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Modeling the effects of high-rise buildings on thermo-dynamic conditions and meteorological fields over a coastal urban area was conducted using the modified meso-urban meteorological model (Urbanized MM5; uMM5) with the urban canopy parameterization (UCP) and the high-resolution inputs (urban morphology, land-use/landcover sub-grid distribution, and high-quality digital elevation model data sets). Sensitivity simulations was performed during a typical sea-breeze episode (4~8 August 2006). Comparison between simulations with real urban morphology and changed urban morphology (i.e. high-rise buildings to low residential houses) showed that highrise buildings could play an important role in urban heat island and land-sea breeze circulation. The major changes in urban meteorologic conditions are followings: significant increase in daytime temperature nearly by 1.0℃ due to sensible heat flux emitted from high density residential houses, decrease in nighttime temperature nearly by 1.0℃ because of the reduction in the storage heat flux emitted from high-rise buildings, and large increase in wind speed (maximum 2 m s<SUP>-1</SUP>) during the daytime due to lessen drag-force or increased gradient temperature over coastal area.
A meso-urban meteorological model (Urbanized MM5; uMM5) with urban canopy parameterization (UCP) was applied to the high-resolution simulation of meteorological fields in a complex coastal urban area and the assessment of urban impacts. Multi-scale simulations with the uMM5 in the innermost domain (1-km resolution) covering the Busan metropolitan region were performed during a typical sea breeze episode (4~8 August 2006) with detailed fine-resolution inputs (urban morphology, land-use/land-cover sub-grid distribution, and high-quality digital elevation model data sets). An additional simulation using the standard MM5 was also conducted to identify the effects of urban surface properties under urban meteorological conditions. Results showed that the uMM5 reproduced well the urban thermal and dynamic environment and captured well the observed feature of sea breeze. When comparison with simulations of the standard MM5, it was found that the uMM5 better reproduced urban impacts on temperature (especially at nighttime) and urban wind flows: roughness-induced deceleration and UHI (Urban Heat Island)-induced convergence.
오존 농도와 기상 인자의 연직관측을 수행하여 오존분포와 하부 대기구조와의 관계를 분석하였다. 관측은 서울 방이동에서 2003년 6월 6~9일에 하루 2회씩(주ㆍ야간) 총 8회에 걸쳐 이루어졌으며, 고도 5㎞ 이내의 관측결과를 중심으로 대기경계층 일변화와 연직 오존농도 변화를 집중분석하였다. 관측 결과, 대기경계층 내 야간안정층 및 혼합층 발달에 따라 큰 오존농도 분포변화를 확인할 수 있었다. 야간에는 안정층 내에서 NOx 적정반응으로 0에 가까운 낮은 오존농도를 나타내었다. 한편 오후에는 혼합층 내에서 비교적 일정한 오존농도 분포를 나타내며, 대기경계층 상부에서 100 ppb 이상의 최고 농도가 관측되었다. 특히 지표부근 오존농도가 높았던 6월 8일의 관측결과를 통해, 오존의 생성ㆍ소멸과 관련한 국지효과뿐만 아니라 제한된 혼합층 발달이 고농도오존 발생에 중요한 영향을 미침을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 관측 기간 중, 국지규모 이상의 수송효과에 의한 대기경계층 상부의 농도 상승과 종관기류 변화에 따른 수송 효과가 간접적으로 확인되었다. 연직 오존분포 분석에 있어 충분치 않은 관측 자료로 인해 정확한 시간적 변동을 고찰할 수 없는 한계를 보였다. 하지만 본 연구를 통해 서울지역 대기 하층의 오존 분포 변화와 기상학적 특징을 살펴봄으로서 고농도오존 현상의 역학적인 이해를 도울 것으로 생각되며, 관측 결과는 도시 오존제어를 위한 광화학 수치모델링의 기초 자료로 활용될 수 있을 것이다. Variability in vertical ozone and meteorological profiles was measured by 2Z electrochemical concentration cells (ECC) ozonesonde at Bangyi in Seoul (37.52˚N, 127.13˚E) during June 6~9, 2003 in oder to identify the vertical distribution of ozone and its relationship with the lower-atmospheric structure resulted in the high ozone concentrations near the surface. The eight profiles obtained in the early morning and the late afternoon during the study period clearly showed that the substantial change of ozone concentrations in lower atmosphere (~5 ㎞), indicating that it is tightly coupled to the variation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure as well as the background synoptic flow. All profiles observed early in the morning showed very low ozone concentrations near the surface with strong vertical gradients in the nocturnal stable boundary layer due to the photochemical ozone loss caused by surface NO titration under very weak vertical mixing. On the other hand, relatively uniform ozone profiles in the developed mixing layer and the ozone peaks in the upper PBL, were observed in the late afternoon. It was noted that a significant increase in ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere occurred with the corresponding decrease of the mixing height in the late afternoon on June 8. Ozone in upper layer did not vertically vary much compared to that in PBL but changed significantly on June 6 that was closely associated with the variation of synoptic flows. Interestingly, heavily polluted ozone layers aloft (a maximum value of 115 ppb around 2 ㎞) were formed early in the morning on 6 through 7 June under dominant westerly synoptic flows. This indicates the effects of the transport of pollutants on regional scale and consequently can give a rise to increase the surface ozone concentration by downward mixing processes enhanced in the afternoon.
