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        • KCI등재

          白山學會 創立 55周年의 回顧와 向後 課題

          백종오 백산학회 2022 白山學報 Vol.- No.122

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          The Paek-San Society was founded on April 27, 1966 (Wednesday) by focusing on research and publication of the history of continental relations. The founders were the most outstanding scholars of the time, and most historians and archaeologists participated. This year, 2021, is a significant year that marks the 55th anniversary of the establishment of the Society. This article introduces the foundation and activities of the Society, the history of continental relations, and 『The Paek-San Hakpo』, which were discussed at the symposium to commemorate the 55th anniversary of the foundation of the Paek-San Society, held in 2021. It also suggests some concerns related to the direction to pursue for the Society in the future. If these concerns are specified, it could develop into a Society where the 60th anniversary can be expected. Afterward, we hope The Paek-San Society of the 77th, 88th, and 100th anniversaries. The Paek-San Hakpo (Journal of Paek-San) has published 121 issues (as of December 2021) since its first issue (June 12, 1962), and the number of manuscripts published is a total of 1,117 articles, including regular and non-regular papers. It can be proudly said that it has played a significant role in the growth of the Korean history academia along with its predecessors, 『Journal of The Chin-Tan Society (Chin-Tan Hakbo)』, 『History Gazette』, 『History Education』, and 『History Research』. In particular, in line with the purpose of its founding, it maintains a unique and clear identity in the fields of Northern and Continental Relation History. The first academic conference was held in 1996 to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Society under the theme of ‘Growth and Territory of the Korean People’. It has broadened the scope of northern history such as holding the 40th-anniversary conference in 2006, titled 'Reminiscences and Prospects of the History of the Northern Relations of the Korean People', 'Huseok Cheon Gwan-woo's Research on Korean History and Recognition of History' in 2016, and in the following year, ' Retrospection and Prospects on Border Studies in Korean History'. In 2021, a meaningful academic conference titled ‘Retrospection and Tasks on the 55th Anniversary of The Paek-San Society’ was held to contemplate the future direction through the retrospections on the Society. In addition, an academic symposium on the relics of Yi Sun-sin at the estuary of the Duman River was promoted under the theme of 'The Archaeological Achievements and Historical Values of Nokdun Island'. It was an international academic conference in Korea and Russia. This means that an academic event of a new paradigm was organized in line with the purpose of the founding of the Society, and it was an opportunity to highlight The Paek-San Society more clearly. Nokdun Island is currently part of the Russian Primorsky Territory. This is an area that has shown close cultural and historical affinity with the Korean Peninsula, ranging from prehistoric times to modern times. In particular, it is a treasure trove of prehistoric culture. It was also the base of Eupru, Okjeo, Goguryeo, and Balhae Kingdoms in our history and the modern and contemporary military activities by Korean civil volunteers and the independence movement. Considering Russia's social atmosphere and academic trends, which are quite different from those of China, it is good to take a long-term approach to the Paek-San Society. 白山學會(The Paek-San Society)는 1966년 丙午年 4월 27일(수)에 대륙관계사 연구와 출판에 방점을 두고 창립되었다. 발기인은 당대 최고의 석학으로 역사학자와 고고학자들이 대부분참여하였다. 지난 2021년 辛丑年은 학회가 창립된 지 55주년이 되는 뜻깊은 해였다. 이 글에서는 2021년에 개최된 백산학회 창립 55주년 기념 학술대회에서 다루어진 학회의 창립 및 활동, 대륙관계사와 『백산학보』 등에 대한 내용을 소개한 후 앞으로 학회가 나아가야 할방향에 대한 몇 가지 의견을 제시해 보았다. 이후 喜壽, 米壽, 白壽의 백산학회도 꿈꿔본다. 『白山學報』(The Paek-San Hakpo)는 창간호(1966.12) 이래 지금까지 121호(2021.12)를발간하였으며 수록된 원고는 정규 및 비정규 논문을 합쳐 모두 1,117편에 이르는 방대한 양이다. 선배 학보 격인, 『진단학보』, 『역사학보』, 『역사교육』, 『사학연구』 등과 함께 한국 역사학계의성장에 비약적인 일익을 담당해 왔다고 자부할 수 있다. 특히 창립 취지에 맞게 북방사 및 대륙관계사 분야에 있어 독보적이며 선명한 정체성을 유지하고 있다. 첫 학술회의는 1996년 丙子年에 창립 30주년을 기념하여 ‘한민족의 성장과 영역’의 주제로 진행되었다. 2006년 丙戌年에는 창립 40주년을 기념하여 ‘한민족 북방관계사의 회고와 전망’, 2016년 丙申年에는 창립 50주년 ‘후석 천관우의 한국사 연구와 역사인식’, 그 다음해 丁酉年에는‘한국역사상의 강역과 국경연구에 대한 회고와 전망’으로 북방사의 외연을 넓히게 되었다. 2021 년 辛丑年에는 창립 55주년 ‘백산학회 창립과 대륙관계사의 회고’라는 주제로, 본 학회의 회고를통한 향후 방향성에 대해 논의하는 뜻 깊은 학술회의를 마련하였다. 아울러 두만강 하구의 이순신유적 학술심포지엄 ‘鹿屯島의 고고학적 성과와 역사적 가치’라는 주제의 한국과 러시아 국제 학술회의를 추진하였다. 이는 학회의 창립 취지에 부합하는 새로운 패러다임의 학술행사를 조직하였다는 의미와 함께 백산학회를 보다 선명하게 부각시키는 계기가 되었다고 할 수 있다. 녹둔도는현재 러시아령 연해주에 속한다. 이곳은 선사시대부터 근현대에 이르기까지 한반도와 밀접한 문화적, 역사적 친연성을 보여온 지역이다. 특히 선사문화의 보고이며 우리 역사 속의 읍루, 옥저, 고구려, 발해 등은 물론 한국 근현대의 의병활동과 독립운동의 근거지이기도 하였다. 중국과는사뭇 다른 러시아의 사회 분위기와 학문적 경향에 비추어 백산학회가 장기적으로 접근해 보는것도 좋다고 생각된다.

