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      • Fluidity Improvement of Polyphenylene Sulfide by Adding Thioamide Additives

        안성현,박승규,정은진,유영재,김용석 한국고분자학회 2021 한국고분자학회 학술대회 연구논문 초록집 Vol.46 No.2

        Polyphenylene sulfide(PPS) based composite materials have been widely explored in various industries such as automobiles, electronics and construction due to their high chemical resistance, mechanical properties, thermal stability, economic properties and light weight. However, the high viscosity of polyphenylene sulfide has limited their processing efficiency in molding. Here, we synthesize linear structure additives with thioamide bonds between aromatic rings and alkyl chains. The thioamide in the additives allow outstanding miscibility with polyphenylene sulfides, resulting in high fluidity of the PPS. To demonstrate the fluidity enhancement of the PPS by introducing the additives, the length increase in injection molded spiral specimens and the viscosity decrease measured by a rotational rheometer, were shown. Also we prepared PPS/GF composites, including the flow modifiers, to study the mechanical properties.

      • KCI등재

        고려후기 경남지역 성곽 연구

        안성현 한국중세사학회 2012 한국중세사연구 Vol.0 No.34

        The aims of this study are to identity the characteristics of the castles in Goryeo Dynasty and the military defense systems in the late Goryeo Dynasty. The type of the castles in Goryeo is divided into a flatland castle and a mountain castle. The flatland castles were mainly constructed in the areas close to the ocean while the mountain castles were built in the rest of the areas. The size of the Goryeo castles varies from under 200m to above 3000m, with a high possibility of variation depending on the construction purpose. It is estimated that the Guryangdong site, particularly, would serve as a lookout post in the early Goryeo Dynasty as the historical structure is sized small and measures 176m in circumference. The altitude of the castles found in the Goryeo period is also diverse, however, with a marked preference to mountaintop, having the same features of castles in other areas during the period. The method of construction can be classified into earthen castle construction and stone castle construction. As there are similar earthen castles in the United Silla Dynasty, it is indicated that the United Silla Dynasty passed on the same method to the Goryeo Dynasty. On stone castles, it is hard to figure out the standardization of stone castle because of the various foundation and outer wall construction techniques, although they became narrower from the former period. Some areas with rock exposure and steep slope skipped to build the stone castle walls. It is found that such measures were used in other areas as well, and only a minimum effort was put into the castle construction. The military defense system in the late Goryeo Dinasty can be divided into a coastal area system and an inland area system. The coastal area had quite good general and regional defense systems. Such defense systems were built upon the existing castles from the previous period after reconstruction work, not by brand-new construction, and bridging the gap between the existing system, by adding the castles in areas regarded as militarily vulnerable or important as a watchtower. In particular, the fact that most of the earthen castles from United Silla and Goryeo were reused indicates that the marine transportation system still existed in the late Goryeo Dynasty. In inland areas, it is difficult to find an area with an obvious general or regional defense system like coastal areas. The castle construction was heavily concentrated to the neighboring areas of today’s residential districts of town and township, and sized big. Considering that, it is highly possible that the inland area was armed with the similar general and regional defense system of coastal areas and people often avoided to the mountain castle from their residence when Japanese pirates invaded. The castles in the late Goryeo Dynasty were also located in the west or north of the river, which demonstrates that castle construction was focused on the defense against the continuous invasion of Japanese raiders since the United Silla Dynasty. The aims of this study are to identity the characteristics of the castles in Goryeo Dynasty and the military defense systems in the late Goryeo Dynasty. The type of the castles in Goryeo is divided into a flatland castle and a mountain castle. The flatland castles were mainly constructed in the areas close to the ocean while the mountain castles were built in the rest of the areas. The size of the Goryeo castles varies from under 200m to above 3000m, with a high possibility of variation depending on the construction purpose. It is estimated that the Guryangdong site, particularly, would serve as a lookout post in the early Goryeo Dynasty as the historical structure is sized small and measures 176m in circumference. The altitude of the castles found in the Goryeo period is also diverse, however, with a marked preference to mountaintop, having the same features of castles in other areas during the period. The method of construction can be classified into earthen castle construction and stone castle construction. As there are similar earthen castles in the United Silla Dynasty, it is indicated that the United Silla Dynasty passed on the same method to the Goryeo Dynasty. On stone castles, it is hard to figure out the standardization of stone castle because of the various foundation and outer wall construction techniques, although they became narrower from the former period. Some areas with rock exposure and steep slope skipped to build the stone castle walls. It is found that such measures were used in other areas as well, and only a minimum effort was put into the castle construction. The military defense system in the late Goryeo Dinasty can be divided into a coastal area system and an inland area system. The coastal area had quite good general and regional defense systems. Such defense systems were built upon the existing castles from the previous period after reconstruction work, not by brand-new construction, and bridging the gap between the existing system, by adding the castles in areas regarded as militarily vulnerable or important as a watchtower. In particular, the fact that most of the earthen castles from United Silla and Goryeo were reused indicates that the marine transportation system still existed in the late Goryeo Dynasty. In inland areas, it is difficult to find an area with an obvious general or regional defense system like coastal areas. The castle construction was heavily concentrated to the neighboring areas of today’s residential districts of town and township, and sized big. Considering that, it is highly possible that the inland area was armed with the similar general and regional defense system of coastal areas and people often avoided to the mountain castle from their residence when Japanese pirates invaded. The castles in the late Goryeo Dynasty were also located in the west or north of the river, which demonstrates that castle construction was focused on the defense against the continuous invasion of Japanese raiders since the United Silla Dynasty.