To analyze the physical processes of sea-breeze development over a coastal urban area, numerical simulation for seabreeze (SB) and its frontogenesis was examined based on urbanized MM5 (uMM5) with urban canopy parameterization. On 6 August 2006, SB and its front were well developed in Busan under a weak offshore flow. As a result of wind vector, ZVB (Zero Velocity Boundary), potential temperature obtained the uMM5, at 0900 LST, SB advanced below 200 m height in the coastal areas and the internal boundary grew with the urban coastal region. At noon, the height of the SB head with updraft was approximately one and a half times (~600 m) higher than its depth in central urban. Applying the frontogenesis function, the SB structure for frontogenesis and frontolysis were complicated spatially; the dynamic effects of wind (i.e. convergence and tilting term) could play an important role in the growth of SB, especially the convergence effect.
To prevent increasing instances of heat-related illnesses due to heat waves generated by climate change, a customized thermal environment index should be developed for outdoor workers. In this study, we conducted sensitivity analysis of the Masan harbor during a heat wave period (August 9th to 15th, 2013) using the MENEX model with metabolic rate and clothing-insulation data, in order to obtain realistic information about the thermal environment. This study shows that accurate input data are essential to gather information for thermophysiological indices (PST, DhR, and OhR). PST is sensitive to clothing insulation as a function of clothing. OhR is more sensitive to clothing insulation during the day and to the metabolic rate at night. From these results, it appears that when exposed to high-temperature thermal environments in summer, wearing highly insulated clothing and getting enough rest (to lower the metabolic rate) can aid in preventing heat-related illnesses. Moreover, in the case of high-intensity harbor work, quantification of allowed working time (OhR) during heat waves is significant for human health sciences.
The MM5, RAMS and WRF, meteorological models have provided the dynamical parameters as inputs to air quality model. A major content of this study is that significant characteristics of three models for high-ozone occurrence analyze for surface wind and air temperature fields and compare with observation data in Seoul metropolitan area. An analysis of air temperature field revealed that location of core in high temperature of MM5 and WRF differed from that of RAMS. MM5 and WRF indicated high temperature in Seoul but RAMS represented it on the outskirts of Seoul. MM5 and WRF were underestimated maximum temperature during daytime but RAMS simulated similar value with observation data. Surface wind field with three models, it was shown many differences at horizontal distribution of wind direction. RAMS indicated weak wind speed in land and strong sea breeze at coastal areas than MM5 and WRF. However wind speed simulated by three model were overestimated during both daytime and nighttime.
The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a parent-child reading interaction program. Based on the importance of the parent-child relationship and the home literacy environment vis-a-vis the extent to which reading is encouraged, and with regard to the existing empirical research in this field, a five-session parent-child reading interaction program has been developed, targeting 18 parents with children enrolled in th lower grades of elementary school. The effectiveness of this program has been evaluated by a pretest and post test and then analyzed by a paired t-test. The findings are as follows: 1) Following the implementation of this program, there were improvements in scores related to the home literacy environment, the encouragement of reading, and the attitude of the child toward reading. 2) In addition, there was an increase in the level of the mother's "rational guidance" parenting while tendencies toward overprotective and hostile parenting traits declined. The importance of the parent-child relationship and home literacy environment concerning reading guidance was discussed.