        • KCI등재

          백산학회 창립 초기 ‘대륙관계사’ 구상과 편찬

          이준성 백산학회 2022 白山學報 Vol.- No.122

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          The Paek-San Society was founded in April 1966. It is noteworthy that from the beginning of its foundation, The Paek-San Society made a popular and practical plan to publish and distribute the introductory “History of Continental Relations.” It is a difficult case to find in the historical community at the time to make a plan with the public in mind from the stage of founding a society. This can be said to be linked to the process of the memories of Manchuria being recalled in the 1960s. The Paek-San Society‘s study of the “History of Continental Relations” played a pioneering role in the field that remained a vacuum in the Korean historical community. It was conducted with a realistic purpose in mind as well as an academic purpose. In addition, the efforts of The Paek-San Society can be evaluated as being in line with the efforts to overcome colonial history, which was a task of the historical community at the time, in that it tried to conduct research from a “national and independent standpoint.” 본고에서는 백산학회가 창립한 1960년대 중반의 시대적 분위기를 살피고, 이를 기반으로 ‘대륙관계사’의 구상과 편찬을 중심으로 백산학회의 초기 활동은 추적하였다. 백산학회에서는 창립초기부터 ‘대륙관계사’ 개설서를 출간하여 배포하는 계획을 세웠다. 이는 당시 역사학계에서는찾아보기 어려운 사례였다. 그것은 1960년대 중반 만주에 대한 사회적 관심이 증가하고, 역사학계에서도 식민사학에 대한 연구와 비판이 본격화되던 분위기와 연동되는 움직임이라 할 수 있다. 다만 ‘대륙관계사’ 개설서의 서술과 간행이 계획에 따라 원활하게 진행된 것은 아니었다. 수집된원고는 『백산학보』 17호(1974년 12월)에서 24호(1978년 6월)에 걸쳐 시대 순으로 수록되었고, 이들 원고가 『韓民族의 大陸關係史』라는 제목의 단행본으로 출간된 것은 다시 10년 가까운 시간이 흐른 1987년 4월이었다. 백산학회 창립 이전 ‘대륙관계사’ 연구는 한국 역사학계의 공백지로 남아있던 분야였기에, 학회 창립 이후 여러 노력은 관련 분야의 선구적 역할을 한 것으로 평가받고 있다. 특히 그것은 학술적인 목적 뿐 아니라 현실적인 목적을 염두에 두고 진행된 것이었다. 또한 백산학회의 노력은 ‘민족적이고 주체적인 입장에서’ 연구를 진행하고자 하였다는 측면에서 당시 역사학계의 과제였던식민사학 극복 노력과 궤를 같이 하는 것으로 평가할 수 있다.