      • KCI등재

        남한지역 토성벽에 잔존하는 석축부에 대한 연구

        안성현 한국문화유산협회 2016 야외고고학 Vol.0 No.25

        성곽연구는 해석적 담론이나 주변유적과의 관계, 관방체계 및 교통로 등을 다루는 거시적 관점과 성곽의 부속시설 및 성벽의 수·개축흔, 그리고 시기적 경관 등을 파악하는 미시적 관점을 통한 접근이 동시에 이루어지는 것이 타당하다고 본다. 이러한 관점에서 필자는 토성벽에 잔존하는 석축부에 대해서 살펴보았다. 그 결과 크게 두 가지 정도의 사실을 알 수 있었다. 먼저, 토성벽은 안식각 이상으로 쌓을 수 없다는 것이 통설이었다. 하지만 영정주의 기울기를 기준으로 하였을 때 내·외벽은 수직에 가깝지만, 성벽 내·외부에 외피토루를 쌓은 것과 쌓지 않은 것, 그리고 기저부를 보강한 것으로 나누어지는데, 외피토루를 구축한 것은 소수였다. 따라서 판축기법이 적용된 토성벽을 안식각 이상으로 쌓을 수 없으므로 내·외피토루나 석축부를 부가해야 된다는 논지는 수정되어야 할 것이다. 다른 하나는 토성벽에 잔존하는 석축부와 토축부가 동시기에 축조된 경우도 있으나 대부분 후대에 석축부가 가축되었으며, 그 시기는 성곽마다 차이를 보임을 알 수 있었다. 이러한 형태의 성벽이 출현하게 된 이유는 토축성벽에 비해 석축성벽의 견고하다는 인식과 선축된 토성벽을 제거하지 않고 수축하는 것이 보다 효율적이라는 현실적 문제가 반영된 결과라고 생각된다. 따라서 성곽에 대한 조사나 분석을 실시할 경우 잔존성벽은 최후대이거나 아니면 여러 시기의 성벽이 중복되어 있으며, 내부 역시 이와 동일하다는 전제에서 출발하는 것이 타당하다고 본다. Perhaps, it is reasonable to take advantage of different scales of research approaches for ancient castles in Korea. – An interpretive discourse, a macroscopic approach and a microscopic approach. The macroscopic approach tends to focus on understanding of relationship among the neighboring sites and military defensive system, while the microscopic approach concerns the building methodology for wall and attached facilities and understanding of the past landscape. This paper attempted to explore the stone-building part of the earthen ramparts under the microscopic approach. As a result, the research arrived two conclusions. First of all, it has been widely accepted that the earthen ramparts cannot be built up more than angle of repose, but the wall can be divided into two types; the wall does not have covering-earthwork and the base of wall are reinforced though the angle of inside and outside of wall is closely vertical considering the angle of the post which was installed for building up. It means that the above awareness can be modified. Although the stone-made part in the earthen wall was possibly built up with the earthen part at the same time, often the stone-part was added to the earthen wall and the time can be different depending on castles. It is believed that this type of wall, which is the stone-made part of wall was added to the earthen wall, is a result of awareness which the stone-made wall is stronger than earthen wall and it is efficient to build up the stone-made wall without removal of former earthen wall. Consequently, the survived wall is possibly the last feature of the wall or is overlapped by different times of walls in the excavation on the wall. It is, therefore, reasonable premise that the inner part of castle are identical with the wall.

