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Nine free-living heterotrophic flagellates were cultured from marine intertidal sediments and freshwater sediments from Korea. These species are described with uninterpreted records based on light microscopy of living cells and reported taxonomically for the first time from Korea. Diagnostics of these species are as follows; Notosolenus hemicircularis: 9-11.8 μm long with flagellar reservoir, ventrally flattened and dorsally convex with hyaline semicircular collar around short anterior neck, and 8 ridges on cell surface. Thecamonas tranhens: 4.5-7.1 μm long, plastic with proboscis comprising an anterior flagellum surrounded by membranous sleeve. Bodomorpha minima: 4.5-7.0 μm long, rigid with small rostrum in anterior end and active anterior flagellum. Cercomonas hiberna: 5.6-10.9 μm long, very plastic with pseudopodia, cytoplasmic strand and 1 or 2 contractile vacuoles. Cercomonas pellucida: 7.5-13 μm long, plastic with pseudopodia, cytoplasmic strand and single contractile vacuole. With nucleus closely connected to basal bodies. Eocercomonas echina: 4.7-6.5 μm long, plastic with pseudopodia, cytoplasmic strand and 1 or 2 contractile vacuoles. Paracercomonas astra: 5.7-7.3 μm long, moderately metabolic with pseudopodia, cytoplasmic strand and 1 or 2 contractile vacuoles. Paracercomonas minima: 5-9 μm long, metabolic with pseudopodia, cytoplasmic strand and single contractile vacuole. Paracercomonas producta: 6.1-9.9 μm long, very metabolic with pseudopodia, long cytoplasmic strand and single contractile vacuole.
Axial compressive failure loads () of diameter 500 mm and diameter 600 mm A type PHC pile were calculated as 7.7 MN and 10.6 MN, respectively. In the static pile load tests, the maximum axial compressive loads of the above 2 kinds of A type pile were measured as 6.9 MN and 8.8 MN respectively, therefore these measured maximum loads were at the level of 90% and 83% of respectively. Long-term allowable axial compressive loads () of the above 2 kinds of A type pile were 1.7 MN and 2.3 MN respectively. From the bi-directional pile load test data on the prebored PHC piles, it was confirmed that the allowable axial compressive bearing resistance was estimated as 131% of the long-term allowable compressive load of the PHC pile and showed higher than the allowable bearing capacity calculated by the current design method. Therefore, it has been verified that the PHC pile can be used up to the maximum long-term allowable compressive load, and it is suggested that the ultimate pile capacity formula used in the current design for prebored PHC piles should be improved to accommodate the actual capacity. 직경 500mm 및 직경 600mm PHC말뚝 A종의 파괴 압축하중()은 각각 7.7MN 및 10.6MN으로 계산할 수 있었다. 직경 500mm 및 직경 600mm 매입 PHC말뚝 A종에 대한 압축정재하시험 시 말뚝 두부에 재하된 최대 압축하중은 6.9MN 및 8.8MN으로 측정할 수 있었으며 따라서 이 측정하중은 각각 의 90% 및 83% 수준이었다. 직경 500mm 및 직경 600mm PHC말뚝 A종의 장기허용압축하중()은 각각 1.7MN 및 2.3MN이었다. 모든 사례 매입 PHC말뚝의 양방향재하시험 자료로부터 계산된 지반의 허용지지력은 국내 현행 설계에서 사용하고 있는 극한지지력 산정공식으로 계산한 지반의 허용지지력보다 높은 수준으로 계산되었다. 따라서 매입 PHC말뚝의 설계에서 사용하는 극한지지력 산정공식은 매입 PHC말뚝의 실제 지지력 거동을 모사할 수 있도록 개선하여야 할 것으로 판단되었다.
Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that are found in most plants. Certain flavonols exhibit anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial functions. An array of genes plays a role in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathways, including the MYB–bHLH (basic helix-loophelix- WD40 transcription factor complex. Flavonoids often display altered bioactivities after being glycosylated by the action of glycosyltransferases. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of sugars from a donor to various acceptors. In this study, we generated several transgenic lines of Arabidopsis that overexpress UDP-glycosyltransferase 78D1 (UGT78D1), which are hereafter referred to as UGT78D1- OX, to address three questions: (1) Can UGT78D1-OX seedlings accumulate more flavonols? (2) Can UGT78D1- OX seedlings accumulate more flavonols in the presence of sucrose? and (3) Will UGT78D1-OX be more sensitive to abiotic stresses? We observed that UGT78D1-OX seedlings accumulated specific types of kaempferol, while they had a decreased content of flavonols in the presence of sucrose. Contrary to our expectation, more anthocyanins accumulated in the UGT78D1-OX lines, although the expression of production of anthocyanin pigment 1 was slightly reduced in UGT78D1-OX seedlings compared with that in wildtype seedlings. It appeared that the overexpression of UGT78D1 did not interfere with abiotic stress tolerance in the mutant plants.
Three marine heterotrophic flagellates from intertidal sediments of Gwang-Am beach and Garorim Bay, Korea were identified as Neometanema parovale Lee and Patterson 2014, Stephanopogon pattersoni Lee et al. 2014 and Thaumatomastix sp. These species are reported taxonomically for the first time from Korea, and are described with illustrations and micrographs. Diagnostics of these species are as follows. Neometanema parovale (Euglenozoa): size in vivo, 10~23 μm long with 22 pellicular strips, ingestion apparatus barely visible by light microscopy and two flagella pointed in different directions when moving. Stephanopogon pattersoni (Percolozoa): size in vivo, 20~33 μm long, with 6 ventral and 1 ventro-lateral ciliary rows, and three barbs. Thaumatomastix sp. (Cercozoa): size in vivo, 14~17 μm with body scales and spines, and two flagella with one naked and one scaled.