        • KCI등재

          백산학회 휘 보

          편집부 백산학회 2019 白山學報 Vol.0 No.114

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        • KCI등재

          백산학회의 創立과 활동 回顧

          황보경 백산학회 2022 白山學報 Vol.- No.122

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          The Paek-San Society was founded for the purpose of research and publishing continental relations through a general meeting of founders held on April 27, 1966. Renowned historians and archaeologists of the times attended the general meeting held that day, and the first chairman Kim Sang-ki and vice chairman Yoo Bong-young were appointed. Council members were elected as well. The Paek-San Society published the first academic journal On December 15, 1966, the first year of its foundation, and its contents were reported in a daily newspaper through a press conference hosted by the Society on January 10, 1967. Since its foundation, the Society focused on publishing academic journals led by Kim Sang-ki and Yoo Bong-young. While publishing papers related to continental relations history, the Society also made efforts to include related materials such as Gando. The Paek-San Hakpo(Journal) was published twice a year from the beginning, but the publication schedule changed somewhat. It has been published three times a year since the 62nd issue in 2002. The editorial review of the journal contained a detailed editing process. In addition, "Materials" were included in the appendix from the No.1 Issue, mainly document records and reports related to Gando maps. Meanwhile, in addition to the publication of academic journals, The Paek-San Society also made efforts to publish a continental relations history and compiled "Korean Continental Relations History" in 1987. It also has been holding an academic conference on continental relations history since 1996. Although The Paek-San Society was founded later than the Chintan Academic Society or The Association of Korean Historical Studies, it has published 121 issues until recently. In that sense, it deserves to be highly praised in terms of the number of academic journals and not much different from the journals of previously founded academic societies. Given that the high proportion of theses related to continental relations history, it is considered useful to reacting to the Northeast Project of China and territorial issues, and the status is never regarded as low. 백산학회는 1966년 4월 27일 서울 뉴코리어 호텔에서 발기인 총회를 갖고 대륙관계사의 연구와 출판을 목적으로 창립되었다. 이날 개최된 총회에는 당대를 대표하는 역사학자와 고고학자들이 참석했으며, 초대 회장 김상기, 부회장 유봉영이 선임되었다. 이밖에도 평의원으로 고병익, 이병도, 신석호, 천관우 등이 선출되었다. 백산학회에서는 창립 첫 해인 1966년 12월 15일에 학보 1호를 발행하였고, 그 내용이 1967년1월 10일 학회 주최 기자회견을 통해서 일간지에 보도되었다. 학회 운영은 창립 이후 김상기와유봉영이 중심이 되어 학보 간행에 매진하였는데, 대륙관계사 관련 논문을 게재하는 동시에 間島 등의 관련 「資料」를 수록하기 위한 노력도 진행되었다. 최근까지의 학회 운영은 현재까지 8대의 회장을 거쳐 왔는데, 초대 회장인 김상기부터 4대회장 신형식까지 46년 동안은 운영 여건상 연임 체재였다고 할 수 있다. 운영위원 체제의 틀이새롭게 잡히기 시작한 때는 2012년부터이고, 그 이전에는 평의원과 편집위원 중심이었다고 볼수 있다.

