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Objectives To determine the effect of size and insertion depth of irrigation needle on the amount of apical extruded debris and the amount of penetration depth of sealer using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Materials and Methods Twenty maxillary premolars were assigned to 2 groups (n = 10), according to the size of needle tip, 28 G or 30 G. Buccal roots of samples were irrigated with respective needle type inserted 1 mm short of the working length (WL), while palatal roots were irrigated with respective needle type inserted 3 mm short of the WL. Prepared teeth were removed from the pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. Canals were filled with F3 gutta-percha cone and rhodamine B dye-labeled AH 26 sealer. Teeth were transversally sectioned at 1 and 3 mm levels from the apex and observed under a CLSM. Eppendorf tubes were incubated to evaporate the irrigant and were weighed again. The difference between pre- and post-weights was calculated, and statistical evaluation was performed. Results Inserting needles closer to the apex and using needles with wider diameters were associated with significantly more debris extrusion (p < 0.05). The position of needles and level of sections had statistically significant effects on sealer penetration depth (p < 0.05 for both). Conclusions Following preparation, inserting narrower needles compatible with the final apical diameter of the prepared root canal at 3 mm short of WL during final irrigation might prevent debris extrusion and improve sealer penetration in the apical third.
Objectives: The aim was to evaluate dentinal crack formation after root canal preparation with ProTaper Next system (PTN) with and without a glide path. Materials and Methods: Forty-five mesial roots of mandibular first molars were selected. Fifteen teeth were left unprepared and served as controls. The experimental groups consist of mesiobuccal and mesiolingual root canals of remaining 30 teeth, which were divided into 2 groups (n = 15): Group PG/PTN, glide path was created with ProGlider (PG) and then canals were shaped with PTN system; Group PTN, glide path was not prepared and canals were shaped with PTN system only. All roots were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 mm from the apex, and the sections were observed under a stereomicroscope. The presence/absence of cracks was recorded. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests with Yates correction. Results: There were no significant differences in crack formation between the PTN with and without glide path preparation. The incidence of cracks observed in PG/PTN and PTN groups was 17.8% and 28.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The creation of a glide path with ProGlider before ProTaper Next rotary system did not influence dentinal crack formation in root canals.
Objectives: This study evaluated the effects of intraradicular moisture on the pushoutbond strength of a fibre post luted with several self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods: Endodontically treated root canals were treated with oneof three luting cements: (1) RelyX U100, (2) Clearfil SA, and (3) G-Cem. Roots werethen divided into four subgroups according to the moisture condition tested: (I) dry:excess water removed with paper points followed by dehydration with 95% ethanol,(II) normal moisture: canals blot-dried with paper points until appearing dry, (III)moist: canals dried by low vacuum using a Luer adapter, and (IV) wet: canals remainedtotally flooded. Two 1-mm-thick slices were obtained from each root sample and bondstrength was measured using a push-out test setup. The data were analysed using atwo-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test with p = 0.05. Results:Statistical analysis demonstrated that moisture levels had a significant effect on thebond strength of luting cements (p < 0.05), with the exception of G-Cem. RelyX U100displayed the highest bond strength under moist conditions (III). Clearfil SA had thehighest bond strength under normal moisture conditions (II). Statistical ranking ofbond strength values was as follows: RelyX U100 > Clearfil SA > G-Cem. Conclusions:The degree of residual moisture significantly affected the adhesion of luting cements toradicular dentine.
In this paper, it is aimed to determine the structural behavior of suspension bridges considering construction stages and different soil conditions. Bosporus Suspension Bridge connecting the Europe and Asia in Istanbul is selected as an example. Finite element model of the bridge is constituted using SAP2000 program considering existing drawings. Geometric nonlinearities are taken into consideration in the analysis using P-Delta large displacement criterion. The time dependent material strength of steel and concrete and geometric variations is included in the analysis. Time dependent material properties are considered as compressive strength, aging, shrinkage and creep for concrete, and relaxation for steel. To emphases the soil condition effect on the structural behavior of suspension bridges, each of hard, medium and soft soils are considered in the analysis. The structural behavior of the bridge at different construction stages and different soil conditions has been examined. Two different finite element analyses with and without construction stages are carried out and results are compared with each other. At the end of the analyses, variation of the displacement and internal forces such as bending moment, axial forces and shear forces for bridge deck and towers are given in detail. Also, displacement and stresses for bridge foundation are given with detail. It can be seen from the analyses that there are some differences between both analyses (with and without construction stages) and the results obtained from the construction stages are bigger. It can be stated that the analysis without construction stages cannot give the reliable solutions. In addition, soil condition have effect on the structural behavior of the bridge. So, it is thought that construction stage analysis using time dependent material properties, geometric nonlinearity and soil conditions effects should be considered in order to obtain more realistic structural behavior of suspension bridges.