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Purpose: To reilluminate academic fundamentals and missions of child health nursing (CHN). Methods: Critical review of literature. Results & Conclusion: The academic fundamentals of CHN were analyzed for three different basis; philosophical, theoretical, and legal & ethical basis. The philosophical basis of CHN was summarized as six beliefs; A child is an important human resource and a valuable asset for future society; A child should be respected as a unique and dignified human being; A child has his/her own unique developmental needs; A child is a vulnerable client and should be advocated for; Atraumatic care should be provided to each child; Child health care should be family-centered. The essence of the theoretical basis were reilluminated into caring theory and client advocacy theory. The legal basis of CHN was stated as pertaining to the various child-related laws and international conventions, such as UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The ethical basis were stated as 4 principles of biomedical ethics and The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The mission of the CHN was stated and the role of CHN was described as one who is a child rights advocator, professional caring service provider, policy maker, health educator, researcher.
Purpose: This descriptive study was performed to explore trends in child health nursing research by analyzing the themes, contents and structure of articles published in 2014 in Child Health Nursing Research, the official journal of the Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing. Methods: Thirty-eight articles were reviewed using keywords, author (s), subjects, ethical considerations, designs, statistics involved, funding resources, and others. Results: Ten domains from 160 keywords were identified as follows, child related, psycho-social variable related, parents and family related, nursing and health related, and others. A mean of 2.9 authors per article was identified and 71% of the authors were academic- affiliated. Twenty-eight articles were human-participant related while 21 articles addressed both Institutional Review Board and written consent. Non-experimental design was the most commonly used method followed by experimental design, and qualitative design. The duration for acceptance was a mean of 89.1 days from submission with most articles requiring a second round of article review. Half of the articles were supported by grant organizations such as Korean National Research Foundation. Conclusion: The findings of the analysis show an improvement in the scientific quality with a diversity of articles in Child Health Nursing Research.
This descriptive study was done to detect the possibilities of the development of the advocacy concept in nursing. The subjects consisted of 3 nurses who had agreed to participate to the study, working at nursery room in a general hospital. Data was collected from May 22 to June 13 in 1995 through tape recorded intensive-interview, and written down, then content analyzed qualitatively related to the infant advocacy. 1. Derivation fo the meaning about advocacy concept 1) The situations in need of infant advocacy were 12 categories : malpractice, overcharing, negligence, unnecessary services, and services without consent, and so on. 2) Fourteen categories of advocacy activities percived by nurses were derived from participants' statements. Protesting infant or his /her families against their counterpart, providing informations to families, cooperating with medical staffs for her patient, then calling medical staff not so as to be maleficient to her patient in its rank. 3) The expected result of advocacy activities perceived by nurses was respectively positive to her patient or families, but negative to nurse. 4) The feelings of nurses in the sitution of advocacy were expressed in to concern, comprehension, regret, powerlessness, charity, desire, and so on. 5) Nurses perceived that advocacy activities could be influenced positively by factors related to nurses' qualification and negatively by factors related to doctor's overdo and nurse's underdo. 2. Categorization of the meaning and their relationships In case of antecedental situation in need of infant advocacy, nurse perceives her patients need the advocacy to get a benefit through nurse's information, intervention speaking, building cooperations. The expected factors to influence advocacy activities perceived by nurses, are the power imbalance between medical staffs, the nurse's qualification, and the nurse's feeling from the situation. The above results suggest that the infant care situation will be recommendable field work place for concept development of advocacy with hybride model when it involves infant's families.
Since 1990, descriptive studies about the concept of client advocacy have been published in the health journals. However, empirical studies of the concept are still lacking. There are not enough bases to apply the concept of client advocacy in nursing practice. The purpose of this paper is to encourage empirical research about client advocacy by clarification of the concept and to discusses application of the theory in child healthcare. The literature was reviewed that empirical studies on client advocacy conducted after the year 2000. The changing trends in the client advocacy concept was examined; it was changed from the philosophical concept to nursing action and changed from individual advocacy to collective advocacy, with the rise of the self advocacy concept. The research trends on client advocacy evolves from descriptive study to quasiexperimental study and instrument development study, with diversification and expansion of research methods, advocates, clients and settings. The advocacy role of the nurse in child healthcare is significant due to the child’s lack of self determination ability. In ill child care, the application of individual advocacy is potent, while in healthy child care, collective advocacy, policy advocacy, and social advocacy is effective. 서론 의료현장의 대형화, 관료화로 인한 인간기본권 침해로 인해 간호사의 옹호역할이 필수적인 간호활동의 하나로 부각되고 있다. 옹호 개념이 간호문헌에 대두되기 시작한 것은 약 40년 전의 일로, 그동안 꾸준히 진화되고 발전되어 왔으나 여전히 대상자옹호 개념은 명료하지 않고 임상실무 적용에 어려움이 있다는 문제 제기가 있었다. 이에 개념을 명확히 하고 아동간호실무적용의 가능성을 탐색하고자 하였다. 본론 2000년 이후에 발표된 실증적 연구논문을 분석하여 대상자옹호이론의 발전과 옹호연구의 동향, 아동간호영역에서의 적용에 대해 고찰한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 첫째, 옹호 개념은 이론적 개념에서 실천적 간호활동으로 보는 견해가 우세해졌으며, 대상자옹호 개념은 체계적인 중범위 이론(mid-range theory)으로 발전하였다. 둘째, 옹호 개념에 대한 연구는 개념의 조작화나 방법론이 다양하게확대되어, 간호대상자옹호가 간호중재로서 실무에 활용될 가능성이있는 것으로 전망된다. 셋째, 아픈 아동이건 건강한 아동이건 아동은 성인에 비해 자신을위한 권리주장이나 선택능력이 부족하다는 점에서 우선적인 옹호간호의 대상이다. 넷째, 임상아동간호실무, 건강한 아동을 위한 건강증진실무에 대상자옹호이론을 적용할 수 있다. 개인옹호, 단체옹호, 자기옹호 개념을 적용할 수 있다. 다섯 번째, 아동간호영역에서 대상자옹호와 관련된 다양한 연구가수행될 수 있다. 여섯 번째, 효율적이고 능동적인 옹호역할을 수행하기 위해서 간호사의 준비가 필요하다. 결론 옹호 개념은 총합적이고 구체적인 이론적 구조로 서술되어 체계적인 중범위 이론(mid-range theory)으로 발전하였다. 이론에 대한 실증적 연구가 증가되어 개념의 조작화가 이루어졌으며, 간호중재로서 실무에 활용될 가능성이 있을 것으로 전망된다. 아동은 전형적인 취약인구층이므로 임상아동간호, 아동건강증진실무영역, 아동간호연구 등의 분야에서 대상자옹호이론의 적용가능성이 높다. 효율적이고 전문적인 옹호역할을 수행하기 위해서 이에 대한아동간호사의 훈련과 준비가 필요하다.