        • KCI등재

          간도협약 직전(1908) 청국의 백두산 국경 날조사건에 관한 연구

          서길수(徐吉洙) 백산학회 2009 白山學報 Vol.- No.83

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          1908年淸政府对长白山和鴨綠江ㆍ图们江展开了大规模的活动。当时劉建封接到东三省总督徐世昌的命令,协同張鳳臺、李廷玉等二十多名调查人员率领军队对长白山和鴨綠江ㆍ图们江行了为期三个月的徹底调查。并且给长白山的多处山峰以及其他众多山峰和河流重新命名,对国境问题进行了广泛的调查,完成了《長白山江崗志略》、《長白征存錄》等重要的专门境资料。 1908年开展的这次调查清政府带有很明确的目的性,明显是为解决日本之间的间岛而寻找新的对策。 第一, “穆克登的白头山定界碑是从小白山处迁来的,以处在小白山下方的胞胎山为分水岭,从鸭绿江到图们江沿途另外还有十个十字界碑”,他们虽然提出这一主张,但是却不能出示任何佐证。清政府就这样按照自己的意愿把国境线从长白山移到了胞胎山,颠倒了黑白。 第二, 他们又主张了“从白头山定界碑到图们江沿途的土堆、石堆是‘穆克登’以前 ‘覺羅吳木訥’留下的”,这个说法简直荒唐到令人发笑的地步。只要读过‘覺羅吳木訥’的《封長白山記)》就能轻易识破这个谎言。清政府调查官员泰然地提出这种主张的态度甚至让人可怜。 第三, 重新给車嶺山脈周邊的山峰和河流命名, 歪曲历史,这也是清政府侵犯周边国家领土的典型做法。即,把韩国境内已经有名字的山峰和河流改名,比如胭脂峰→鶴頂峯,三池淵→七星湖, 胞胎山→葡萄山, 劍川→葡萄河, 愛滹江→曖江, 天山→將軍峯. 大角峯→龍山等,并把清国的人口迁往那里。这个问题在1907年第一次开始国境调查时的注意事项中曾经被提及过: “⑥调查國境碑遗址,迅速迁移百姓,增加守备是最重要的事情。” 可见这在顺序上是相互吻合的。 并且给两处地名(天山, 劍山)赋予1000多年前唐朝薛仁貴的傳說, 这也是清政府的别有用心。在满洲地区到处能听到不少关于薛仁貴的傳說,長白縣的渤海靈光塔前、大連大黑山山城等这些薛仁貴根本不可能到达的地方都流传着他勇猛善战地击退高句麗的传说。薛仁貴到 过长白山这一故事是清政府歪曲历史而编造的一出手法低级的历史闹剧。 第四, 在1885年和1887年的國境會談上,捏造紅土山和元池(后来的圓池)是清朝皇帝祖先诞生的发源地这一做法某种程度上是能够让人理解的。清朝建立国家以后,历经300年的统治,直到灭亡的前四年仍然没有找到自己的发祥地。清朝皇帝这种努力寻找自己祖先诞生地的精神是相当可嘉的,但是为了占有别国的山河领土,没有任何根据地说其是自己祖先发祥地,这种连自己祖宗都出卖的行为真是令人玩味。 以上所述1908年清政府设定剧本的核心就是以胞胎山为分水岭, 制造出“西为鴨綠,東为图们”的分界线。西爲鴨綠 ‘南胞胎山的水向西南方向流至三江(胞胎河ㆍ南溪水ㆍ北溪水)→劍川江→ 鸭绿江’,東爲图们 ‘北胞胎山的水向东流至三江(紅丹河, 糾雲水, 半橋水)→大浪河→圖們江’。这样当时作为最大问题的江问题就解决了,原来 ‘鴨綠江-长白山-图们江’ 这一國境线就变为了 ‘鴨綠江-胞胎山-图们江’,把长白山完全划分在韩国领土之外。如果拿着现

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          『백산학보』 55년의 성과와 과제

