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Background and Objectives:Headache secondary to sinonasal disease can improve after surgery, but few prospective studies have investigated this outcome. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of headaches, such as clinical features, underlying disease, and postoperative improvement in patients who underwent nasal surgery, and to identify the characteristics that reliably predict rhinogenic headache. Materials and Method:Of 356 patients who underwent nasal surgery between March and December 2009, 41 patients with headaches were enrolled in this prospective study. Clinical features of headache, such as onset, time of day, duration, frequency, nature, side and location, existence of aura, aggravating and relieving factors and accompanying nasal symptoms, underlying diseases, endoscopic findings, and computed tomography scans of the paranasal sinuses were evaluated. Headache intensity was graded based on a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) pre- and post-operatively. Results:The most common characteristics of rhinogenic headache included a stabbing or squeezing nature, frontal area location, accompanying nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea, and underlying sinusitis or septal deviation. The subjective intensity of the headache, measured using the VAS score, improved in 80% (33/41) of the patients after surgery. Conclusion:Nasal surgery should be considered when rhinogenic headache is suspected and there are definite nasal pathologies.
천연 골재자원의 고갈로 인해 송배전관로 되메움재의 대체골재로서 재생 순환골재 이용에 많은 관심이 집중되고 있다. 그러나 순환골재를 송배전관로 되메움재로 적용하기 위해서는 물리적, 열적 특성 규명이 선행되어야 한다. 본 논문에서는 송배전관로 되메움재로 활용하기 위한 폐콘크리트 순환골재의 적용성을 평가하였다. 각 지역에서 채취한 순환골재와 대조군인 일반 강모래를 대상으로 실내다짐시험을 수행한 후, 비정상 열선법과 비정상 탐침법을 이용하여 열저항을 측정하였다. 저함수비 구간에서 비정상 탐침법을 이용한 열저항 측정값은 탐침관입에 따른 시료교란 효과로 인해 비정상 열선법보다 상대적으로 크게 측정되었다. 전체 순환골재의 열저항 측정 결과, 대조군인 강모래와 유사하게 함수비 증가에 따른 열저항의 감소를 보였다. 또한, 기존 열전도도(열저항) 예측 모델에 의한 열저항 예측값과 순환골재의 측정 결과를 비교하였으며, 순환골재에 열저항 예측에 적합한 예측식을 제안하였다. 본 연구결과를 바탕으로 재생 순환골재를 송배전관로 되메움재로 활용 가능함을 알 수 있다. Recently, the utilization of recycled aggregates for backfilling a power transmission pipeline trench has been considered due to the issues of eco-friendly construction and a lack of natural aggregate resource. It is important to identify the physical and thermal properties of domestic recycled aggregates that can be used as a backfill material. This paper evaluated thermal properties of concrete-based recycled aggregates with various particle size distributions. The thermal properties of the recycled aggregates and river sand provided by local vendors were measured using the transient hot wire method and the transient needle probe method after performing the standard compaction test. The needle probe method considerably overestimated the thermal resistivity of recycled aggregates especially at the dry of optimum water content because of experiencing disturbance while the needle probe is being inserted into the specimen. Similar to silica sand, the thermal resistivity of recycled aggregates decreased when the water content increased at a given dry density. Also, this paper evaluated some of the existing prediction models for the thermal resistivity of recycled aggregates with the experimental data, and developed a new prediction model for recycled aggregates. This study shows that recycled aggregates can be a promising backfill material substituting for natural aggregates when backfilling the power transmission pipeline trench.
Purpose: It remains unknown whether local inhibition of Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) could have therapeutic value in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of selective NF-κB inhibition using NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) for the local treatment of AR in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized wild-type mice. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized with OVA and alum, and then challenged intranasally with OVA. NF-κB decoy ODNs were given intranasally to the treatment group, and NF-κB scrambled ODNs were given to the sham treatment group. Allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, cytokine levels in the nasal mucosa, nasal lavage fluid, and spleen cell culture, serum total and OVA-specific immunoglobulins, as well as intercellular adhesion molecure-1 (ICAM-1) in the nasal mucosa, were analyzed. Results: NF- κB decoy ODNs significantly reduced allergic symptoms and eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosa. They also suppressed serum levels of total IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and IgG1. IL-5 and TNF-α levels and the expression of ICAM-1 were decreased in the nasal mucosa of the treatment group compared to the positive control and sham treatment groups. In addition, IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in the nasal lavage fluid of the treatment group. Furthermore, NF-κB decoy ODNs significantly reduced expression of the systemic Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5 in spleen cell culture. Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time that local NF-κB inhibition using NF-κB decoy ODNs suppressed the allergic response in a murine AR model. This shows the therapeutic potential of local NF-κB inhibition in the control of AR.
Use of recycled aggregates that are constituents of concrete or asphalt-based structures has become popular because the recycling is an eco-friendly way to overcome the depletion of natural aggregates. In order to adopt the recycled aggregates for backfilling a power transmission pipeline trench, their thermal resistivity should be low enough to prevent thermal runaway in the transmission system. In this study, a series of laboratory tests with QTM-500 and KD2 Pro was performed to measure the thermal resistivity of recycled aggregates prepared from various sources. Relationships between the thermal resistivity of recycled aggregates and the water content have been obtained with consideration of compaction effort. Similar to natural soils, the thermal resistivity of the recycled aggregates decreases with increasing the water content. In addition, this study compared the experimental data with conventional prediction models for the thermal resistivity in the literature, which suggests the availability of the recycled aggregates as backfill material substituting for natural aggregates when backfilling the power transmission pipeline trench.