      • 창녕지역 고대 성곽에 대한 연구 : 낙동강 연안에 축성된 성곽을 중심으로

        안성현,배한,윤용술 한국성곽학회 2011 한국성곽학보 Vol.19 No.-

        Since the fortress construction reflects the civil engineering technology and the idea (Political situations and relations between countries) of the period, all fortresses constructed in the same period might possibly have been constructed in a similar shape with a similar construction method, and this aspect might also be shown equally in Changnyeong area. Fortresses constructed on the shores of Nakdong River were analyzed in this study based on the material obtained from the surface investigation on the fortresses on the shores of Nakdong River among the fortresses in Changnyeong area, and as a result, it was confirmed that fortresses located in the east side of Nakdong River had been constructed between 5th century and the early 6th century, and these were constructed by the influential force. For the characteristics and nature of fortresses on the shores of Nakdong River, the fortresses constructed at the point where Nakdong River and branches of the river meet in a small size less than 200m. Seongsan mountain fortress and Unggok-Ri mountain fortress located where are advantageous to enter the Changnyeong area or Gujin mountain fortress located where can see the midstream of Nakdong River at a glance are in relatively large size between 400m to 600m, but still these fortresses are similar to or smaller than mountain fortresses constructed during the Silla period which are confirmed in Gyeongnam area. Therefore, By considering the size of fortresses located on the shores of Nakdong River, we can assume that the state couldn't actively control Nakdong River. Second, the construction methods for fortresses on the shores of Nakdong River are divided into the earthen fortification and the masonry fortification, and more fortresses on the shores of Nakdong River are earthen fortifications. It is difficult to find an exact construction method of earthen fortresses but these fortresses seem to be constructed by only piling earth. Random walling was used for masonry fortresses but the ramparts were not constructed on the outcrop parts to reduce efforts. These aspects show clear distinction with typical fortresses in the Silla period. According to the information above, we can see that the fortresses constructed on the shores of Nakdong River except the ones located on the east side of Nakdong River are clearly inconsistent with the characteristics of fortresses constructed in the Silla period at the areas with regard to the territorial expansion at the period, so no evidence showing that these fortresses were constructed by the Silla Dynasty can be found. Therefore, it is necessary to revise the opinion that most of fortresses located on the east side of Nakdong River were constructed by the Silla Dynasty. 성곽의 축조는 당대의 토목기술과 관념(정치상황과 국가간의 관계)을 반영하므로 동일한 시기에 축조된 성곽들은 유사한 축조수법과 형태였을 가능성이 높으며, 이러한 양상은 창녕지역에도 동일하게 나타날 것이다. 본고에서는 창녕지역 성곽 중 낙동강 연안에 축성된 성곽에 대한 지표조사를 바탕으로 확인한 속성들을 분석한 결과 낙동강 동안에 위치하는 성곽들은 5세기에서 6세기 초반경 재지세력에 의해서 축조되었음을 확인하였다. 낙동강 연안의 성곽들의 특징 및 성격은 첫째, 낙동강과 지류가 합류하는 지점에 축조된 성곽들은 200m 이하의 소형인데 반해, 창녕지역으로 진출하기 유리한 지점의 성산산성과 웅곡리산성, 그리고 낙동강 중류역이 한눈에 조망되는 지점의 구진산성은 대체로 400~600m로 대형에 속하지만 경남지역에서 확인되는 신라산성 중 규모가 소형인 산성과 비교하면 비슷하거나 소형에 해당된다. 따라서 낙동강 연안에 위치하는 성곽의 규모로 보아 낙동강을 적극적으로 통제하지는 못하였던 것으로 보인다. 둘째, 낙동강 연안 성곽의 축조수법은 토성과 석성으로 나누어지며, 토성의 비율이 높다. 토성의 정확한 축조수법을 파악하기 힘들지만 이 시기에 축조된 다른 토성들의 축조 수법을 감안할 때 순수판축 토성이었을 것으로 보인다. 석성의 경우 허튼층쌓기에 가깝게 축조하였으며, 자연암괴가 노두된 부분은 성벽을 쌓지 않음으로써 공력을 줄였다. 이러한 양상은 전형적인 신라성곽과는 차이를 보인다. 상기의 내용으로 보아 낙동강 연안에 축조된 성곽들은 낙동강 동안에 위치하는 것을 제외하고는 이 시기 신라의 영토 확장과 관련된 지역에 축성된 신라성곽의 특징과 부합하지 않으며, 신라에 의해서 축조되었다는 근거 역시 어디에서도 찾을 수 없다. 따라서 낙동강 동안에 위치하는 대부분의 성곽들이 신라에 의해서 축조되었다는 견해는 수정되어야 할 것으로 판단된다.