          전상우,이정빈 백산학회 2022 白山學報 Vol.- No.122

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          The Paek-San Hakpo, whose first issue was published on December 15, 1966, is one of the journals with the longest tradition in the field of historical studies and also holds high reputation for its academic achievements. The achievements of The Paek-San Hakpo are indispensable to understanding the academic history of the historical studies circles in South Korea and show some of its aspects. The Paek-San Hakpo is a comprehensive journal in the field of historical studies. One of its characteristics is its main topics including ancient history, northern territorial history, and territorial issues compared with similar journals in each field. It is also characterized by its strong interdisciplinary nature in the field of archeology as well as historical studies. The Paek-San Hakpo was created by resonating with the task of the times, which was to criticize and overcome colonial historical studies, in the historical studies circles of South Korea in the 1960s. Generally, it had a strong nationalist tendency, but it looked out for the nationalist perceptions of history in a section of society and tried to maintain its academic exactness. As a consequence, it contributed to the external extension of South Korea's historical studies circles to the history and culture of East Asia and the grassy plain of Eurasia neglected by the circles. As it is clear in the "Recollections and Prospects" of Yoksa Hakbo, The Paek-San Hakpo has continued to attract the attention of the academic circles with a certain proportion of its papers and sought after new topics according to special feature plans across various topics. In recent years, it is especially focusing on local history and public history, seeking the combined growth of many different academic fields. There are expectations for its future growth. 1966년 12월 15일 창간된 『백산학보』는 역사학 분야에서 가장 유구한 전통을 가진 학술지의하나이다. 학술적인 성과 면에서 역시 명성이 높다. 그러므로 『백산학보』의 성과는 한국 역사학계의 학술사를 이해하는 데 빠질 수 없으며 그의 일면을 보여준다. 『백산학보』는 역사학 분야의 종합학술지에 속하는데, 각 분야의 유사 학술지와 비교해 고대사ㆍ북방사ㆍ영역 문제를 주된 주제로삼았다는 점에서 하나의 특징을 찾을 수 있다. 또한 역사학뿐만 아니라 고고학 분야의 학제적 성격이 강하였다는 점에서 또 하나의 특징을 찾을 수 있다. 『백산학보』는 식민주의 역사학 비판ㆍ극복이란 1960년대 한국 역사학계의 시대적 과제에 공명하면서 창간되었다. 대체로 민족주의적 성향이 강하였지만, 사회 일각의 국수주의적 역사인식을 경계하였고, 학문적 엄정성을 유지하고자하였다. 그 결과 한국 역사학계에서 소외된 동아시아 내지 유라시아 초원지대의 역사와 문화로 연구의 외연을 확장하게 하는 데 기여하였다. 『역사학보』의 「회고와 전망」을 통해 알 수 있듯 대체로 일정 비율 이상의 논문이 꾸준히 학계의 관심을 받아왔으며, 다양한 주제의 특집을 기획하면서새로운 주제를 모색해 왔다. 특히 최근 들어 지역사와 공공역사에 주목하며 여러 분야의 학문을아울러 성장을 모색 중이다. 향후의 성장이 기대된다.

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          韓未 海西地方 夜學運動의 實態와 運營主體

          金炯睦(Kim, Hyung-mok) 백산학회 2001 白山學報 Vol.- No.61

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          Night School Movement(夜學運動) in the region Haeseo(海西) developed in the form of founding private school. The central figures were government officials, teachers, rich persons, students in the higher education and so on. These were members of Seobuk academic society (西北學會) and Heaseo education general meeting(海西敎育總會), also mostly Christians. jeon, Bong-Hun(全鳳薰), county headman of Baechon(白川), and Lee, Yong-Pil(李容弼), county headman of Jaeryeong(載寧), as provincial officials, led not only Night School(夜學) but also campaign for enlightenment Kim, Ku(金九), educational affair inspector of Heaseo education general meeting at that time, took the lead not only in this region but in region Seobuk. So Yangsan School(楊山學校) and opening of summer institute reflected this. The scale of student number of Night School had a large variation from 10 to 180. The number of most Night School student was from 20 to 60. However Night Schools over 100 were the system similar to official education, made up of director, head teacher, teachers and employees. The number of persons, indebted to Night School, amounted to thousands at least This was never small than public schools. Learning period was continued mostly from six months to two years. However learning period of the Night Schools, supported by provincial officials and inhabitants, more prolonged relatively. Managing expense depended to more contribution than school fee. Unusually this expense was made up of duty educational fee, which inhabitants shared in according to level of life, The learning places for Night Schools made mostly use of private Schools and Town halls. Of course private houses also were used to Night Schools. Like this, the scale and equipment of Night Schools was not enough. Desire to learn, however, was not behind that of public schools. Sincerity of teachers, founders and supporters was main cause for the students desire to learn. The most of curriculums was made up of learning of Korean Letter, elementary Chinese Letter and arithmetic. The learning of Korean Letter would be the means of inspiring of national spirit, beyond merely crusade against illiteracy. Especially, physical exercises were importance to them with martial spirit. According to composition of learners and local conditions, moreover, curriculums were adopted and performed in various forms. Opening of Athletic meets made use of the moment of concentrating inhabitants on the one hand and the space of lecture meetings on the other hand. Activists of enlighten in the region Haeseo laid stress upon movement of founding private schools. Compared to the Night School Movement in other region, such as Gyunggido(京畿道), Pyungyangdo(平安道) and Seoul, these activities, however, prevented them from activating of the Movement. Along with reinforcing of military ruling, so-called Anak incident(安岳事件) brought about decisive weakening of overall national movement not to mention education movement After 3ㆍ1 Movement, the expansion of culture movement made chance of rise of Night School Movement Though, Night School Movement had problems such as tendency of opportunism in relation with national liberation movement. The critique of preparation argument of Shin, Chaeho(申采浩) had connection with the real state of affairs.

