obtain the updated finite element model which can reflect the current behavior of a structure.
This paper illustrates the damages of reinforced concrete and masonry minarets during October 23 (Erciş) and November 9 (Edremit), 2011 Van earthquakes in Turkey. Erciş and Edremit are townships located 90km and 18km from Van city center in Turkey, respectively. Ground accelerations and response spectrums for these earthquakes are given in this paper. A total of 63 reinforced concrete and masonry minarets are heavily damaged or collapsed in the city center and villages nearby after both earthquakes. Because of the fact that there is no Turkish standard and specification directly related to design of minarets, nearly all of the constructions are carried out by workers using only their own technical knowledge. So, all of the non-engineering reinforced concrete and masonry minarets completely collapsed or damaged heavily. From the study, it is seen that the damages are due to several reasons such as site effect, location, and length of the fault, reduction in cross section and formation of the discontinuity, use of plain reinforcement steel, use of concrete with insufficient strength, existence of short lap splices and incorrect end hook angle, larger mass and stiffness concentrations on some region, longitudinal reinforcements discontinuity, cracks at the cylindrical body, and damage of spire and end ornament. In addition to these reasons, the two earthquakes hit the minarets within seventeen days, causing progressive damage. So, the existing design and construction practices should be improved to provide sufficient earthquake performance. Also, it is recommended that there should be a safe distance between the minaret and surrounding structures to reduce the loose of life after earthquake
In this paper, it is aimed to determine the structural behavior of suspension bridges considering construction stages and different soil conditions. Bosporus Suspension Bridge connecting the Europe and Asia in Istanbul is selected as an example. Finite element model of the bridge is constituted using SAP2000 program considering existing drawings. Geometric nonlinearities are taken into consideration in the analysis using P-Delta large displacement criterion. The time dependent material strength of steel and concrete and geometric variations is included in the analysis. Time dependent material properties are considered as compressive strength, aging, shrinkage and creep for concrete, and relaxation for steel. To emphases the soil condition effect on the structural behavior of suspension bridges, each of hard, medium and soft soils are considered in the analysis. The structural behavior of the bridge at different construction stages and different soil conditions has been examined. Two different finite element analyses with and without construction stages are carried out and results are compared with each other. At the end of the analyses, variation of the displacement and internal forces such as bending moment, axial forces and shear forces for bridge deck and towers are given in detail. Also, displacement and stresses for bridge foundation are given with detail. It can be seen from the analyses that there are some differences between both analyses (with and without construction stages) and the results obtained from the construction stages are bigger. It can be stated that the analysis without construction stages cannot give the reliable solutions. In addition, soil condition have effect on the structural behavior of the bridge. So, it is thought that construction stage analysis using time dependent material properties, geometric nonlinearity and soil conditions effects should be considered in order to obtain more realistic structural behavior of suspension bridges.
Fire performance of load bearing elements in steel buildings such as columns and frames has major importance for structural designers. This study aims to assess the elevated temperature eff ect on dynamic characteristics of steel columns and frames by conducting sequential heat transfer and modal analyses. A series of fi nite element analyses including heat transfer analysis aere performed on 62 diff erent steel columns and frames. Three-hour part of ISO 834 fi re curve is taken into consideration in the analysis. Modal analyses are conducted for the purpose of providing a more comprehensive image of dynamic characteristics in specifi c duration of elevated temperature. The presented study accommodates the eff ect of various steel profi le types, cross-sectional dimensions and exposure durations on changes in dynamic characteristics. The outcomes of the performed parametric study revealed the decrease in natural frequencies with the temperature growth. The research has also shown the existence of a correlation between temperature variations and changes in mode shapes. The change in mode shapes depends on the profi le type. Mode shapes do not change depending on the temperature in some profi le types, while in some profi le types they change after a certain temperature. The obtained results of the performed sequential analyses are presented in forms of tabulated data and approximate formulas. They can facilitate the damage detection process and contribute in required structural health monitoring measurements while enhance the accuracy of damage assessment for fi re exposed steel structures.
