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This study identified effects of university smoke-free policies to improve health of students, staff, and visitors and prevent tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure through systematic review. Articles on university smoke-free policies were searched through electronic databases(PubMed & KISS), and reference reviews. In systematic review, there were 6 articles reporting 43 campuses with 8309 participants. Smoke-free campus policies included smoking bans on campus, campaigns including advertisements on an internal campus TV network and internal newspapers, providing educational materials like smoking cessation contact information, and screening students' use of tobacco. The effects of smoke-free campus policies were evaluated by secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco use(self-report survey, direct observation of violators, and cigarette butts), attitudes and beliefs related to smoking, and support for smoke-free campus. This study lends considerable support for efforts towards smoke-free campus.
The objective of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of silk peptide (SP)against gamma irradiation-induced damage via its immunomodulatory activity. The proliferation ofRAW 264.7 cells, peritoneal macrophage and splenocyte increased upon treatment with SP followedby irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The TNF-α and IL-6 secretion levels were the highestin irradiated cells treated with 500 μg·ml-1 of SP. On the other hand, although the IFN-γ and IL-2levels were lower in the irradiated cells, the secretion of these cytokines increased when treated withSP. These results demonstrate that SP enhances the immune response by increasing the macrophageactivity in vitro. The splenocyte's numbers decreased with gamma irradiation, but the administrationof SP (200 mg·kg-1 B.W.) significantly increased the splenocyte counts. Moreover, the SP treatmentsignificantly increased the IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion in irradiated mice. The mRNA expressionresults indicate that the SP administration prior to irradiation activated the Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ andIL-2) response as well as the expression of cytokines related to radioprotection (TNF-α, IL-6, andIL-1β). The results also showed that the SP administrated mice survived by 30% more than the PBSfeeding group when the mice were irradiated with a lethal dose (6.5 Gy). Thus, the overall resultsproposed that silk peptide could be a good candidate as radioprotective functional food.
The dielectric recovery characteristics of a molded case circuit breaker (MCCB) are related to re-ignition after current-zero. This characteristic afects the interruption reliability of an MCCB because the fault current cannot be interrupted if re-ignition occurs despite trip unit operation. Therefore, to prevent electric leakage during re-ignition, an improvement in the dielectric recovery characteristic is required. In this paper, the infuence of the dielectric recovery characteristics on the splitter plate after current-zero was investigated, and a structure intended to improve the splitter plate was proposed. Measurement of the dielectric recovery voltage confrmed that the proposed structure ofered improvement compared with the existing ones.