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          부여의 대외교류와 교통로 연구

          이종수(Lee, Jong-su) 백산학회 2013 白山學報 Vol.- No.96

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          이 글은 부여와 주변 국가들과의 대외 교류 관계를 살펴보고, 이를 통해 주요 교통로와 거점도시를 파악해 보고자 하는데 그 목적이 있다. 부여는 700여년에 이르는 긴 역사동안 漢, 魏, 晉, 高句麗, 挹婁, 沃沮, 橐離國, 慕容鮮卑등과 밀접한 교류 관계를 맺고 있다. 중원왕조와의 교류는 후한 광무제 이후에 본격적으로 시작되며, 2세기대에 가장 활발하게 진행되고 있다. 당시 중원왕조와의 교류에 사용된 교통로는 현도군로와 요동군로로 나눌수 있는데, 현도군로는 전기 부여왕성인 길림시에서 출발하여 반석-휘남-매하구-청원을 거쳐 현도군치인 무순에 이르는 노선이고, 요동군로는 길림-쌍양-이통-요원(혹은 이용호고성-개원)-서풍-개원-철령-심양을 거쳐 요동군치인 요양으로 이어지는 경로이다. 고구려와의 교통로는 두 나라간의 전쟁기사를 통해 추정이 가능한데, 부여 남쪽 변경의 진펄지대를 지금의 휘남시 일대로 비정하면 길림시-휘남-백산-압원진-집안으로 연결되는 노선과, 휘남-매하구시-유하-통화-집안에 이르는 노선이 있다. 읍루와의 교통로는 육로와 수로로 구분되는데, 육로는 길림시-서란-오상-상지를 거쳐 방정에 이르거나 혹은 길림시-유수-랍림진-아성-빈현을 거쳐 방정에 이르고, 방정에서 두 노선이 서로 합류하여 의란-가목사를 거쳐 읍루의 중심지인 우의현에 도달하는 경로이다. 수로는 길림시-제이송화강-제일송화강-가목사 경로, 길림시-오상(육로)-랍림하-제일송화강-가목사 경로, 길림시-빈현(육로)-제일송화강-가목사 경로가 있다. 옥저와의 교류는 두만강유역과 수분하유역으로 나누어 볼 수 있는데, 두만강유역은 길림시-제이송화강-랍법하-교하-돈화-두만강유역으로 이어지는 루트이고, 수분하유역은 길림시-상지-목단강시-수분하유역에 이르는 루트이다. 탁리국과의 교통로 역시 육로와 수로를 이용한 노선으로 나눌 수 있는데, 육로는 길림시-유수-부여현-송원-조원일대로 이어지는 노선이며, 수로는 길림시-제이송화강-눈강-조원으로 이어지는 루트이다. 모용선비와의 교류는 모용선비의 부여 공격루트를 통해 확인할 수 있는데, 모용외의 공격에는 대릉하상류유역-부신-창무-강평-사평-장춘-길림시에 이르는 노선이 이용되었고, 전연 모용황의 공격 당시에는 조양-북표-부신-창무-강평-사평에서 요원시로 이어지는 루트 혹은 조양-북표-부신-신민-철령-개원-서풍-요원에 이르는 경로가 이용하고 있다. This paper try to examine the foreign exchange between Buyeo and its surrounding nation and apprehend the main line of communication and the point city. During the 700years, Buyeo has closely taken relation of exchange among Han, Wei, Jin, Koguryo, Yirou, Oakjeo, Tuoliguo, Murong Xianbei. The exchange between Buyeo and the dynasty of central districts begun since the Gwangmu Empero of the Later Han and continued to be as vigorous as ever during the 2nd century. Then, the main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and the dynasty of central districts is the rout of Xiantujun and the route of Riaudongjun. The route of Xiantujun is a line from Jilin through Fanshi, Huinan, Meihekou, Qingyuan to Fushun. The route of Riaudongjun is a line from Jilin through Shuangyang, Yitong, Liaoyuan, Xifeng, Tieling, Shenyang to Liaoyang. The main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and Goguryeo is possible to suppose through the account of war between Buyeo and Goguryeo. The main line of communication has two lines. One is a line from Jilin through Huinan, Baishan, Yayuanzhen to Jian. The other is a line from Jilin through Huinan, Meihekou, Liuhe, Tonghua to Jian. The main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and Yeupru has the land route and the sea route. The land route is a line from Jilin through Shulan, Wuchang, Shangzhi, to Fangzheng or a line from Jilin through Yushu, Lalinzhen, Acheng, Binxian, Fangzheng, Yilan, Jiamusi to Youyi. The river route is a line from Jilin through the second Songhua river, the first Songhua river to Jiamusi or a line from Jilin through Wuchang, Lalin river, the first Songhua river to Jiamusi or a line from Jilin through Binxian, the first Songhua river, to Jiamusi. The exchange between Buyeo and Oakjeo divided into a basin of Tumen river and a basin of Suifen river. A basin of Tumen river has a line from Jilin through the second Songhua river, the Lafa river, Jiaohe, Dunhua to a basin of Tumen river. A basin of Suifen river has a line from Jilin through Shangzhi, the Mudanjiang river to a basin of Suifen river. The main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and Tuoliguo has the land route and the sea route. The land route is a line from Jilin through Yushu, Buyeu, Songyuan to Zhaoyuan. The sea route is a line from Jilin through the second Songhua river, the Nen river to Zhaoyuan. The exchange between Buyeo and Murongg Xianbei is confirmed through Murong Xianbei’s attack on Buyeo. This route is a line from Chaoyang through Beipiao, Fuxin, Zhangwu, Kangping, Siping, Changchun to Jirin. In the Qianyān period, the main line of communication for the exchange between Buyeo and Murong Xianbei has a line from Siping to Liaoyuan and a line from Fuxin through Xinmin, Tieling, Kaiyuan, Xifeng to Liaoyuan.

