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According to the global trend of low interest rates, investors are showing more and more interest in real estate investment. Since there are several risk factors inherent in direct real estate investments, indirect real estate investments are increasing in advanced nations. Under these backgrounds, this study set out to conduct an in-depth analysis of real estate investment trusts (REIT), an indirect approach to real estate investment. This study collected data of 112 REITs that had been approved by the end of 2015 and carried out diverse analyses of factors influencing their return rates. The empirical analysis results show that the average return rate of the 112 REITs was 6.2% per year for five years and that it was relatively higher than the deposit interest rate of banks. It was also found that the return rates varied according to type, listing, and the investment objects of the REIT. Based on these findings, a follow-up study needs to investigate in more detail and with more diverse variables and factors to influence the return rates of REIT. The findings will hopefully contribute to the activation of the REIT market so that the REIT business will become the new driving force of growth to lead the real estate industry in the future. 세계적인 저금리 기조에 따라 부동산 투자에 관한 투자자들의 관심이 증대되고 있다. 반면, 부동산 직접투자는 여러 위험요인이 존재하기에 선진국에서는 부동산 간접투자가 확산되고 있다. 본 연구는 이러한 배경아래 대표적인 부동산간접투자 방식인 부동산투자회사(REITs)의 수익률에 대하여 심도 있는 분석을 실시하였다. 본 연구에서는 2015년 말까지 까지 인가된 112개의 부동산투자회사에 대한 관련 자료를 종합적으로 구축하여, 수익률에 영향을 미치는 요인에 대하여 다양한 분석을 실시하였다. 실증분석 결과 인가된 리츠 112개의 5년간 평균수익률은 연간 6.2%로 나타나, 은행권의 예금금리와 비교하여 상대적으로 높은 수익률을 달성한 것으로 확인되었다. 다음으로 리츠의 유형 및 상장여부, 투자자산의 종류에 따라 수익률이 달리 나타남을 확인할 수 있었다. 향후 본 연구 성과를 토대로 리츠 수익률에 영향을 미치는 보다 세분화된 다양한 변수 및 요인들에 대한 후속연구가 진행되기를 기대한다. 더 나아가 이를 바탕으로 한 리츠 시장 활성화를 통해 리츠 산업이 향후 부동산산업 전반을 주도할 수 있는 신성장동력으로 발전되기를 바라는 바이다.
Background: Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection is known to be strongly associated with varied dermatoses such as rosacea, vasculitic purpura, and Sweet's syndrome. Also, many antibiotics including amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and tetracycline have been used to ameliorate chronic urticaria. This recent knowledge posed the plausibility that H. pylori infection might be an underlying causative factor of chronic urticaria. Objective : This study was conducted to investigate the role of H. pylori infection in patients with chronic urticaria. Methods : Sixty-five subjects with chronic urticaria were examined for H. pylori infection with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG/M against H. pylori and rapid urease test(CLO test) for endoscopically biopsied gastric mucosa. Amoxicillin or clarithromycin combined with omeprazole as a therapy was administrated to the 44 patients with positive test results for 4 weeks. Results : H. pylori infection was more frequently diagnosed in 44 of 65(67.7%) patients with chronic urticaria than in the control subjects(8.8%). After the completion of treatment for 4 weeks, specific IgG antibodies and a CLO test against H. pylori were negative in 28 of 38(73.7%) and 43 of 44(97.7%) patients respectively. At the post-treatment evaluation, 37 of 44(84.1%) patients with H. pylori-positive urticaria showed significant clinical remission of urticaria. Conclusion : Eradication of H. pylori in patients with chronic urticaria was accompanied by clinical remission of urtication. There is substantial evidence that unexplained causes of chronic urticaria may be associated with H. pylori infection.
한국의 거세미류중에서 숯검은밤나방이 과연 우점종인가를 밝히고 그 가해기간 및 가해기의 유충령기를 조사하였다. 년의 조사결과 숯검은밤나방유충이 봄철에 채집된 거세미류중 약 이상을 차지하며 밭작물의 피해초기에는 대부분이 령충으로 가해기간은 약 개월이 됨을 알 수 있었다. 이 해충의 영명을 'dark grey cutworm'으로 명명하였다. This work was carried out to study field biology of Agrotis tekienis B. in Korea for two years (1979 and 1980), The species was found to be the dominant species among cutworms giving damage to young Plants in Spring with making up approximately or more of cutworms collected at Suweon and Jeonju from March to early June. During April and May which is the most critical period as far as plant damage by cutworms is concerned, those of A. tokionis larvae collected were at 5th and 6th instar. A. tokionis larvae enter a summer diapause from late May to early July and Agrotis ipsilon became the dominant species. It is also suggested that A. tokionis larvae be called as the 'dark grey cutworm', based upon its larval body color.
This study was undertaken to observe differences and the effects of some vasoactive agents-and hypoxia-induced responses between isolated human internal mammary artery (IMA) and saphenous vein(SV), which are commonly employed in caronary artery bypass grafts(CABG). KCI contracted the both vessels in dose-dependent fashion and the maximum contraction was greater in SV than in IMA. However, 3 neurohumoral agents, norepinephrine(NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) and prostaglandin F_2a(PGF_2a) except phenylephrine(PE), elicited greater efficacy with higher affinity in SV than in IMA. Acetylcholine(ACh) produced dose-dependent vasodilatations in the IMA precontracted with PE, whereas it slightly relaxed the contraction in SV. Diltiazem produced more sensitive vasodilatation in IMA than in SV. Hypoxia produced a transient vasoconstriction followed by a slow vasodilatation, and reoxygenation also produced vasoconstriction in both preparations. The hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction of IMA under the basal tension was greater than that of SV, and the former was markedly attenuated by pretreatment with PE but the latter not inhibited by the pretreatment. The vasoconstriction induced by 5-HT and PGF_2a in SV was attenuated by pretrearment with hypoxia for 10 min, while that in IMA was not. KCI-induced contractions in both vessels were not affected by the pretreatment with hypoxia. ACh-induced vasodilatation in IMA precontracted with PE was abolished in hypoxia state for 10 min, but NP-induced one not inhibited in the hypoxia state. In conclusion, responsiveness to vasoactive agents in IMA and SV are different, the endothelial function is greater in IMA than in SV and very sensitive to hypoxia, and neurohumoral agents-induced vasoconstrictions in SV are more sensitive to hypoxia than those in IMA. These results suggest that IMA is more suitable to CABG than SV.