Among the various thermal properties, thermal conductivity of soils is one of the most important parameters to design a horizontal ground heat exchanger for ground-coupled heat pump systems. It is well known that the thermal conductivity of soil is strongly influenced by its density and water content because of its particulate structure. This paper evaluates some of the well-known prediction models for the thermal conductivity of particulate media such as soils along with the experimental results. The semi-theoretical models for two-component materials were found inappropriate to estimate the thermal conductivity of dry soils. It comes out that the model developed by Cote and Konrad provides the best overall prediction for unsaturated sands available in the literature. Also, a parametric analysis is conducted to investigate the effect of thermal conductivity, water content and soil type on the horizontal ground heat exchanger design. The results show that a design pipe length for the horizontal ground heat exchanger can be reduced with an increase in soil thermal conductivity. The current research concludes that the dimension of the horizontal ground heat exchanger can be reduced to a certain extent by backfilling materials with a higher thermal conductivity of solid particles. 지중 토양의 열・물리적 성질 중 열전도도(thermal conductivity)는 지열 히트펌프 시스템(ground-coupled heat pump systems)의 지중열교환기 설계 과정에서 매우 중요한 변수다. 토양의 열전도도는 3상 구조로 인해 함수비와 건조밀도의 영향을 많이 받는다. 본 논문에서는 수평형 지중열교환기의 트렌치 뒤채움재로 사용되는 9종류의 토양(모래-물혼합물)을 대상으로 열전도도 측정결과와 기존 상관식에 의한 계산결과를 비교하였다. 건조토인 경우, 2상 구조의열전도도 예측모델인 준이론 모델에 의한 열전도도 계산 결과는 측정 결과와 큰 차이를 보였다. 불포화토인 경우,기존 모델 중 Cote와 Konrad가 제시한 모델에 의한 계산 결과가 측정 결과와 가장 잘 일치하였다. 또한 토양의 열전도도와 함수비, 종류 등이 수평형 지중열교환기의 설계 길이에 미치는 영향을 고찰하였다. 뒤채움재로 사용되는 토양의열전도도가 증가할수록 수평형 지중열 교환기의 설계 길이는 감소하였다.
In this paper, the applicability of cement grout has been studied as an alternative to bentontite grout to backfill ground heat exchangers. To provide an optimal mixture design, the groutabilty and thermal conductivity of cement grouts with various mixture ratios were experimentally evaluated and compared. The unconfined compression strength of cement grout specimen was measured, which was exposed to cyclic temperature variation ranging from 50℃ to -5℃. In addition, the integrity of the interface between circulating HDPE pipes and cement grout was evaluated by performing equivalent hydraulic conductivity tests, on the specimen, in which a pipe locates at the center of the specimen. 본 연구에서는 수직 밀폐형 지중열교환기 뒤채움 용도로, 기존 벤토나이트 그라우트의 대안으로서 시멘트 그라우트의 적용성을 검토하였다. 실내 시험을 통하여 물/시멘트 비, 천연규사 첨가비, 흑연 첨가비의 변화에 따른 시멘트 그라우트 열전도도 및 유동성에 미치는 영향을 평가하였으며 배합비에 따른 시멘트 그라우트의 일축압축강도를 측정하였다. 실제 지중열교환기용 파이프내 순환유체의 온도변화가 시멘트 그라우트의 재료적 안정성에 미치는 영향을 검토하기 위해 -5℃와 50℃를 한 주기로 하여 일축압축강도를 반복적으로 측정하였다. 또한, 시멘트 그라우트가 지중에서 양생된 후, 냉난방 운전에 따른 순환수의 계절적 변화에 의한 시멘트 그라우트와 순환파이프의 접촉면의 양호한 부착성 유지 여부를 판단하기 위해 시멘트 그라우트에 HDPE 파이프를 삽입한 시료의 등가투수계수를 flexible wall permeameter를 이용하여 장기간 측정하였다.
Bentonite-based grout has been widely used to seal a borehole constructed for a closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger in a geothermal heat pump system (GHP) because of its high swelling potential and low hydraulic conductivity. Three types of bentonites were compared one another in terms of viscosity and thermal conductivity in this paper. The viscosity and thermal conductivity of the grouts with bentonite contents of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight were examined to take into account a variable water content of bentonite grout depending on field conditions. To evaluate the effect of salinity (i.e., concentration of NaCl : 0.1M, 0.25M, and 0.5M) on swelling potential of the bentonite-based grouts, a series of volume reduction tests were performed. In addition, if the viscosity of bentonite-water mixture is relatively low, particle segregation can occur. To examine the segregation phenomenon, the degree of segregation has been evaluated for the bentonite grouts especially in case of relatively low viscosity. From the experimental results, it is found that (1) the viscosity of the bentonite mixture increased with time and/or with increasing the mixing ratio. However, the thermal conductivity of the bentonite mixture did not increase with time but increased with increasing the mixing ratio; (2) If bentonite grout has a relatively high swelling index, the volume reduction ratio in the saline condition will be low; (3) The additive, such as a silica sand, can settle down on the bottom of the borehole if the bentonite has a very low viscosity. Consequently, the thermal conductivity of the upper portion of the ground heat exchanger will be much smaller than that of the lower portion.