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          복식자료를 통해본 고조선의 영역

          朴仙姬(Park, Sun-hee) 백산학회 2001 白山學報 Vol.- No.61

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          Night School Movement(夜學運動) in the region Haeseo(海西) developed in the form of founding private school. The central figures were government officials, teachers, rich persons, students in the higher education and so on. These were members of Seobuk academic society (西北學會) and Heaseo education general meeting(海西敎育總會), also mostly Christians. jeon, Bong-Hun(全鳳薰), county headman of Baechon(白川), and Lee, Yong-Pil(李容弼), county headman of Jaeryeong(載寧), as provincial officials, led not only Night School(夜學) but also campaign for enlightenment Kim, Ku(金九), educational affair inspector of Heaseo education general meeting at that time, took the lead not only in this region but in region Seobuk. So Yangsan School(楊山學校) and opening of summer institute reflected this. The scale of student number of Night School had a large variation from 10 to 180. The number of most Night School student was from 20 to 60. However Night Schools over 100 were the system similar to official education, made up of director, head teacher, teachers and employees. The number of persons, indebted to Night School, amounted to thousands at least This was never small than public schools. Learning period was continued mostly from six months to two years. However learning period of the Night Schools, supported by provincial officials and inhabitants, more prolonged relatively. Managing expense depended to more contribution than school fee. Unusually this expense was made up of duty educational fee, which inhabitants shared in according to level of life, The learning places for Night Schools made mostly use of private Schools and Town halls. Of course private houses also were used to Night Schools. Like this, the scale and equipment of Night Schools was not enough. Desire to learn, however, was not behind that of public schools. Sincerity of teachers, founders and supporters was main cause for the students desire to learn. The most of curriculums was made up of learning of Korean Letter, elementary Chinese Letter and arithmetic. The learning of Korean Letter would be the means of inspiring of national spirit, beyond merely crusade against illiteracy. Especially, physical exercises were importance to them with martial spirit. According to composition of learners and local conditions, moreover, curriculums were adopted and performed in various forms. Opening of Athletic meets made use of the moment of concentrating inhabitants on the one hand and the space of lecture meetings on the other hand. Activists of enlighten in the region Haeseo laid stress upon movement of founding private schools. Compared to the Night School Movement in other region, such as Gyunggido(京畿道), Pyungyangdo(平安道) and Seoul, these activities, however, prevented them from activating of the Movement. Along with reinforcing of military ruling, so-called Anak incident(安岳事件) brought about decisive weakening of overall national movement not to mention education movement After 3ㆍ1 Movement, the expansion of culture movement made chance of rise of Night School Movement Though, Night School Movement had problems such as tendency of opportunism in relation with national liberation movement. The critique of preparation argument of Shin, Chaeho(申采浩) had connection with the real state of affairs.

