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The use of steel-concrete composites (SCCs) is growing rapidly in the construction industry because of their improved constructability, decreased labor cost, improved bond to reinforcing steel, improved structural integrity and accelerated project schedules compared to conventional composites. Fire is a constant danger to these structural composites. Therefore, the effect of fire on the behavior of SCCs must be evaluated and included in design provisions. Slim-floor beams (SFBs) are cost-effective systems which permit a major decrease in the thickness of industrial and commercial buildings floors. The present study reviews the recent advancements and history of SCCs together with recent studies investigating the fire performance of SFBs. First, the evolution of SCC systems is briefly discussed. Then, the fire resistance and specific thermal definitions of the main structural members are presented. Finally, analytical and numerical methods for predicting fire resistance, as well as the relevant experimental results are presented. The main focus of this study is on analyzing the performance of SFBs as a flooring system under fire. It is found that further investigation is required to improve Eurocode 4 provisions for enabling the rapidly growing construction industry to benefit from the advantages provided by composite construction methods with safety considerations. Numerous studies have so far been conducted in terms of enhancing the design quality of these systems, among which some will be discussed in this study.
Formulation of an 8 nodes assumed strain shell element is presented for the analysis of shells. The stiffness matrix based on the Mindlin-Reissner theory is analytically integrated through the thickness. The element is free of membrane and shear locking behavior by using the assumed strain method such that the element performs very well in modeling of thin shell structures. The material is assumed to be isotropic and laminated composite. The element has six degrees of freedom per node and can model the stiffened plates and shells. A great number of numerical testing carried out for the validation of present 8 node shell element are in good agreement with references.
The B-spline finite strip method is developed for the prediction of the buckling of rectangular composite laminated plates under the combined action of applied uniaxial mechanical stress and increasing temperature. The analysis is conducted in two stages, namely an in-plane stress analysis in the pre-buckling stage to determine the pre-buckling stresses, followed by a buckling analysis using these determined stresses. The buckling analysis is based on the use of first-order shear deformation plate theory. The permitted lay-up of the laminates is quite general, within the constraint that the plate remains flat prior to buckling, and a wide range of boundary conditions can be accommodated. A number of applications is described and comparison of the results generated using the finite strip method is made with the results of previous studies.
The current work presents an analysis algorithm for the modal analysis for the dynamic behaviors of offshore structures with concepts of mass perturbation influence term. The mass perturbation concept by using the term, presented in this paper offers an efficient solution procedure for dynamical response problems of offshore structures. The basis of the proposed method is the mass perturbation influence concepts associated with natural frequencies and mode shapes and mass properties of the given structure. The mathematical formulation of the mass perturbation influence method is described. New solution procedures for dynamics analysis are developed, followed by illustrative example problems, which deal with the effectiveness of the new solution procedures for the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. The solution procedures presented herein is compact and computationally simple.
In this paper, dynamic stiffness and flexibility for circular membranes are analytically derived using an efficient mixed-part dual boundary element method (BEM). We employ three approaches, the complex-valued BEM, the real-part and imaginary-part BEM, to determine the dynamic stiffness and flexibility. In the analytical formulation, the continuous system for a circular membrane is transformed into a discrete system with a circulant matrix. Based on the properties of the circulant, the analytical solutions for the dynamic stiffness and flexibility are derived. In deriving the stiffness and flexibility, the spurious resonance is cancelled out. Numerical aspects are discussed and emphasized. The problem of numerical instability due to division by zero is avoided by choosing additional constraints from the information of real and imaginary parts in the dual formulation. For the overdetermined system, the least squares method is considered to determine the dynamic stiffness and flexibility. A general purpose program has been developed to test several examples including circular and square cases.
In this paper, topology optimization (TO) is applied to find a new configuration for the perforated steel plate shear wall (PSPSW) based on the maximization of reaction forces as the objective function. An infill steel plate is introduced based on an experimental model for TO. The TO is conducted using the sensitivity analysis, the method of moving asymptotes and SIMP method. TO is done using a nonlinear analysis (geometry and material) considering the buckling. The final area of the optimized plate is equal to 50% of the infill plate. Three plate thicknesses and three length-to-height ratios are defined and their effects are investigated in the TO. It indicates the plate thickness has no significant impact on the optimization results. The nonlinear behavior of optimized plates under cyclic loading is studied and the strength, energy and fracture tendency of them are investigated. Also, four steel plates including infill plate, a plate with a central circle and two types of the multi-circle plate are introduced with equal plate volume for comparing with the results of the optimized plate.