      • 경남지역 통일신라시대 토성연구

        안성현 한국성곽학회 2012 한국성곽학보 Vol.21 No.-

        본고에서는 경남지역 통일신라시대 토성 중 시굴 및 발굴조사와 발표자가 지표조사상에서 확인된 성곽을 중심으로 이 시기 토성의 특징과 축조주체 및 목적에 대해서 간략하게 살펴보았다. 이제까지의 내용을 간략하게 정리하면 아래와 같다. 통일신라시대는 신라가 삼국을 통일하면서 시작되었다. 이 시기 경남지역은 이전 시기와 달리 왜구의 방어를 중점을 둔 축성이 이루어졌으며, 이러한 양상은 조선시대까지 변함없이 이어졌다. 통일신라시대 토성의 특징 중 가장 두르러지는 것은 해안가에 집중적인 축성이 이루어졌다는 점이다. 그 정확한 이유는 알 수 없으나 안정적인 해로의 통제와 대 왜구 방어에 중점을 둔 축성이 아니었나 생각된다. 그리고 토성의 규모는 길이900∼2,000m 사이의 토성들이 바닷가와 내륙 등 다양한 위치에 축조되고 있는 점으로 보아 길이 약 900∼2,000m 사이의 토성들이 주로 축성된 것으로 보인다. 그리고 경남지역 통일신라시대 토성들은 모두 내․외벽 기저부에 기단석렬을 배치한 뒤 성벽을 쌓았다. 기단석렬은 평행한 것과 사직선을 이루는 것으로 나누어지지만 시기성을 적극적으로 반영하지는 못한다. 또한 영정주 간격 역시 정형성을 찾기 힘들 정도로 다양하다. 주목되는 점은 기존에 알려진 것과 달리 영정주를 중심으로 좌․우의 판축토가 동일한 것과 판이하게 다른 것으로 나누어지는데 판축토가 달라지는 양 끝부분을 한 구간으로 보는 것이 타당하다고 할 것이다. 토성벽의 내․외부 퇴적토에서 출토되는 다량의 기와편들은 성벽의 구조를 밝히는데 중요한 단서를 제공한다는 가정하에 4가지 정도의 가능성을 검토해 본 결과 와적여장 및 성벽 상부 덮을 때 사용하는 개와였음을 확인하였다. 그리고 이 시기 토성의 축조주체는 신라사회의 변화 궤를 같이하므로 축조주체 역시 변하였을 것이다. 즉 삼국통일 후에서 9C 전반에서 중반 정도까지는 중앙 정부의 영향력이 강하였다고 생각된다. 그 이후 호족들의 세력이 커지는 9C 후반에서 10C 초반에는 새로운 토성을 축성하는 경우도 있었을 것으로 생각되지만 기존의 토성을 최대한 활용하였을 가능성이 높다. 이러한 토성들은 고려시대 초 조운제가 운영되면서 최대한 활용되었으며, 토성이 축조되어 있지 않은 지역은 새로운 축성을 통하여 안정적으로 해로를 통제한 것으로 보인다. In this paper, the characteristics, main construction agents and purpose of earthen fortifications constructed during the unified Silla period which were confirmed in Gyeongnam region by the presenter through the investigation were examined briefly. The examination results are summarized as follows. The unified Silla period began when Shilla unified three Kingdoms. During this period, fortifications were constructed in Gyeongnam region with intent to defend invasions by Japanese pirates unlike the previous periods, the this aspect had continued until the Joseon Dynasty period. The most prominent characteristic of fortifications in the unified Silla period was that the fortifications were intensively constructed on the coast. The exact reasons are not known, but it is considered to be for the purpose of controlling sea route and defending invasions by Japanese pirates. And, the earthen fortifications with a size ranged between 900m and 2,000m are found from various locations including the seaside and inland region, and this shows that earthen fortifications with a size ranged between 900m and 2,000m were mainly constructed. And, gidanseokyeol were placed on the base of both inside and outside walls first and then fortification walls were constructed for earthen fortifications constructed in Gyeongnam region during the unified Silla period. Gidanseokyeol are classified into parallel ones and obliquely straight ones, but gidanseokyeol in these fortifications do not reflect this aspect of change actively. And, also intervals between pillars are so diverse so that it is difficult to find a set pattern. It is noted that, unlike as known previously, some places have panchukto between the right side and left side of panchukto and other places have different panchukto between the right side and left side of panchukto, and it would be proper to consider the both ends of where different panchukto were used as one section. Provided a large quantity of roof tiles excavated from deposit soils inside and outside of the earthen fortification walls provides a critical clue to reveal the structure of fortification walls, the examination of 4 possibilities confirmed that these roof tiles were used to cover whajeokyeojang and the top of fortification walls. And, the construction of earthen fortifications went along with the changes in the Silla society, so the main agents who constructed the earthen fortifications also might have been changed. That is, the influence of the central government must be powerful from the early 9th century to the mid 9th century after the Shilla unified three Kingdoms. New earthen fortifications might have been constructed during a period between the late 9th century and early 10th century when local lords became more powerful, but it is highly possible that existing earthen fortifications were utilized to the maximum. It seems that these earthen fortifications were utilized to the maximum after the marine transportation system was adopted in early Koryo Dynasty periods, and new fortifications were constructed in regions without earthen fortifications were to control safe sea routes.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        rac-Me<sub>2</sub>Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)<sub>2</sub>ZrCl<sub>2</sub> 촉매를 이용한 에틸렌/1-옥텐의 공중합 특성