        • KCI등재

          白頭山考

          金龍國(Kim Yong-kuk) 백산학회 1970 白山學報 Vol.- No.8

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          Mt. Paek-du is a greatly revered mountain of Korea and has always been regarded by the people of Korea as a sacred area of their territory. The Koreans have lived and developed around this mountain for a long time since the beginning of their history, and therefore a way should be kept open for long for them continuously to live in the vast area around this mountain, which is one of their inherited possessions. The name Paek-du-san (literally, white-headed mountain) begins to appear in literature with Koryo-sa(高麗史-History of Koryo Kingdom), and it is by no means merely for the appearance of the mountain, as some people maintain, that the name Paek-dut(white-headed) came about, though truly, the top of the mountain is covered with white-coloured stone, or with snows for the greater part of a year as if to have a huge white urn set upside down on top of it. Mt. Paek-du is recorded in ancient Chinese literature by such names as Pulham(不咸), Taepaek(太白), and Kai-ma(蓋馬), these names all being mere transcriptions of the Korean words “barg-eum”(밝음), “keun-barg-eum”(큰밝음), and “geom”(검), which respectively mean light(光明), greater light(大光明), and god(神明). This is readily to be understood when one pays heed to such names of many other revered and sanctified mountains in the neighbourhood of ancient capitals and other population centres on the Peninsula as Tae-paek-san(太白山), Paek-san(白山), Ham-Pag-dal(含朴達), etc. The name Paek-du-san, too, should be regarded as another of such transcriptions of names of mountains held in great respect and awe of our ancestors. The Mt. ‘Tae-paek’ where, according to the folk legend on the founding of the Korean nation, the national founding father Tangun descended from heaven is also this White-headed Mountain, and such other great kingdoms that rose in succession in the east as Liao(遼), Chin(金), Ch’ing(淸)also believed this mountain to be a godly mountain and sacred area. Moreover, the people of Ch’ing Empire maintained that their royal ancestor had been born of a heavenly lady that descended from heaven on this mountain, the story having something in common with the Korean folk legend that the heavenly king Hwan-ung(桓雄), the son of the Emperor of Heaven Hwan-in(桓仁), descended from heaven on this mountain to beget Tan-gun(檀君), the founder of the Old Chosun nation(古朝鮮). A subject of deep interest, there has been handed down to us a theory that, apart from the worship of this mountain, Mt. Paek-du is the chief of all the great mountains in the east. In the Ch’ing dynasty, Emperor K’ang-hsi(康熙帝), Chao Chen-chen(趙愼畛), and others held an opinion that even Mt. T’ai (T’ai-san), the principal of all the five great mountains of China, not to say of all the other mountains in Manchuria and on the Korean Peninsula, was a branch of Mt. Paek-du range. Nam Sa-go(南師古), Kim Se-ryeom (金世濂), Ch?ng Yak-yong(丁若鏞), and many other Korean scholars, too, expressed their views that, needless to say of Mt. Paek-du not being a branch of Mt. Kun-lun(崑崙), all the mountains on the Continent, in Korea, and in Japan beyond the seas, were all branches of this White-headed Mountain. After the ancient nation (Old Chosun) that once prospered in the area around Mt. Paek-du, there came such other states as Suksin(肅愼), Ye(濊), Okjeo(沃沮), Puyo(扶餘), Malgal(靺鞨), Yeojin(女眞 Jurchen) and others, but those that occupied the whole area north and south of this mountain at once, building up a powerful kingdom each, were Koguryo and Palhae (Pohai) only. Since the area around Mt. Paekdu was within the territory of the Korean people for a very extended period of time since the beginning of history, there had been no definite demarcation lines in the area between Korea and Manchuria even after the Korean people, later, confined their sphere of activity mainly within the Peninsula.

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