This paper presents the flexural performance of steel beam-to-column joints composed of hollow structural section beams and columns. A finite element (FE) model was developed incorporating geometrical and material nonlinearities to evaluate the behaviour of joints subjected to bending moments. The numerical outcomes were validated with experimental results and compared with EN1993-1-8. The demountability of the structure was discussed based on the tested specimen. A parametric analysis was carried out to investigate the effects of steel yield strength, end-plate thickness, beam thickness, column wall thickness, bolt diameter, number of bolts and location. Consequently, an analytical model was derived based on the component method to predict the moment-rotation relationships for the sub-assemblies with extended end-plates. The accuracy of the proposed model was calibrated by the experimental and numerical results. It is found that the FE model is fairly reliable to predict the initial stiffness and moment capacity of the joints, while EN1993-1-8 overestimates the initial stiffness extensively. The beam-to-column joints are shown to be demountable and reusable with a moment up to 53% of the ultimate moment capacity. The end-plate thickness and column wall thickness have a significant influence on the joint behaviour, and the layout of double bolt-rows in tension is recommended for joints with extended end-plates. The derived analytical model is capable of predicting the moment-rotation relationship of the structure.
This article derived a hybrid coupling technique using the higher-order displacement polynomial and three soft computing techniques (teaching learning-based optimization, particle swarm optimization, and artificial bee colony) to predict the optimal stacking sequence of the layered structure and the corresponding frequency values. The higher-order displacement kinematics is adopted for the mathematical model derivation considering the necessary stress and stain continuity and the elimination of shear correction factor. A nine noded isoparametric Lagrangian element (eighty-one degrees of freedom at each node) is engaged for the discretisation and the desired model equation derived via the classical Hamilton.s principle. Subsequently, three soft computing techniques are employed to predict the maximum natural frequency values corresponding to their optimum layer sequences via a suitable home-made computer code. The finite element convergence rate including the optimal solution stability is established through the iterative solutions. Further, the predicted optimal stacking sequence including the accuracy of the frequency values are verified with adequate comparison studies. Lastly, the derived hybrid models are explored further to by solving different numerical examples for the combined structural parameters (length to width ratio, length to thickness ratio and orthotropicity on frequency and layer-sequence) and the implicit behavior discuss in details.
In the present investigation, by using the two numerical methods, free vibration analysis of laminated annular and annular sector plates have been studied. In order to obtain the main equations two different shell theories such as Love's shell theory and first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) have been used for modeling. After obtaining the fundamental equations in briefly, the methods of harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) and discrete singular convolution (DSC) are used to solve the equation of motion. Accuracy, convergence and reliability of the present HDQ and DSC methods were tested by comparing the existing results obtained by different methods in the literature. The effects of some geometric and material properties of the plates are investigated via these two methods. The advantages and accuracy of the HDQ and DSC methods have also been examined with different grid numbers and shell theory. Some results for laminated annular plates and laminated circular plates were also been supplied.
In this paper, the cyclic behavior of steel beam-concrete encased steel (CES) column joints was investigated experimentally and numerically. Three frame middle joint samples with varying concrete slab widths were constructed. Anti-symmetrical low-frequency cyclic load was applied at two beam ends to simulate the earthquake action. The failure modes, hysteretic behavior, ultimate load, stiffness degradation, load carrying capacity degradation, displacement ductility and strain response were investigated in details. The three composite joints exhibited excellent seismic performance in experimental tests, showing high load-carrying capacity, good ductility and superior energy dissipation ability. All three joint samples reached their ultimate loads due to shear failure. Numerical results from ABAQUS modelling agreed well with the test results. Finally, the effect of the concrete slab on ultimate load was analyzed through a parametric study on concrete strength, slab thickness, as well as slab width. Numerical simulation showed that slab width and thickness played an important role in the load-carrying capacity of such joints. As a comparison, the influence of concrete grade was not significant.