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This paper were studied the evaluation in compare with the conventional and AMBER of analog images, PACS and CR of digital images which were collected every ten sampling chest images with the J.J.Vucicuh chest evaluated chart, and were measured the chest phantom surface dose and the density of several part in chest images. The evaluated numbers were total 22 persons who were 6 persons of the M.D., 6 of the radiotechnological professors and 10 of the radiotechnologists. The obtained results summarized as following : 1. Approaching the optimum standard density of the several part in chest images drew near at the lung round region density in PACS images, the sternum region density in CR and AMBER images, the heart region density in CR AMBER images, the diaphram region density in AMBER and conventional images. 2. The evaluation measured surface dose were appeared orderly lesser dose at the AMBER images (spine 21 mR, lung 2mR, heart 12mR, apex 6mR) than the conventional images(32 mR), CR images(38mR) and PACS images(81mR). 3. The anatomical physical evaluation marks were taken the highest points at CR images(88.3), and orderly PACS images(82), AMBER images(79.2) and conventional images(65.2). 4. It is exposured with lesser surface dose at the analog images, but analog images leaves much room for image quality improvement, and digital images demand for lesser exposure surface dose, although excellent image quality.
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The study was conducted with 351 students in middle schools located in Incheon. A survey investigation was done on the students to find out peer bullying, relevant variables, personality, and stress of the students.The followings show the results of the problems.First for the peer bullying according to relevant variables, male students and the students whose father has high school or college degrees records tend to have lower degree of peer bullying. Male students and the group with financial difficulty tend to suffer from peer victimizing more than other groups.Second, as for the personality according to peer bullying, the group who higher acts of peer bullying had a low level of stability and conformity but had a high level of dominance and impulse. Also, the group that were more affected by peer bullying had low stable, social, and responsible personality.Third, the difference in the stress of perpetrators and victims of peer bullying was investigated. The result shows that both groups are highly stressed because of school, family, friends, environment, and everything about oneself. More serious the peer bullying, the stress worsened.Fourth, for peer bullying, dominance personality was the most significant predictor. And for peer victimization, sex was the most significant predictor. ◈본 연구는 청소년의 또래괴롭힘을 가해집단과 피해집단으로 나누어 성격특성과 스트레스와의 관계를 분석하고자 인천시내 남,녀 중학생 351명을 대상으로 실시하였다.본 연구결과, 먼저 관련변인에 따른 또래괴롭힘의 가해정도는 남학생일 경우 가해정도가 높고, 아버지의 교육수준이 고졸인 경우 가해정도가 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 피해정도는 남학생일 경우, 가정의 수입이 하일 경우 또래괴롭힘의 피해정도가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 또래괴롭힘의 가해정도가 높은 경우 안정성과 동조성이 낮고 지배성과 충동성이 높은 것으로 나타났으며, 피해정도가 높은 경우 안정성과 사회성, 책임성과 우월성이 모두 낮게 나타났다. 셋째, 또래괴롭힘의 가해·피해정도가 높은 경우 모든 스트레스 하위영역에서 유의미하게 높은 점수를 나타냈다. 넷째, 또래괴롭힘 가해·피해에 대한 상대적인 영향력을 살펴본 결과, 가해의 경우 성격특성의 지배성이, 그리고 피해의 경우 성별요인이 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of father's parenting behaviors and parenting involvement on self-concept and prosocial behaviors for young children of 6 to 7 age. The findings of this study are as follows: First, by background variable, child's self-concept has a difference significantly as their sex, age. Prosocial behaviors has a difference as sex, age of child significantly. Second, the warmth-acceptance of parenting behaviors has positive relationship with child's self-concept and prosocial behaviors, the permissiveness-nonintervention and rejection-restriction have negative relationship with them and parenting involvement has positive relationship with them. Third, the most powerful predictors of self-concept is the living guidance of parenting involvement and it of prosocial behaviors is the warmth-acceptance of parenting behaviors.
The purpose of this thesis is to reconstruct a unit in the elementary science textbook, and to develop a learning program in order to help students to learn more effectively basic knowledge of the unit as well as scientific research methods. The learning models used in this study include Holistic learning model. Hypothesis verification learning model, Generative learning model, learning Cycle model and Jigsaw learning model, which were appropriately applied to each study theme. In the process of developing and applying the learning program, qualitative research methods were used. Data, such as descriptive observation narratives, interviews participation observation log(teaching log and learning log) and open-ended questionnaire were collected and analyzed. Based on the problems found by the analyses, the learining program was modified and completed to be used for other teachers' reference. The process of this study is as follows. 1. Precedent literatures, teaching materials and textbooks were analyzed to select a unit to be reconstructed and learning models to be applied. 2. Based on the lessons from the analysis of the applicability of the preliminary program, "Volcano Festival," which had been applied to the class of the researcher, the final learning program of the "Envirionmental Pollution" unit was developed. 3. The Environmental Pollution Program was applied to three classes of the 6th grade of an elementary school. In the process of application, the program was evaluated based on the analysis of the above mentioned qualitative data. 4. As a result, the program was revised and detailed guidelines for teachers were developed for further general use in school. The major problem of the initial program was that students of the researcher's class reacted differently from those of other cooperating classes. Only 34.1%∼57.5% of the students in two cooperating teachers' classes compared to 74.3% of the students in the researcher's class answered that the program was intersting. This difference called for the careful examination of the adaptability of the program. In other words, the program did not consider the different characteristics of each class, such as teachers' experience and ordinary teaching styles. As the matter of students' understanding of the content of the learning materials, none of them were unable to understand the materials since they had already studied about pollution in prior grades. Disregarding the fact that the students slready had a lot of experience and konwledge of the cause and effect of the pollution, there was a lot of redundancy in the content of the program. The third problem was that there were not sufficient activities to help students to practice learning skills necessary to participate in the program actively. In consideration of these respects, the program was rectified and complemented as follows. First, it was modified to include ´more interesting activities to enhance students' creativity´ while eliminationg redundent ´concept learning activities´. Second, it included much more activities for the practice of learning skills. Third, the teachers' guides to help teachers to adjuct the difference of various characteristics of classes was included. Besides, it is important to note that in order to make a better program and to reduce many trials and errers, teachers have to be broadly knowledgable of both students' interests and personalities as well as the current education system. For, this, teachers' reappointment of the same grade or classification of their majors as "lower class major," "higher class major" or "a subject (in case of English, Music, Arts and Physical education) major" can be practiced as good alternatives. Moreover, those who publish school textbooks should try to avoid the redundancy of materials in the textbook and be able to provide the better guidebook, which can provide teachers with various learning methods and materials in detail. It is hoped that this study can be used for a reference to improve and stimulate further active researches in the graduate school of education so as to assist teachers in their teaching.