The aim of this study is to determine the dynamic characteristics of long reinforced concrete highway bridges with post-tension tendons using analytical and experimental methods. It is known that the deck length and height of bridges are affected the dynamic characteristics considerably. For this purpose, Berta Bridge constructed in deep valley, in Artvin, Turkey, is selected as an application. The Bridge has two piers with height of 109.245 m and 85.193 m, and the total length of deck is 340.0 m. Analytical and experimental studies are carried out on Berta Bridge which was built in accordance with the balanced cantilever method. Finite Element Method (FEM) and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) which considers ambient vibration data were used in analytical and experimental studies, respectively. Finite element model of the bridge is created by using SAP2000 program to obtain analytical dynamic characteristics such as the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The ambient vibration tests are performed using Operational Modal Analysis under wind and human loads. Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) methods are used to obtain experimental dynamic characteristics like natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. At the end of the study, analytical and experimental dynamic characteristic are compared with each other and the finite element model of the bridge was updated considering the material properties and boundary conditions. It is emphasized that Operational Modal Analysis method based on the ambient vibrations can be used safely to determine the dynamic characteristics, to update the finite element models, and to monitor the structural health of long reinforced concrete highway bridges constructed with the balanced cantilever method.
This paper investigates the time dependent changing of dynamic characteristics of laboratory arch dam models using ambient vibration test. For this aim, a prototype arch dam-reservoir-foundation model is constructed in laboratory conditions. The first experimental measurement tests are performed after the poured concrete aged for 10 months for some damage scenarios such as undamaged, minor-damaged and severely damaged of dam body in November 2009. To extract the experimental dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios, a small impact effect is used as a source of ambient vibrations. Experimental measurements tests are repeated using same excitations considering severely damaged conditions with and without reservoir water in February 2014, and the dynamic characteristics are obtained, experimentally. Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition Method in the frequency domain is used to extract the experimental dynamic characteristics. At the end of the study, experimentally identified dynamic characteristics are compared with each other and time effects are investigated in detail. Maximum differences between the natural frequencies obtained as 15.36% and 14.38% in the third mode for empty and full reservoir conditions, respectively. It is thought that the increase of the natural frequencies is resulted from gaining of rigidity of the concrete, ageing, temperature and different environmental effects.
In recent decades there has been a trend towards improved mechanical characteristics of materials used in footbridge construction. It has enabled engineers to design lighter, slender and more aesthetic structures. As a result of these construction trends, many footbridges have become more susceptible to vibrations when subjected to dynamic loads. In addition to this, some inherit modelling uncertainties related to a lack of information on the as-built structure, such as boundary conditions, material properties, and the effects of non-structural elements make difficult to evaluate modal properties of footbridges, analytically. For these purposes, modal testing of footbridges is used to rectify these problems after construction. This paper describes an arch type steel footbridge, its analytical modelling, modal testing and finite element model calibration. A modern steel footbridge which has arch type structural system and located on the Karadeniz coast road in Trabzon, Turkey is selected as an application. An analytical modal analysis is performed on the developed 3D finite element model of footbridge to provide the analytical frequencies and mode shapes. The field ambient vibration tests on the footbridge deck under natural excitation such as human walking and traffic loads are conducted. The output-only modal parameter identification is carried out by using the peak picking of the average normalized power spectral densities in the frequency domain and stochastic subspace identification in the time domain, and dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies mode shapes and damping ratios are determined. The finite element model of footbridge is calibrated to minimize the differences between analytically and experimentally estimated modal properties by changing some uncertain modelling parameters such as material properties. At the end of the study, maximum differences in the natural frequencies are reduced from 22% to only %5 and good agreement is found between analytical and experimental dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies, mode shapes by model calibration.
Ground motions in near source region of large crustal earthquakes are significantly affected by rupture directivity and tectonic fling. These effects are the strongest at longer periods and they can have a significant impact on Engineering Structures. In this paper, it is aimed to determine near-fault ground motion effects on the nonlinear response of dams including dam-reservoir-foundation interaction. Four different types of dam, which are gravity, arch, concrete faced rockfill and clay core rockfill dams, are selected to investigate the near-fault ground motion effects on dam responses. The behavior of reservoir is taken into account by using Lagrangian approach. Strong ground motion records of Duzce (1999), Northridge (1994) and Erzincan (1992) earthquakes are selected for the analyses. Displacements, maximum and minimum principal stresses are determined by using the finite element method. The displacements and principal stresses obtained from the four different dam types subjected to these nearfault strong-ground motions are compared with each other. It is seen from the results that near-fault ground motions have different impacts on the dam types.