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In this study, it is aim to perform the construction stage analysis of suspension bridges using time dependent material properties. Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge connecting the Europe and Asia in Istanbul is selected as an example. Finite element models of the bridge are modelled using SAP2000 program considering project drawing. Geometric nonlinearities are taken into consideration in the analysis using P-Delta large displacement criterion. The time dependent material strength variations and geometric variations are included in the analysis. Because of the fact that the bridge has steel structural system, only prestressing steel relaxation is considered as time dependent material properties. The structural behaviour of the bridge at different construction stages has been examined. Two different finite element analyses with and without construction stages are carried out and results are compared with each other. As analyses result, variation of the displacement and internal forces such as bending moment, axial forces and shear forces for bridge deck and towers are given with detail. It is seen that construction stage analysis has remarkable effect on the structural behaviour of the bridge.
In this paper, it is aimed to determine the structural behavior of suspension bridges considering construction stages and different soil conditions. Bosporus Suspension Bridge connecting the Europe and Asia in Istanbul is selected as an example. Finite element model of the bridge is constituted using SAP2000 program considering existing drawings. Geometric nonlinearities are taken into consideration in the analysis using P-Delta large displacement criterion. The time dependent material strength of steel and concrete and geometric variations is included in the analysis. Time dependent material properties are considered as compressive strength, aging, shrinkage and creep for concrete, and relaxation for steel. To emphases the soil condition effect on the structural behavior of suspension bridges, each of hard, medium and soft soils are considered in the analysis. The structural behavior of the bridge at different construction stages and different soil conditions has been examined. Two different finite element analyses with and without construction stages are carried out and results are compared with each other. At the end of the analyses, variation of the displacement and internal forces such as bending moment, axial forces and shear forces for bridge deck and towers are given in detail. Also, displacement and stresses for bridge foundation are given with detail. It can be seen from the analyses that there are some differences between both analyses (with and without construction stages) and the results obtained from the construction stages are bigger. It can be stated that the analysis without construction stages cannot give the reliable solutions. In addition, soil condition have effect on the structural behavior of the bridge. So, it is thought that construction stage analysis using time dependent material properties, geometric nonlinearity and soil conditions effects should be considered in order to obtain more realistic structural behavior of suspension bridges.
This paper investigates the time dependent changing of dynamic characteristics of laboratory arch dam models using ambient vibration test. For this aim, a prototype arch dam-reservoir-foundation model is constructed in laboratory conditions. The first experimental measurement tests are performed after the poured concrete aged for 10 months for some damage scenarios such as undamaged, minor-damaged and severely damaged of dam body in November 2009. To extract the experimental dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios, a small impact effect is used as a source of ambient vibrations. Experimental measurements tests are repeated using same excitations considering severely damaged conditions with and without reservoir water in February 2014, and the dynamic characteristics are obtained, experimentally. Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition Method in the frequency domain is used to extract the experimental dynamic characteristics. At the end of the study, experimentally identified dynamic characteristics are compared with each other and time effects are investigated in detail. Maximum differences between the natural frequencies obtained as 15.36% and 14.38% in the third mode for empty and full reservoir conditions, respectively. It is thought that the increase of the natural frequencies is resulted from gaining of rigidity of the concrete, ageing, temperature and different environmental effects.
Model updating is of significant importance in the actual analyses of real structures. The differences between experimental and numerical dynamic characteristics can be minimized by means of this procedure. This procedure can be carried out using two approaches, namely, the manual model updating and the global or local automated model updating. The local model updating is a convenient tool for all kind of structures capable of minimizing the differences mentioned previously nearly to zero and also of identifying the damage locations and monitoring structural integrity. In this way, current realistic behavior of structures can be represented by updated finite element models. This paper describes a Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame model, its ambient vibration testing, finite element modeling and sensitivity-based automated model updating. The RC frame is of ½ geometric scale with two floors and two bays in the longitudinal direction. It was built and then subjected to ambient vibration tests to determine experimentally their dynamic characteristics. Additionally, the finite element computer program ANSYS was used to determine its initial numerical dynamic characteristics. The experimental and numerical results were compared resulting in maximum differences of 38.38% between them. To minimize these differences, the finite element model was updated using the global and local automated approach using a sensitivity-based analyses with some uncertain parameters. The differences were finally reduced to 4.4% and 0.21% by the global and the local automated model updatings, respectively. It is concluded that sensitivity-based automated updating is a very effective procedure to obtain the updated finite element model which can reflect the current behavior of a structure.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>After reviewing the oscillator realization of the symmetry superalgebra of the BMN matrix model on its maximally supersymmetric plane-wave background and the construction of its zero-mode spectrum, we study a large number of non-maximally supersymmetric pp-wave algebras in eleven dimensions which are obtained by various restrictions from the maximally supersymmetric case (BMN model). We also show how to obtain their zero-mode spectra, which we explicitly construct in some chosen examples. Except for some ‘exotic’ or degenerate special cases, we believe our study covers all possible interesting pp-wave superalgebras of this kind in eleven dimensions.</P>