        안성현,박융호,Ahn, Sung-Hyun,Park, Yeung-Ho 한국공업화학회 2007 공업화학 Vol.18 No.5

        새롭게 합성된 $rac-Me_2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)_2ZrCl_2$ 촉매와 인디닐 리간드에 치환체가 붙어 있지 않는 상용촉매인 $rac-Me_2Si(Ind)_2ZrCl_2$ 촉매들을 조촉매인 methylaluminoxane (MMAO)를 사용하여 에틸렌/1-옥텐 공중합을 실시하였고, 반응물 내 1-옥텐의 농도를 변화시키며 얻어진 공중합체의 특성을 조사하였다. 촉매활성에 있어서 $rac-Me_2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)_2ZrCl_2$ 촉매를 이용하여 공중합을 실시한 경우 다리구조를 가진 다른 촉매들과 달리 촉매활성이 감소하여 comonomer의 첨가에 따라 활성이 증가하는 comonomer effect는 발견되지 않았다. $^{13}C$ NMR 분석에서 공중합체에 삽입된 1-옥텐의 양은 촉매 리간드에 붙은 치환체에 의존함을 보였으며, 2-p-tolyl 치환체가 붙은 촉매로 얻어진 공중합체에서 1-옥텐 삽입량이 더 높음을 보였다. DSC, GPC 분석에서 반응물 내 1-옥텐의 농도가 증가함에 따라 공중합체의 녹는점, 결정성, 분자량이 모두 감소하였으며 $rac-Me_2Si(Ind)_2ZrCl_2$ 촉매보다 $rac-Me_2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)_2ZrCl_2$ 촉매의 경우 녹는점, 결정성 및 분자량의 감소폭이 더 크게 나타났다. The copolymerization characteristics of a newly-synthesized catalyst, $rac-Me_2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)_2ZrCl_2$, and its analogue, $rac-Me_2Si(Ind)_2ZrCl_2$, were examined in the ethylene/1-octene copolymerization while varying the concentration of 1-octene in the reaction mixture. The activity of $rac-Me_2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)_2ZrCl_2$ catalyst was decreased with increase of comonomer concentration, which is different from the usual comonomer effect of the metallocene catalysts with a bridge structure. The contents of 1-octene in the copolymer from the catalyst with 2-p-tolyl substituent were higher than those from the catalyst without that substituent. The melting point, crystallinity, and molecular weight decreased with comonomer content which was more apparent for $rac-Me_2Si(2-p-tolylindenyl)_2ZrCl_2$ catalyst.

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