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Polymeric calcium phosphate cements (PCPCs) derived from biodegradable polyamino acids, such as polyaspartic acid (PAA) and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), were prepared in an attempt to improve their cohesion strength and injectability. The characteristics of the calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), such as dynamic viscosity, paste injectability, initial setting time, compressive strength and cell compatibility, were assessed. The dynamic viscosity increased significantly with γ-PGA incorporation but decreased with PAA incorporation. The injectability increased with the concentration of polyamino acids and that of the CPCs mixed with γ-PGA reached 94%. The initial setting time decreased with the γ-PGA concentration in the cement liquid and reached approximately 10-15 min when the γ-PGA concentration was 1-2 wt%. The compressive strength (CS) of CPCs after 1 week-incubation decreased with the incorporation of PAA and γ-PGA. γ-PGA incorporation deteriorated the CS more than PAA incorporation because the dissolution of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) was retarded. Saos-2 cells grown on CPCs with polyamino acids spread more than those grown on the CPC without them.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrition status of calcium and iron in 116 elementary school students with different obesity index. Subjects were assigned to under weight, normal weight or over weight group according to the their obesity index. Their nutritional status, serum calcium and iron levels were evaluated based on 24-recall dietary recalls, anthropometric measurements and blood analysis. The mean height, weight, obesity index and blood pressure of total subjects were 150.4 cm, 45.5 kg, 5.8% and 118.2/76.8 mmHg. The mean % of body fat, SBP and WHR were higher while LBM and TBW were lower in over weight subject than those of other group. The iron intake of overweight was lower than that of underweight and normal subjects(p<0.05) and average calcium intakes were only 50% and 60% respectively of the RDA for Korean. Serum calcium and iron levels of a three groups were within the normal range. There were no significant differences in serum calcium and iron concentrations among three groups, however those of underweight group were a slightly lower than those of other two groups. There were significantly negative correlations between iron of intake and weight, obesity index, systolic pressure and body fat percent. Systolic blood pressure was negatively correlated to the intakes of energy, carbohydrate and protein. Energy intake was also negatively correlated to serum iron. To summarize the results, calcium and iron intakes should be supplied to elementary school students, especially those who were overweight. These indicated that overweight group had improper mineral nutrition status. Therefore, nutrition education and profound studies from many different focus for overweight groups are highly required.